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S O U T H E Y ' S 



COMMON-PLACE BOOK 



0£con& Seric0. 



SPECIAL COLLECTIONS. 



EDITED 



BY HIS SON-IN-LAW, 

JOHN WOOD WARTER, B.D. 



-— ~*A*A#^ ^#r^ 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

82 CLIFF STREET. 

18 50. 



' "^ UNIVER^'^TY OF CALIFOicNIA 

S^Cf' SANTA BARBARA 



"though thou HAliST JIAUE A GENERAL SUEVEl" 
OF ALL THE BEST OF MEn's BEST KNOWLEDGES, 
AND KNEW SO MUCH AS EVER LEARNING KNEW; 
YET DID IT MAKE THEE TRUST THYSELF THE LESS, 

AND LESS PRESUME. AND YET WHEN BEING MOv'd 

IN PRIVATE TALK TO SPEAK; THOU DIDST BEWRAY 

HOW FULLY FRAUGHT THOU WERT WITHIN; AND PROv'd 

THAT THOU DIDST KNOW WHATEVER WIT COULD SAY. 

WHICH SHOw'd THOU HADST NOT BOOKS AS MANY HAVE, 

FOR OSTENTATION, BUT FOR USE ; AND THAT 

THY BOUNTEOUS MEMORY WAS SUCH AS GAVi: 

A LARGE REVENUE OF THE GOOD IT GAT. 

WITNESS SO MANY VOLUMES, WHERETO THOU 

HAST SET THT NOTES UNDER THY LEARNED HAND, 

AND MARk'd THEM WITH THAT PRINT, AS WILL SHOW HOW 

THE POINT OF THY CONCEIVING THOUGHTS DID STAND; 

THAT NONE WOULD THINK, IF ALL THY LIFE HAD BEEN ' 

TURn'd into LEISURE, THOU COULDST HAVE ATTAIN'D 

SO MUCH OF TIME, TO HAVE PERUs'd AND SEEN 

SO MANY VOLUMES THAT SO MUCH CONTAIn'd.'" 

Daniel. Funeral Poem upon the Death of the late Noble Earl of 
Devonshire. — " Well-languaged Daniel." as Browne calls him 
in his " Brittania's Pastorals," was one of SoutJjCj's favouriti* 
Poets. 

JOHN WOOD W'AllTER. 




J)reface. 



Little prefatory remark is needed to the Second Series of the Common- 
Place Book of the late Hobcrt Sontljeg. Like the former volume, it is com- 
plete in itself, and contains matter equally curious, diversified, interesting, 
amusing, and instructive. 

Considerable pains has been given to the Spanish and Portuguese extracts 
(some of the earliest, and some of the latest, of the gifted Collector's glean- 
ings), contained under the heading, Spanish and Portuguese Literature ; 
but the Editor is afraid, owning to the rarity of the volumes from which many 
of them are taken, that errors will have escaped his notice. Any correc- 
tions forwarded to him by competent scholars will be carefully attended to 
in a future edition. 

It has not been thought advisable to disarrange the several packets which 
0ontl)e2 had so laboriously put together, otherwise many extracts would 
have been transposed. For example, great portions of the Series headed 
Middle Ages, the Editor would have appended to Collections for English 
Manners and Literature. 

It will be observed that the order of the Publisher's Prospectus has not 
been rigorously adhered to. On examination of the several papers it was 
found impossible. What is here omitted will be given in the shape of Frag- 
ments in the Fourth and last Series. The omissions are chiefly as regards 
East Indian, Spanish and Portuguese, American, and Miscellaneous, Geog- 
raphy. 

I may end these introductory remarks with the words of Barrow : " The 
reading of books, what is it but consulting with the wisest men of all ages 
and all conditions, who thereby communicate to us their most deliberate 
thoughts, choicest notions, and best inventions, couched in good expressions, 
and digested in exact method ?" 

JOHN WOOD WARTER. 

Vicarage, West Tarkino, Sussex, 
October 29, 1849. 



t.T 



C iN T E N T S. 



Ecclesiasticals ; or, Notes and Extracts on Theological Subjects ^^ 

Collections concerning Cromwell's Age y2 

Laud 93, 99 

Clarendon , , 99 

Omens ] 1 

Mixed Extracts 101 

Cromwell's Age 105 

Marston Moor ,..;,..... 113 

Naseby 115 

Club-men 115 

Colonel Poyer — at Pembroke 115 

Wales 115 

Colchester 115 

Usher 1 1 ,'S 

Strafford 1 1 fS 

Fairfax 12:^ 

Bastwick 124 

Prynne 125 

Scotland 1 3S 

Ireland , 139 

Carte's Life of Ormonde 144 

Spanish and Portugue.se Literature 148, 

Middle Ages, &c 208 

Notes for the History of the Religious Orders 257 

Egypt and Syria 257 

Britain • 257 

The Essenes and Pharisees 257 

Benedictines 25.S 

Franciscans 258 

Dominicans 259 

Jesuits 259 

The Oratorians 263 

Anthologia Katholika 2(i3 

Orientaliana ; or, Eastern and Mahommedan Collections 2S() 

American Tribes, Incidental and Miscellaneous Illustrations 359 

Physica ; or, Remarkable Facts in Natural History 395 

( Auious Facts, quite Miscellaneous 414 

Index .!55 



0otttl)cg's Common-place Book. 



ECCLESIASTICALS; 

OR, NOTES AND EXTRACTS ON THEOLOGICAL 

SUBJECTS. 



[Bishop Sanderson's inmost Thoughts.] 

" But since I have thus adventured to unbowel 
myself, and to lay open the very inmost thoughts 
of my heart in this sad business before God and 
the world; I shall hope to find so much charity 
from all my Christian brethren as to show me 
my error, if in any thing I have now said I be 
mistaken, that I may retract it ; and to pardon 
those excesses in modo loquendi, if they can ob- 
t^erve any such, which might possibly, whilst I 
was passionately intent upon the matter, una- 
wares drop from my pen ; civilities which we 
mutually owe one to another, damns hanc vcni- 
am, petimusqice vicissim, considering how hard a 
thing it is, amid so many passions and infirmi- 
ties as our corrupt nature is subject to, to do or 
say all that is needful in a weighty business, and 
not in something or other to over-say and over- 
do : yet this I can say in sincerity of my heart 
and with comfort, that my desire was (the na- 
ture of the business considered) both to speak as 
plain, and to offend as little as might be." — 
Preface to Sermons. 



[ Want of the Bible in Paris.] 
" During the peace of Amiens, a committee 
nf English gentlemen went over to Paris for the 
purpose of taking steps to supply the French 
with the Bible in their own language. Of this 
committee Mr. H. (Hardcastle) was one, and he 
assured me that the fact which was published 
was literally true — that they searched Paris for 
several days before a single Bible could be found." 
— Silliman's Travels, vol. 1, p. 167. 



{Religious Improvement.] 
In a dialogue or familiar talk by Michael 
Wood, 1554, it is said, " Who could twenty 
years agone say the Lord's prayer in Engli.sh ? 
Who could tell any one article of his faith? 
Who had once heard of any of the Ten Com- 
mandments ? Who wist what Catechism meant ? 
Who understood any point of the holy baptism ? 
If we were sick of the pestilence we ran to St. 



Rooke, if of the ague to St. Pernel, or Master 
John Shorne. If men were in prison they pray- 
ed to St. Leonard. If the Welshman would 
have a purse he prayed to Darvel Gathorne. If 
a wife were weary of her husband, she offered 
oats at Poules, at London, to St. Uncumber." — 
Wordsworth's Ecc. Biog., vol. 1, p. 166. 



[Dr. Martin and Dr. Luther.] 
" I HAVE read of two that, meeting at a tav- 
ern, fell a tossing their religion about as merrily 
as their cups, and much drunken discourse was 
of their profession. One protested himself of 
Dr. Martin's religion, the other swore he was 
of Dr. Luther's religion, whereas Martin and 
Luther was one man." — Adams's Divine Herbal. 



[Chancels no Popery.] 
" The use of the Chancel for the Communion 
service is so far from being Popery that the Pa- 
pists and Popish Impropriators in England, per- 
mit the Chancels where they are concerned to lie 
the most disorderly and ruinous of any other, as 
I myself have seen in several places, they are not 
careful to repair or clean them ; nor can they 
be brought to contribute to the Reformation of 
Churches but by mere compulsion, and they 
would be well enough satisfied to see all the 
Chancels and Churches in England lye in ruin, 
for this would be the most certain way to over- 
throw the Reformation and bring in Popery, 
which being planted again by Authority would 
soon oblige that party to rebuild the Churches.''^ 
— Bishop of Lincoln's Charge, 1697, p. 22. 



[Z)/-Mm's Idea of a Material Church.] 
"^ Duvw, one of the six preachers, and who 
afterwards ' fell away into Papistry,' was ^rcse«^ 
ed to Archbishop Cranmer for preaching, among 
other erroneous and dangerous notions, ' that the 
material church is a thing made and ordained to 
content the affections of men, and is not the 
thing that pleasetli God, nor that God re(p:ircs ; 
but is a thinjr that God doth tolerate for the weak- 



10 STRYPE— BINGHAM— MILTON— LATIMER— JEREMY TAYLOR, ETC. 



ness of men. For as the father contentcth his 
child with an apple or a hobby-horse, not be- 
cause these thinpjs do delight the lather, but be- 
cause the child, ruled by afTections, is more de- 
sirous of these things than the lather is rejoiced 
in the deed; so AWighty God, condescending 
to the infirmities of man and his weakness, doth 
tolerate material churches, gorgeously built and 
richly decked, not because he requires or is 
pleased with such things.' " — Strype's Cran- 
7ner, p. 108. 

[Necessity of speaking in a Tongue understood by 
the People.] 
St. Augustine says, "there is a diligens ncg- 
ligentia, an useful negligence, proper in this 
case to Ecclesiastical teachers, who must .some- 
times condescend to improprieties of speech, 
when they cannot speak otherwise to the appre- 
hensions of the vulgar. As he notes that they 
were used to say ossum instead of os, to distin- 
guish a mouth from a bono in Africa, to comply 
with the understanding of their hearers. And 
for this reason, I doubt not, there are so many 
Africanism.s, or idioms of the African tongue, in 
St. Austin, because ho thought it more commend- 
able sometimes to deviate a little from the strict 
grammatical purity and propriety of the Latin 
tongue, than not to be understood by his hearers." 
— Bingham, vol. 14, p. 4, ^ 9. 



Uniformity in Religion preserved by Force. 

" Do they keep away schism ? if to bring a 
numb and chill stupidity of soul, an unactive 
blindness of mind upon the people by their lead- 
en doctrine, or no doctrine at all ; if to persecute 
all knowing and zealous Christians by the vio- 
lence of their Courts, be to keep away schism, 
they keep away schism indeed : and hj this kind 
of discipline all Italy and Spain is as purely and 
politically kept from schism as England hath 
been by them. With as good a plea might the 
dead palsy boast to a man, 'Tis I that free you 
from stitches and pains, and the troublesome feel- 
ing of cold and heat, of wounds and strokes ; if 
I were gone, all these would molest you. The 
winter might as well vaunt itself against the 
spring, I destroy all noisome and rank weeds, I 
keep down all pestilent vapours: yea! and all 
wholesome herbs, and all fresh dews by your vi- 
olent and hide-bound frost : but when the gentle 
west winds shall open the fruitful bosom of the 
earth, thus ovcrguarded by your imprisonment, 
then the (lowers put forth and sjiring, and then 
the sun shall scatter the mists, and the manuring 
hand of the tiller shall root up all that burdens 
the soil without thank to your bondage." — Mil- 
ton. — Reason of Church Government urged 
against Prelaty, vol. 1, p. 6. 



knots, as though they Mould be surely girt, and 
as though they wovdd break the devil's head 
with their knotted girdles. Nay, he will not 
be so overcome ; it is no knot of a hempen gir- 
dle that he feareth ; that ^ no piece of har- 
ness of the armour of God which may resist the 
assault in the evil day ; it is but fained gear." 
— Latimek. Sermon on the Epistle for 21s/ 
Sunday after Trinity. 



[Origioial Sin.] 
'' It was well said of St. Austin in this thing, 
though he said many others in it less certain, 
iV/7t// est peccato originali ad prcedicandum notius, 
nihil ad inteUigcndum secretins. The article, 
we all confess ; but the manner of explicating it, 
is not an apple of knowledge, but of conten- 
tion." — Jeremy Taylor, vol. 9, p. 73. 

" It was long ago observed, that there are 
sixteen several famous opinions in this one ques- 
tion of original sin." — Ibid., p. 330. 

One hundred and twenty Villages in Sussex whol- 
ly destitute of Evangelical Instruction. 
'■ Had it not been stated on the unquestiona- 
ble authority of the Secretaries of the Sussex 
Congregational Society, that such a host of vil- 
lages, and some towns, were at this advanced 
period of the Christian era, quite out of the pale 
of the Church of Christ, the statement would 
have appeared incredible. Tell it not to the 
heathen world, that in a county so close to the 
metropolis of highly favoured Britain, and where 
directors of mis.sionary societies hold their meet- 
ings, concentrate their energies, and arrange foi 
the welfare of the world, that a population of not 
less than 60,000 are hitherto unblessed with 
those tidings which have partially gladdened the 
hearts of the Hindoo, the Hottentot, and the in- 
habitants of the lovely islands of the Southern 
Oi:efin.''— Evangelical Mag., Feb., 1832, p. 69. 



[Fadned Gear. Wiat .f] 
" Be strong, saith St. Paul, having*}'our loins 
girt about — some get them girdles with great 



[Lawfulness of Recreation.] 
'"I HAVE heard the Protestant ministers in 
France, by men that were wise and of their own 
profession, much blamed in that they forbade^ 
dancing, a recreation to which the genius of that 
air is so inclining, that they lost many who would 
not lose that. Nor do they less than blame the 
former determination of rashness, who now gent- 
ly connive at that which they had so roughly for- 
bidden." — Harrington's Oceana, p. 207. 

[Divine Judgments.] 
" Never," says Donne, " think it a weakness 
to call that a judgment of God, which others de- 
termine in nature : Do so, so far as works to thy 
edification who seest that judgment, though not 
so far as to argue and conclude the final con- 
demnation of that man upon whom that judg- 
ment is fallen." — Sermon xlvi., p. 466. 



SOUTH— KELLISON. 



11 



[The Bloud of Jesus Christ clcanselh from all 
Shi.\ 

" A CERTAIN man on the Malabar coast had 
enquired of various devotees and priests how he 
mirrht make atonement for his sin, and at last he 
was directed to drive iron spikes, suiBciently 
blunted, through his sandals, and on these spikes 
he was to place his naked feet and walk, if I mis- 
take not, 250 coss, that is about 480 miles. If 
through loss of blood, or weakness of body, he 
was obliged to haltj he might wait for healing 
and strength. He undertook the journey, and 
while he halted under a large shady tree, where 
the Gospel was sometimes preached, one of the 
missionaries came and preached in his hearing, 
from these words : The blood of Jesus Christ 
rleanseth from all sin. While he was preaching, 
the man rose up, threw off' his torturing sandals 
and cried out aloud. This is what I ivant ; and 
he liecame a lively witness, that the blood of Je- 
sus Christ does cleanse from all sins indeed." — 
Baptist Periodical Accounts. 



['^Rebuke them sharjjly.''^] 
" Let none think that those seasonable re- 
bukes which I here encourage and plead for, pro- 
ceed from any hatred of the persons of those 
wretches (how much soever they deserve it), but 
from a dutiful concern for, and charity to the pub- 
lick, and from a just care and commiseration of 
posterity, that the contagion may not spread, nor 
the poison of the example pass any further. For 
I take reproof no less than punishment, to be 
rather for prevention than retribution ; rather to 
wa7-n the innocent than to reproach the guilty ; 
and by thus warning them while they are in- 
nocent, in all probability to preserve and keep 
them so. 

" For does not St. Paul himself make this the 
great ground and end of all reproof? 1 Tim. v. 
■20 : Them who sin (says he) rebuke before all, 
that others also may fear. And in Titus i. 13 : 
Rebuke them sharply. Where let us suppose 
now that St. Paid had to do with a pack of mis- 
creants, who had by the most unchristian prac- 
tices dethroned and murdered their prince, to 
whom this Apostle had so often and so strictly 
enjoined absolute subjection, plundered and un- 
done their brethren, to whom the said Apostle 
had so often commanded the greatest brotherly 
love and amity ; and lastly, rent, broken and torn 
in pieces the Church in which he had so earnest- 
ly pressed unity, and so severely prohibited all 
schismatical divisions ; what (I say) do we think 
now ? Would St. Paul have rebuked such new- 
fashioned extraordinary Christians, or would he 
not? And if he would, do we imagine that he 
would have done it in the modern treacherous 
dialect ? Touch not my rebels, and do my fnnnt- 
ieks no harm. No moderation-monger under heav- 
en shall ever persuade me that St. Paul would 
have took such a course with such persons, or 
have taught Timothy, or Titus, or any other gos- 
pel preacher, to do so, for fear of spoiling their 



promotion or ti'anslation, or offending any power- 
ful faction of men whatsoever. 

" And pray do you all consider with your- 
selves, whether you would be willing to have 
your children, your dearest friends and relations, 
grow up into Rebels, Schismaticks, Presbyterians. 
Independents, Anabaptists, Quakers, the blessed 
off"-spring of the late reforming Times ? And if 
you would not, then leave off" daubing and trim- 
ming it, and plainly, and impartially, and severe- 
ly declare to your children and families, the vil- 
lany and detestable hypocrisy of those which arc 
such. And assure yourselves that this is the 
likeliest way to preserve them untainted with the 
same infection." — South's Sermons, vol. 6, p. SO. 



[Doctrine of Angels.\ 

"It is the opinion of that greate doetour and 
prince of diuines Saint Thomas of Aquin, that 
the Angellcs are so different in nature and j)er- 
fection that there are not tv\'oe of one sorte and 
kind (as there are of men and other creatures), 
but that euerie one is distinguished in nature and 
office from euerie one, euen from the highest to 
the lowest. Which his opinion is generallie re- 
ceiued of all Thomists, v\'ho for their number and 
learning beare noe little swaye in the schooles, 
and are no little esteemed in the Church of God. 
The same Doetour is also of opinion that the An- 
gels are farre more in number than are all the 
species or kindes of all the corporall creatures in 
the world, that is, more then the celestiall bod- 
ies, then the simple bodyes which we calj^thc 
four elements, yea then all the mixte bodies com- 
posed of them, be they inanimate or animated, 
lining or not lining, as beast.s, plants, hearbes, 
metalles and the like, which his opinion all his 
followers doe imbrace as constantlie as they doe 
the former." — Matthew Kellison. 



[Plausibility of Popish Disputants.^ 
"Consider 1st. How suitable Popery is to a 
carnal inclination (as I have manifested else- 
where). 2d. What plausible reasons Papists 
have to delude poor souls, from pretended uni- 
versality, antiquity, &c. 3d. And how few of 
the vulgar are able to defend their Faith, or to 
answer the two great sophistical questions of the 
Papist, Where hath your Church been visible in 
all ages ? and Hoiv prove you the Scripture to be 
the Word of God? 4th. And how it will take- 
with the people to be told that their forefathers 
all died in the Romane Faith. 5th. And above 
all, what a multitude of Jcsuites, Fryars, and 
Priests can they prepare for the work, and poure 
out upon us at their pleasure from Flanders, 
France, Rome, and other places ; and how these 
men are purposely trained up for this deceiving 
work, and have their common arguments at their 
fingers' ends ; which, though they are thread- 
bare and transparent fallacies to the wise, yet to 
the vulgar, yea, to our unstuddyed gentry, they 
arc as good as if they had never been confuted, 
or as the best. 6th. And what a world of wealtik 



12 



BAXTER— MORE— WARD. 



and secular help is at their becks in France, Flan- 
ders, Italy, Spain, Germany, &c. They have 
millions of ffold, and navies and armies ready to 
promote their work, which other sects have none 
of. 7th. And what worldly motives have their 
priests and fryers to promote their zeal ? Their 
superiors have such variety of preferments, and 
ample treasures to reward them with, and their 
single life alloweth them so much vacancy from 
doniestick avocations, and withall, they so much 
glory in a pharisaicall zeal in compassing sea 
and land to make proselytes, that it is an incred- 
ible advantage that they get by theh- industry : 
the envious man by them being sowing his tares, 
whilest others sleep, and are not half so indus- 
trious in resisting them. 

8th. What abundance have they lately won in 
England, notwithstanding they have wanted pub- j 
lick liberty, and have only taken secret opportu- 
nities to seduce ? Persons of the nobility, and 
gentry, and of the clergy, as well as of the com- 
mon people, and zealous professors of religion of 
late, as well as the prophane, have been seduced 
by them. Princes in other countries have been 
wonne by them ; and the Protestant religion cun- 
ningly workt out : and what a lamentable en- 
crease they had made in England before our 
w^arres, by that connivance and favour which 
through the queen was procured them (though 
incomparably .short of this absolute liberty), is 
sufficiently known. 

9th. And it Ls not the least of our danger, that 
the most of our ministers are unable to deal with 
a cunning Jesuite or prie st : and this is not to 
bcwon3cred at ; considering how man}- of them 
are very young men. put in of late in the neces- 
.sity of the Churches (which the world knows 
who have caused), and there must be time, be- 
fore young men can grow to maturity, and an 
unfurnished nation can be provided with able, 
experienced men ; and the cessation of Popish 
assaults of late, hath disused ministers from these 
disputations. The Reformation seemed to have 
brought down Popery so low, that we grew se- 
cure, and thought there wa.s no danger of it : 
and the Papists of late have forborn much to 
meddle with us barefaced, and have plaid their 
game under the vizor of other sects: and with- 
all young godly ministers have been so taken up 
wnth the greater work of winning souls from 
common profaneness, that most have laid by 
their defen-sive arms, and are grown too much 
unacquainted with these controversies : we have 
so much noted how controversies in other coun- 
treys have eaten out much of the power of o-od- 
liness, that we have fallen by disuse into an un- 
acquaintedness with the means of onr necessary 
defence ; and while we thought we might lay 
by our weapons, and build with both hands, we 
are too much unready to withstand the adversa- 
ry. Alas, what work would liberty for Jcsuites 
and Fryars make in one congregation in a few 
months space ! I must confess this, though 
some will think it is our dishonour. It is not 
from any strength in their cause (for they argue 
agamst common sense itself) ; but from their 



carnal advantages, and our disadvantages fore- 
mentioned.'" — B.\xter's Holy Common-Wealth. 



[^1 yanatic Spirit, a deadly one.] 
" If we can but once entitle our opinions and 
mistakes to religion and God's Spirit — it is like 
running quicksilver in the back of a sword, afid 
will enable us to strike to utter destruction ajod 
ruin." — Heney More. Preface to the second 
edition of his " Song of the Som^" 



[Perverseness of Spirit.] 
" TuE grace of God is received in vain, or, 
rather, turned into wantonness. The yoke of 
ceremonies and the tyranny of prelacy hath been 
removed, and it is free to preach and profess ac- 
cording to the Gospel ; and this liberty is abused 
to looseness, profaneness, and insolency. That 
which is, or should be, the better part of the 
land, that pretends to religion, and hath the face 
or name of the Church, it is like a piece of 
ground that hath been stirred by the plough, 
and the tils-man doth not follow on to give it 
more earth in due season : it runs out in weeds 
and baggage ; or as a field which is driven, and 
the heart of it w-orn out, whatever seed is east 
in, it returns nothing but carlock and such like 
rafle : all manner sectaiies creep forth and mul- 
tiply as frogs, and flies, and vermin in the spring, 
and there ' is variance, hatred, emulation, with 
strife, sedition, heresies, envyings, revilings, and 
the like.' Everywhere there is mingled a per- 
verseness of spirit; like the prophet's bottles, 
we are filled with di'unkenness, and dash one 
against another, ' lying spirits go forth to de- 
ceive and prevail, and make us wade upon our 
own destruction.' " — Ward's Sermon before the 
House of Commons, 26th March, 1645, p. 31. 



God^s Plenty feeding True Piety. 
" Ask these amphibia what names they would 
have. What, are you papists ? no, that is ma- 
litious slander to say so : what, are you Protest- 
ants ? no, that is a great slander. Ye say your- 
selves, that Protestants are divided into Calvin- 
ists and Lutherans, and yee scorne to be of either 
of these two rankes : what then, either you can- 
not tell, or you dare not tell what your title 
should be. In the interim, albeit yee bee se- 
vere adversaries to the Presbyterians, we may 
justly call you, as you would be, new reformers. 
Mcthinks I see you, like English taylors, every 
man with a paire of sheares in his hand, that be 
might cut (if he might be suffered) every day a 
new fashion in our Church. Alacke for pittie : 
for the spawne of these spawners ; what shoales 
of middle Christians have they slipt into our wa- 
ters which have alreadie poured out their mtme 
shame ? Half Christians, Diabolares, half-penny 
Christians, or scarce worth an half-pcflny, hardly 
can any man tell what image or superscription 
they beare. Halfe fish, halfe flesh, halfe God, 
halie Baal, halfe king, halfe pope ; church pa- 



WHALY— HUNTINGDON. 



]; 



pists, halfe mammon ; all which love religion as 
the counterfeit mother loved the child, which 
tfhee would have divided ; halfe would serve her 
turne. Their Delphicns gladms is dimidmm plus 
toto^ halfe is better than the whole, and hee wants 
wit who cannot serve two masters. Neither are 
these men's opinions onely thus unsettled, as 
clouds carried up and downe, with every puffe 
of winde : but their aiTections give them no rest, 
night nor day. They are turned as doores on the 
hindges, and hang at halfe chane, halfe open, 
halfe shut. Some are resolved against drunken- 
nesse, but not against swearing, against swear- 
ing, not against lying, not against profaining the 
Sabbath, against fornication, not against strife, 
against idlenesse, not against rebellion, against 
stealing either oxe or asse, but their fingers itch 
at sacriledge. These would blush at Petilucite, 
but to lay their hookes into God's portion is for 
the maintenance of their worship, that they may 
beare the golden wedge in their bagges, and the 
Babylonish garment on their backes, they hold it 
no wrong to breake into the house of God."' — 
./J Sermon preached at Paul's Cross, 18th June, 
1645, by John Whaly, p. 33. 



[Religious Intolerarue.] 
PiETEo Della Valle, who could be amused 
at the superstition of others, says that when the 
Ecce Homo was exposed during a sermon in the 
Jesuit Church at Goa, the women used to beat their 
servants if they did not crj' enough to please them. 



[Divines, Tetrarchs of Time.^ 
"If divines have failed in governing princes 
(that is, of being entirely believed by them), yet 
they might obliquely have ruled them in ruling 
the people, by whom of late princes have been 
governed : and they might probably inile the peo- 
ple, because the heads of the Church (wherever 
Christianity is preached) are tetrarchs of time, 
of which they command the fourth division : for 
to no less the Sabbaths and days of saints amount ; 
and during those days of spiritual triumph, pul- 
pits are thrones, and the people obliged to open 
their ears and let in the ordinances and com- 
mands of preachers ; who likewise are not with- 
out some little regency throughout the rest of the 
year : for then they may converse with the laity, 
from whom they have commonly such respect 
(and respect soon opens the door to persuasion) 
as shows their congregations not deaf in those 
holy seasons when speaking predominates." — 
Preface to Gondihert. 



[Miracles never ceasc.\ 
" Miracles have not ceased in their spiritual 
operations," says Huntingdon, "no, not even 
the miracle of speaking with new tongues, Mark, 
xvi. 17, for 1 firmly believe that if ten men out 
of ten difl'erent countries, and each of them of a 
different language, were to come and hear a dis- 
course delivei'ed in the English tongue, if God 



intended to convert those men, his own Spirit 
would carry the word with such convincing pow- 
er as to make them know what were their own 
thoughts, and would make them feel and under- 
stand his displeasure against their sins, and make 
them know their wretched life, and their pres- 
ent state before God, even in the language where- 
in they were born. The Spirit of God M^ould 
make them understand, by feehng, that the king- 
dom of God is not in word, but in power, 1 Cor. 
iv. 20. I could find a living witness of the 
above assertion if I chose : but I forbear." — 
The Sinner saved, vol. 1, p. 25. 



[Religious falling off.] 
It cannot be denied, but in this last age in 
most of our memories, our nation has manifestly 
degenerated from the practice of former times, in 
many moral virtues and spiritual graces, which 
should teach us to render to God the things that 
are God's, and to Caesar the things that are Cae- 
sar's. Where is that integrity of manners, that 
truth of conversation, that dutiful observance of 
order, that modesty of private life, that charity 
towards men, that humble devotion towards God, 
in which we can only say we have heard our na- 
tion once excelled ? 'Twould be a melancholy 
employment to search into the causes of this un- 
happy change ; but whatever other occasions 
may have contributed to the continuance and in- 
crease of it, certainly the chief cause of the be- 
ginning of it was spiritual pride — the want, nav 
the contempt of an humble and docile spirit. 
The difl'erent effects of this disposition, and of 
that which is contrary to it, have been abund- 
antly tried in all histories, in all states, civil and 
ecclesiastical. Those countries and societies of 
men have ever most flourished where men have 
been kept longest under a reasonable discipline, 
those where the number of teachers has been 
few in comparison to the number of learners. 
There was never yet any wise nation, or happy 
Chuj-ch, at least never any that continue long so, 
where all have thought themselves equally fit, 
and have been promiscuously admitted to be 
teachers or lawgivers. What can be the conse- 
quence of such a headstrong, stiff-necked, over- 
weening, unmanageable spirit? Can anything 
be more destructive to Church and state than 
such a perverse humour as is unteachable, un- 
governable in itself, and yet overhasty to govern 
and teach others? Whore children get too soon 
out of the government of their parents and mas- 
ters — where men think it a duty of religion to 
strive to get out of the government of their mag- 
istrates and princes — where Christians .shall think 
themselves not at all bound to be under the gov- 
ernment of the Church — must not all domestic, 
and politic, and spiritual relations soon be dis- 
.solved ? mast not all order be speedily over- 
thrown, where all the true ways to make and 
keep men orderly are confounded ? And what 
in time would be the issue of such a confusion ? 
what, but either gross ignorance or false knowl- 
edge, which is as bad, or worse ? what, but a 



14 



MARY MAGUIRE— LATIMER— WALTON. 



oontcnipt of virtue and prudence, under the dis- 
j^niccrul titles of pedantry and formality? what, 
but a looseness of tonf^ues and lives, and at last 
men takinn^ pride in, and valuing themselves on 
such looseness ? what but a disobedience to the 
laws of man — in ti-uth, a, neirlect of all the laws 
both of God and man ? — Query ? 



[Papal Darkness.] 

" I THEN thoufrht I would go to confcssion and 
<ret my sins pardoned, and thereby be enabled to 
serve God acceptably. And lest my confession 
should be imperfect, I wrote down every sin I 
could remember or think of, which I had com- 
mitted for five years, and gave it to the priest, 
which he read and I acknowledged. I returned 
home with a guilty conscience. I was ordered 
to fast every Friday for a year, and to read three 
pages in the manual every day during that time. 
But tliis penance was labor in vain : I found that 
instead of finding ease to my mind, the remem- 
brance of my sins became more grievous, and the 
load more intolerable than ever. I attended the 
sacrifice of the mass on Sunday, and sometimes 
two masses, and continued fasting in the interim. 
Then I got on the scapular of the blessed Virgin. 
The duties of this order are, to say seven Paters, 
seven Aves, seven Gloria Paters, and a Creed, 
every day, and go to the sacrament five times in 
the year. I attended the stations that are per- 
formed in the chapels on Sunday evenings : but I 
found all there to be physicians of no value ! I 
then resolved to go to Lough-Derg, and get my 
sins washed away, and then, I thought, I will 
devote the remainder of my days to God. I 
went to the Lough, and performed the station 
according to order, but found no ease to my 
troubled mind thereby ; on the contrary, my sins 
became more and more intolerable ! Oh, thought 
I, all this will not do ! I must apply to some- 
thing else ; and immediately I went under the 
order of St. Francis. The duties of this order 
are to repeat daily six Paters, six Aves, and six 
Gloria Paters, and a Creed, and attend the sac- 
rament twice a year. But this device was as 
unprofitable as the former. 

" To these orders I added that of St. Joseph, 
which required the same obligation as the for- 
mer ; and those duties I strove to perform with 
all my heart, and they were not toilsome to me, 
because I hoped to profit by them. About this 
time all my wilful sins were set as in battle ar- 
ray before me, and the sight of them caused me 
to fear and tremble. The spirit of a man may 
sustain his infirmity, but a wounded spirit who 
can bear? 

" Ali this time I had never heard that we have 
an Advocate with the Father, Jesus (^hrist the 
righteous ! I had been told there are three per- 
sons in one God, the Glory equal and the Majesty 
Co-eternal ; but of the offices of \he second and 
third Persons in the Godhead I was quite igno- 
rant. I knew of no advocate but the Virgin 

Mary and the rest of the saints." Account of 

Mary Magidrc. 



[Homely Homilies.] 

" Homilies, — some call them homelies. and 
indeed so they may be well called, for they are 
homely handled. For though the priest read 
them never so well, yet if the parish like them 
not, there is such talking and babbling in the 
church that nothing can he heard. And if the 
parish be good and the priest naught, he will so 
hack and chop it, that it were as good for them 
to be without it, for any word that shall be un- 
derstood. And )'et the more pit}^ that is suf- 
fered of your grace's Bishops in their dioceses 
unpunished." — Latimer's Second Sermon before 
Kins; Edward VI. 



[Bishop Sanderson., and his House at BucMen.] 

" Bishop Sanderson's chief house at Buck- 
den, in the county of Huntington, the usual resi- 
dence of his predecessors (for it .stands about the 
midst of his diocese) having been, at his conse- 
cration, a great part of it demolished, and what 
was left standing under a visible decay, was by 
him undertaken to be repaired ; and it was per- 
formed with great speed, care, and charge. And 
to this may be added that the king having by an 
injunction commended to the care of the Bishops, 
Deans, and Prebends of all Cathedral Churches, 
' the repair of them, their houses, and an aug- 
mentation of the revenue of small vicarages,' he, 
when he was repairing Buckden, did also aug- 
ment the last, as fast as fines were paid for re- 
newing leases : so fast, that a friend taking notice 
of his bounty, was so bold as to advise him to re- 
member, ' he was under his first fruits, and that 
he was old, and had a wife and children that 
were yet but meanly provided for, especially if 
his dignity were considered.' To whom he made 
a mild and thankful answer, saying, ' It would 
not become a Christian liishop to suficr those 
houses built by his predecessors to be ruined for 
want of repair ; and less justifiable to suder any 
of those poor vicars that were called to so high a 
calling as to sacrifice at God's altar, to eat the 
bread of sorrow constantly, when he had a power 
by a small augmentation to turn it into the bread 
of cheerfulness : and wshed, that as this was, .so 
it were also in his power to make all mankind 
happy, for he desired nothing more. And i'oj 
his wife and children, he hoped to leave them » 
competency ; and in the hands of a God, thai 
would provide for all that kept innocent, ano 
trusted in his providence and protection, which 
he had always found enough to make and keep 
him hap])y.' " — Izaak Walton's Life. 



[ Unpreaching Prelates.] 
" But now for the fault of unpreaching Prel- 
ates, methinks I could guess what might be said 
for excusing them. They are so troubled with 
lordly living, they be so placed in palaoes, couched 
in courts, rulTling in their rents, dauncing in their 
dominions., burdened with embassages, pamper- 
ing of their paunches like a monk that maketk 



LATIMER— BURNET. 



15 



his jubilee, mounching in their mangers, and moy- 
ling in their gay manors and mansions, and so 
troubled with loytering in their lordships, that 
they cannot attend it. They are otherwise occu- 
pied, some in king's matters, some arc embassa- 
dors, some of the privy council, some to furnish 
the court, some are lords of the parliament, some 
are presidents, comptrollers of mints. Well — 
well — is this their duty ? is this their office ? is 
this their calling ? Should we have ministers of 
the church to be comptrollers of the mints ? Is 
this a meet office for a priest that hath care of 
souls ? Is this his charge ? I would here ask 
one question, I would fain know who comptrol- 
leth the devil at home in his parish, while he 
comptrolleth the mint? If the apostles might 
not leave the office of preaching to the deacons, 
shall one leave it for minting '? I cannot tell you, 
but the saying is, that since priests have been 
ministers, money hath been worse than it was 
before; and they say likewise that the evilness 
of money hath made all things dearer." — Lati- 
mer's Sermon of the Plough. 



[Benefit of Clergy.] 
" A LAW of Henry VII. for burning in the hand 
(i lerks convicted nf fp.l^iny did not prove a suffi- 
cient restraint. ~ And when in the fourth year of 
the following reign it was enacted that all mur- 
derers and robbers should be denied the benefit 
of their clergy, two pi-ovisos were added to make 
the bill pass through the House of Lords, the one 
for excepting all such as were within the holy 
•u'ders of bishop, priest, or deacon^ and the other 
that the act should only be in force till the next 
jtarliament. Pursuant to this act many murder- 
ers and felons were denied their clergy, and the 
law passed on them to the great satisfaction of 
the nation, — but this gave great oiTence to the 
clergy, and the Abbot of Winchelcont said in a 
sermon at Paul's Cross, that the act was contrary 
to the law of God, and to the liberties of the holy 
church, and that all who assented to it had by so 
doing incun-ed the censures of the church." — 
Burnet's Reformation, vol. 1, pp. 12-14. 



\_Moravian Pattern of Cheerfulness.] 
" 'Tis a pity, I say, in the least to sully or in- 
terrupt that easy and lovely cheerfubress of youth, 
(which may you long preserve), with any afflatus 
liom darker and sourer mmds. For this reason, 
1 thought, when I wrote to you, I would, how- 
i^vcr odly, turn a patron for cheerfulness, I would 
summon all the lightsome images I was master 
of, and recall, if possiljle, some of those agreeable 
sensations, which youth, soon blasted with grief 
and thought, had produced in myself; the para- 
disiacal bloom that did then, to the fresh and in- 
nocent imagination, dwell on the whole face of 
things; the soft and solemn delight that even a 
balmy air, a sunny landskip, the beauties of the 
vegetable world, hills and vales, a brook or a 
pebble did then excite. And sure there is some- 
thing mysteriously great and noble in the first 



years of our life : (which being my notion, you 
will not be offended that I speak to you, a young 
man, more as young, than as man, for the for- 
mer implies some4,hing very happy, and the lat- 
ter something very miserable.) If the celestial 
spheres, by a regularity of their circulations, are 
said to make music ; much better may we affirm 
it of the motions of animal nature within us, in 
those years of health and vivacity, when the tide 
of life keeps at its full height, nor alters its course 
for petty obstructions. The soul is not like an 
intelligence listening to his sphere ; her harmony 
springs within her own being ; and is but the 
comprising of all the inferior powers to give her 
pleasure, while she, by a soft enchantment, is tied 
down to her throne of sense, where she receives 
their homages. 'Tis true, indeed, to a brave 
mind, the grosser gratifications arising from the 
body, are not much. But youth has something, 
which even such minds must needs enjoy and 
cultivate, and can scarce support their heroism 
without, and that is, a fine state of our whole 
machine, suitable for all the delicacy and dignity 
both of thought and moral deportment. 

" These blooming graces, these tender shoots 
of pure nature I was going to describe, but alas ! 
the saturnine bias of my soul carries one another 
way. I must tell you, (what I am better ac- 
quainted with), how a chilling frost, called time 
and truth, experience and the circle of human 
life, will shortly kiU or wither all these beauties, 
and with them our very brightest expectations in 
this world. For, will the loftiness of your spec- 
ulations, the generosity of j'our spirit, the strength 
and lustre of your personal and social character 
be the same, when your blood ceases to flow as 
it now does, when the imagination is cold, and 
the wheels of nature move with harshness and 
pain ? Will again the subordinate perfections to 
these, the gaiety and sweetness of temper, the 
significancy of aspect, the enforcement of wit, 
the inexplicable rays of soul that recommends all 
you do, abide with you, when the body begins to 
deceive you ? But what am I doing '? Have I 
begun to carry the charge of vanity even against 
those higher goods of life, knowledge, and friend- 
ship ; which are the refuge of the best and the 
veneration of all men ? Friendship is a sacred 
enclosure in life, where the bravest souls meet 
together, to defy and repine upon the common 
lot. Disgust at this vain and sullen world, and 
the overflowmgs of a strong serene mind, lead 
them to this union. But how will it answer ? 
To say nothing of our friends, will not the sink- 
ing of our own hearts below the generous tenor 
of friendship, blast the fniits of it to us? Did 
we use so little affectation, in making a friend, 
that we need none to keep him ? Must not we 
be always upon the stretch in some miiuUc cau- 
tions and industries, in order to content that ten- 
der affection we would have in our friend ? Can 
we make our love to him visible, amidst the re- 
serve and abstraction of a pensive mind ? In our 
sanguine hours do we not assume too much, and 
in our melancholy, think ourselves despised ? 
Naturally, the end and pleasure of friendship is, 



16 



GAMBOLD— SOUTH. 



to have an admirer : will our friendship then lose 
nothing, when humilit}' conies to search it ? 
Knowledge is so great a good in the eyes of man, 
that it can rival friendship, and most other enjoy- 
ments at once. Some have sequestered them- 
selves from all society in order to pursue it. But 
whosoever you be that are to be made happy by 
knowledge, reflect first on your changes of opin- 
ion. It was some casual encounter in life, or 
some turn of complexion, that bid you delight in 
such or such opinions. And they Mill both change 
together ; you need but run the circle of all your 
several tempers, to see every notion, every view 
of things that now warms and transports you, 
cooled and reduced. This revolution in his sen- 
timents, a man comes at last even to expect ; is 
a fool to himself, and depends upon none of them. 
Reflect next upon the shortness of your discov- 
eries. Some points of great importance to us, 
we despair of deciding. How little is the mind 
satisfied in the common road ; yet how it trem- 
bles in leaving it ; there seems to be a certain 
critical period or boundary set to every man's 
understanding, to which when it comes, it is struck 
back and recoils upon itself. As a bird, that has 
fled to the utmost of its strength, must drop downi 
upon whatever ground is under it ; so the mind 
henceforth will not be able to strike out any new 
thoughts, but must subsist on the stock of former 
conclusions, and stand to them however defective. 
Reflect, la.stly, on the impertinence of your think- 
ing. Life is something else than thought, why 
then do we turn life into it? He that does so, 
shall feel the pain of breaking in upon nature ; 
the mind will devour and consume itself for want 
of outward employment. It will also enlarge its 
capacity of prevarication and applying false col- 
ours to things. Little does the waiTU theorist 
think, that he is not to be perfected by any of his 
fine schemes, but by a coolness to them all. The 
Utmost end he can attain by theory, is to revere 
and be resigned to God ; and that a poor me- 
chanic does as well, perhaps better than he." — 
Gambold, p. 226. 



[Drum Ecclesiastics.] 
" It may not be amiss," says South, " to take 
occasion to utter a great truth, as both worthy 
to be now considered, and never to be forgot. 
Namely, that if we reflect upon the late times of 
confusion, which pa.sscd upon the ministry, we 
shall find, that the grand design of the fanatic 
crew was to persuade the world, that a standing 
settled ministry, was wholly useless. This, I .sav, 
was the main piiint which they then drove at. 
And the great engine to effect this was by en- 
gaging men of several callings (and those the 
meaner still the better) to hold forth, and harangue 
the multitude, sometimes in the streets, sometimes 
in churches, sometimes in barns, and sometimes 
from pulpits, and sometimes from tubs : and in a 
word, wheresoever, and howsoever, they could 
clock the senseless and unthinking babble about 
them. And with this practice well followed, they 
(and their friends the Jesuits) concluded, that in 



.some time, it would be no hard matter to persuade 
the people, that if men of other professions were 
able to teach and preach the word, then to what 
jMirpose should there be a company of men brought 
up to it and maintained in it at the charge of a 
public allowance ? Especially when at the same 
time, the truly godly so greedily gaped and 
grasped at it for their self-denying selves. So 
that preaching, we see, was their prime engine. 
But now what was it, which encouraged these 
men to set up for a work, which (if duly man- 
aged) was so difficult in itself, and which they 
were never bred to? Why, no doubt it was, that 
low, cheap, illiterate way, then commonly used, 
and cried up for the only gospel soul-searching 
way, (as the word then went), and which the 
craftier sort of them saw well enough, that with 
a little exercise, and much confidence, they might 
in a short time come to equal, if not exceed ; a,s 
it cannot be denied, but that some few of them 
(with the help of a few friends in masquerade) 
accordingl}" did. But on the contrary, had preach- 
ing been made, and reckoned a matter of solid 
and true learning, of theological knowledge and 
long and severe study, (as the nature of it required 
it to be) assuredly, no preaching cobler amongst 
them all, would ever have ventured so far beyond 
his last, as to undertake it. And consequently 
tliis their most powerful engine for supplanting 
the church and clergy, had never been attempt- 
ed, not perhaps so much as thought on : and 
therefore, of most singular benefit, no question, 
would it be to the public, if those, who have au- 
thority to second their advice, would counsel the 
ignorant and the forward, to consider what divin- 
ity is, and what they themselves are, and so to 
put up their preaching tools, their Medulla's note- 
books, their mellefieiums, concordances, and all, 
and betake themselves to some useful trade, which 
nature had most particularly fitted them for." — 
South's Sermons, vol. 4, p. 54. 



[jln Orthodox Man without Religion.] 
" A MAN may be orthodox in every point ; he 
may not only espouse right opinions, but zeal- 
ou.sly defend them against all opposers : he raav 
think justly concerning the incarnation of our 
Lord, concerning the ever blessed Trinity, and 
every other doctrine, contained in the oracles of 
God : he may assent to all the three Creeds ; that 
called the Apostles, the Nicene, and the Athana- 
sian : and yet it is possible he may have no re- 
ligion at all, no more than a Jew, Turk, or Pa- 
gan. He may be almost as orthodox — as the 
devil ; though indeed, not altogether. For every 
man errs in something ; whereas we cannot well 
conceive him to hold any erroneous opinion, and 
may, all the while, be as great a stranger as he 
to the religion of the heart." — South, vol. 7. 
p. 92. 



[Christian Intercession.] 
1676, April 14. "The Church met at the 
pastor's house at Tallentyre, where some hours 



PERCEVAL STOCKDALE—BELLARMINE— SOUTH, ETC. 



17 



were spent in prayer for the Churches of Christ 
in New England, upon the account of the nation 
setting upon them. Lord hear the petitions 
made for them, and be thou their protector and 
defender. Amen. 

June 9. " The Church had a day of prayer 
for the afflicted people of God in New England, 
warred upon by the Indians. 

Sept. 22. " A day of thanksgivmg was kept 
according to appointment. The same day there 
was an account given of God's appearing for his 
poor people in New England according to their 
request, June 9th before. Blessed be the Lord, 
who is a God hearing prayer. Lord compleat 
this deliverance of thy people in that part of the 
earth." Amen. — 3ISS. Extracts from a Rec- 
ord of the Church gathered in and about Cocker- 
mouth. 



[Naval Chaplain.] 
" Perceval Stockdale through Garrick's 
interest was appointed chaplain to the Resolu- 
tion 74, Capt. Sir Chaloner Ogle in 1775. 
' The duty of a clergyman,' says he, ' was very 
seldom required of me. One day, however, 
when I met my naval commander in a street of 
Portsmouth, and payed my respects to him, he 
proposed that I should do duty on the en-suing 
Sunday, on board. I replied, it was my wish to 
receive such a command more frequently. At 
all events, replied he, I think it is right that 
these things should be done sometimes, as long 
as Christianity is on foot.' " — Memoirs, vol. 1, p. 
457. 



[St. Patrick and the Spirit.] 
" St. Patrick used to hear the Spirit praying 
in his own inside. Hear him in what are said 
to be his own words : jllia noctc, nescio, Deus 
scit, in me, an juxta me, verbis peritissimis audi- 
ebam quosdanl ex spiritu psallentes intra me, et 
nesciebam qui cssent qitos ego audivi et non potui 
intelligere, nisi ad postremum orationis sic affatus 
est ; qui dcdit pro U animam suam. Et sic evi- 
gilavi. Et itcrum audivi in me ipsum orantcm ; 
tt erat quasi intra corpus nicum, et audivi super 
me, hoc est, super intcriorem hominem, et ibi for- 
liter orabat cum gemitibus. Et inter heec stupe- 
bam, et (idmirabar, et cogitabam, quis essct qui 
oraret in me ? scd ad postremxhm orationis dixit, 
se esse Spiritum / et recordatus sum Jlpostoli di- 
rentes, Spiritus adjuvat infirmitatem orationis 
nostra." — Confessio S. Patricii dc Vita et Con- 
versatione sua. Acta Sanctorum, Martii, tom. 
2, p. 535. 



[Fides Catholica.] 
" Bel larmin'e in his 4th book and 5th chapter 
De Font'tjue Romano, has tjiis [nnn^ tvnnt; pnusMfm 
' that if the pope should through error or mis- 
take command vices and prohibit virtues, the 
Church would be bound in conscience to believe 
vice to be gowl and virtue evil.' I shall give 
B 



you the whole passage in his own words to a 
tittle : ' Fides Catholica docet omnem virtutem 
esse Sonam, omne vitium esse Malum. Si autem 
errarct Papa, pracipicndo vitia vel prohibendo 
virtutes, teneretxir Ecclcsia credere vitia esse Bo- 
na, et virtutes Malas nisi vellet contra C07iscien- 
tiam peccareJ Good God ! that any thing that 
wears the name of a Christian, or but of a man, 
should venture to run such a villanous, impudent, 
and blasphemous assertion in the face of the 
world, as this ! Did Christ himself 'ever assume 
such a power as to alter the morality of actions, 
and to transform vice into virtue, and virtue into 
vice by his bare word ? Certainly never did a 
grosser paradox, or a wickeder sentence drop 
from the mouth or pen of any mortal man, since 
reason or religion had any being in the world. 
And I must confess I have often w-ith great 
amazement wondered how it could possibly come 
from a person of .so great a reputation both for 
learning and virtue too, as the world allows Bel- 
larmine to have been. But when men give 
themselves over to the defence of wicked inter- 
ests and false propositions, it is just with God to 
smite the greatest abilities with the greatest in- 
fatuations." — South's Sermons, vol. 2, p. 441. 



[Sir Thomas More and Study.] 
Sir Thomas More describing the person with 
whom he held his Dialogues, " touchyng the 
pestylent secte of Luther and Tyndale, by the 
tone bygone in Saxony, and by the tother la- 
boryd to be brought in to England," says, "en- 
quyring of hym to what faculte he had most 
gyven his study, I understode hym to have gyv- 
en dylygence to the Latyn tonge : as for other 
facultyes he sought not of. For he told me i 
meryly that Logy cke he rekened but bablynge, I 
musyke to serveTbr syngers. Arythmetryche I 
mete for marchauntes, Geometry for masons, 
Astronomy good for no man ; and as for^gjjjtlas,- 
ophy, the most vanyte of all ; and that it and 
Logyc ke had lost all goocf dyvynyte with the 
subteltyes of theyr questyons and babclynge of 
theyr dyspycyons, buyldynge all uppon reason, 
which rather gyveth blyndnesse than any lyght. 
For man, he sayd, had noo lyght, but of holy 
scrypture. And therefore, he sayd, that besyde 
the Latyn tonge, he had ben (which I moche 
commendc) studyousc in holy sciypture, whiche 
was, he sayd, lernynge ynongh for a crystcn 
man, with whiche the appostlcs helde themselfc 
contente." — IT. 5, RastcU's edition. 



[^nticks in the Pulpit.] 
" Well, who's for Aldermanbiiry ? You 
would think a phcenix preached there, but the 
birds will flock after an owl as fast : and a foot- 
ball in cold weather is as much followed as Cal- 
ama by all his rampant dog-day zealots. But 
'tis worth the crouding to iiciir the baboon ex- 
pound like the ape taught to play on the cittern. 
You would think the church as well as religion, 
were inversed, and the anlicks which were used 



18 



SCOTT— HE RRERA— FATHER CRESSY— CORTES. 



to be without were removed into the pulpit. Yet 
these apish trieks must be the motions of the 
spirit, his whimsie-meagrim must be an ecstasie, 
and Dr. G. his palsey make him the father of 
the sanctified .shaker.^. Thus, amono; Turks, 
dizziness is a divine trance ; changlings and id- 
iot.s arc the chiefost saints ; and "tis the greatest 
sign of revelation to be out of one's wits. 

" Instead of a dumb-shew, enter the sermon 
dawbers. Q what a gracious sight is a silver 
ink-horn. How blessed a gift is it to write 
short hand ! what necessary implements for a 
saint are cotton wool and blotting paper. These 
dablcrs turn the church into a scrivener's shop. 
A country fellow last term mistook it for the Six 
Clerks OlYice. The parson looks like an offender 
upon the scaffold, and they penning his confes- 
sion, or a spirit conjured up by their uncouth 
characters. By his cloak you would take him 
for the prologue to a play ; but his sermon, by 
the length of it, should be a taylor's bill ; and 
what treats it of but such buckram, fu-stion stuff? 
What a desperate green - sickness is the land 
fallen into, thus to doat on coals and dirt, and 
such rubbish divinity ! must the French cook 
our sermons too ! and are frogs, fungos, and 
toadstools the chiefest dish in a spiritual colla- 
tion ? Strange Israelites ! that cannot distin- 
guish betwixt mildew and manna. Certainly in 
the brightest .sunshine of the Gospel clouds are 
the best guides ; and woodcocks are the only 
birds of Pfwadise. I wonder how the ignorant 
rabbles should differ so much, since most of their 
libraries consist only of a concordance. The 
wise men's star doubtless was an ignis fatuus in 
a church-yard ; and it was some .such will o' th' 
M-hisp steered prophetical saltmarsh, when rid- 
ing post to heaven, he lost his way in so much 
of revelation as not to be understood ; like the 
musick of the spheres, which never was heard." 
— TIlc Loyal Satirist, or Hudibras in Prose. 
Scott's Somers' Tracts, vol. 7, p. 68. 



' upon the sick and pass their hands over them. 
When the Spaniards laughed at this, they stopt 
their allowance of food, and an old Indian said 
to Cabeza de Vaca, that he spake like one who 
lacked understanding when he said that such 
mode of curing were no avail. Stones, said he, 
and other things which we find in the field have 
a virtue in them ; my way of healing is to lay a 
hot stone upon the stomach ; and surely there is 
in man greater power and virtue than in things 
insensible. This argument, and the cogent mea.s- 
ure of witholding food induced him to try what 
the sign of the Cross would do, with a Pater Nos- 
ter and an Ave Maria." — Heurera, vol. 4, p. 5. 



{IiMomplcte Sign, of the Cross.] 
" In the original Solemn League and Cove- 
nant which is now in the British Museum, there 
are abundance of marksmen, who from their ab- 
horrence of popery, leave the cross unfinished 
and sign in the shape of a T." — Nic. and Burns' 
Hist, of Cumberland. 



[Queen of the Angels.] 
Fr. Ai-onso Perez Seraphino WTOte a poem 
with this odd title. " The Complaints of Luci- 
fer to the honour and glory of the Queen of the 
Angels." Qucxas dc Lucifer; en gloria y honra 
de la Serenissima Reyna de las Angeles de los 
Remcdios.^^ 



[On 3Iiracles of Healing.] 
" Cabeza de Vaca was persuaded to work 
miracles by a remarkable argument. The In- 
dians wanted him and his comrades to heal them, 
saying nothing more was needed than to breathe 



[Qticstion of Canonical Ordination.] 
Father Cressy observes here that " some 
Protestant controvertists do unreasonably collect 
from hence that the Britons before St. Gregory's 
time did not in their ordinations conform them- 
selves to the Roman Church, and endeavours to 
prove that they did conform from this very le- 
gend. But to prove this he affirms that the de- 
fects in St. Kentigern's ordination when he aft- 
erwards called them to mind, caused great un- 
quietness and remorse in him (p. 247). And 
he overlooks a question which the Bollandists 
ask in a note, si toties Romam profectus est St. 
Kentigernus, cur demum de sua ordinatione inter- 
pellavit S. Gregorium .?" 



[Purchase of Masses.] 
" While Cortes was absent on his expedition 
against Christoval de Oli, his death was reported 
by men who assumed the government at Mexi- 
co ; they ordered ceremonies and masses for his 
soul, and paid for them with his effect. When 
he returned, Juan de Caceres the rich, bought 
alt these acts of devotion for his own account. 
Compro los bienes y missas que avian hecho por 
el alma de Cortes, que fuessen por la de Caceres." 
— Bernal Diaz, p. 221. 



[The three constant Martyrs.] 
The three martyrs, Cranmer, Ridley, and 
Latimer were suffered sometimes to eat together 
in the prison of Bocardo. Strype says, "I have 
seen a book of their diet every dinner and sup- 
per, and the charge thereof; which was at the 
expense of Winkle and Wells, Bailiffs of the city 
at that time, under whose custody they were. 
As for example in this method. 

The first of October. Dinner. 

Bread and Ale 2d. 

Item Oisters 1 

Butter 2 

Kggs 2 

Lyng 8 

a piece of fresh Salmon . 1 

Wine 3 

Cheese and Pears 2 

2s. 6d. 



STRYPE—COLUMBANUS— ELLIOTT. 



19 



" From this Dook of their expenses give me 
leave to make these few observations. They ate 
constantly suppers as well as dinners. Their 
meals amounted to about three or four shillings : 
seldom exceeding four. Their bread and ale 
commonly came to two or three pence. They 
had constantly cheese and pears for their last 
dish, both at dinner and supper, and always 
wine, the price whereof was ever three pence, 
and no more. The prices of their provisions (it 
being now an extraordinary dear time) were as 
follow. A goose lid. A pig 12rf. or 13^. A 
cony 6d. A woodcock 3d. and sometimes 5d. 
A couple of chickens 6d. Three plovers lOrf. 
Half a dozen lai-ks 3d. A dozen of larks and 
two plovers lOd. A breast of veal lid. A 
shoulder of mutton 1 Od. Roast beef 1 2d. 

" The last disbursements (which have raelan- 
tholy in the reading) were these, 

For three loads of wood-fag- 
gots to burn Ridley and Lat- 
imer 12 

For one load of furs-faggots . 3 4 

For the carriage of these four 

loa<Is 2 

— a post 14 

— two chains 3 4 

— two staples 6 

— four labourers .... 2 8 
Then follow the charges for burning Cranmer — 

For an 1 00 of wood-faggots . 6 
For 1 00 and f of furs-faggots 3 4 
For the carriage of them ..08 
To two labourers .... 1 4 

"It seems the superiors in those days ■were 
more zealous to send these three good men to 
Oxon, and there to serve their ends upon them, 
and afterwards to burn them, than they were 
careful honestly to pay the charges thereof. For 
Winkle and Wells, notwithstanding all their en- 
deavours to get themselves reimbursed of what 
they had laid out, which came to 6663. 10s. 2d. 
could never get but c£20. In 1566 they put 
up a petition to Archbishop Parker and the other 
Bishops, that they would among themselves raise 
and repay that sum which the said Bailiffs were 
out of purse, in feeding of these three reverend 
Fathers, ' otherwise they and their poor wives 
and children should be utterly undone,' and Lau- 
rence Humfrey, President of Magdalen College, 
wrote a letter in their behalf to Archbishop Par- 
ker." — Strype's Cranmer, p. 393. 



[Protcs(a7it Work not to be relied on when Edit- 
ed by a Roman Catholic.] 
I HAD used the edition of Dc Leiy in De Boy's 
Collection. While I was transcribing this por- 
tion of the work for the press, the original French 
edition was sent mc from Norwich, by my old 
friend Mr. William Taylor. Apprehending that 
the translation might sometimes be inaccurate, I 
3ompared my own narrative with the French, as 
I proceeded, to see if any thing material had 
been mistaken, or overlooked ; and it surprized 



mc to find that my references to the chapters 
were frequently wrong. At length I perceived 
that my numeration was always one behindhand . 
This could not be accident ; and upon collating 
the works I discovered that De Boy has omitted 
the whole chapter in which Villegagnon's con- 
duct is exposed : he has omitted the preface also, 
and many passages in which the errors of The- 
vet are pointed out, and his falsehoods confuted. 
This is worthy of notice, not merely as relating 
to the book in question ; but as it may teacli 
others never to rely upon the work of a Protest- 
ant, when published by a Catholic editor, let the 
subject be what it will, — but always to refer, if 
possible, to the genuine edition. — R. S. 



[Papers Supremacy.] 
" The Pope's supremacy consists in a power 
given by our Saviour to St. Peter, of inspecting 
the conduct of all orders of the hierarchy, so as 
to take care, not that they shall share such church 
discipline as he may think proper to impose ; not 
that we shall have bishops of his nomination ; but 
that the faith, which we outwardly profess, shall 
be conformable with that revelation which was 
made by our Saviour, and that our morals shall 
be conformable with owe faith. It is on this vis- 
ible agreement of faith and mo)-als, that the unity 
of the Church is founded, and it is for the pres- 
ervation of that visible unity that we have a vis- 
ible Head, whose primacy existed in the days of 
St. Peter, as fully as in the pompous days of Leo 
X. In this, and in this only, consists the Pope's 
supremacy by Divine right. All other povrers 
which have been annexed to his primacy in sub- 
sequent ages are of human institution." — Co- 
LUMB.\xus ad Hibernos, No. 1, p. 87. 



[Foundations out of Joint.] 
" I DREAMED I was at church, attending serv- 
ice ; the minister was reading the Litany : a sud- 
den noise caught my attention, and looking to- 
wards the place from whence it proceeded, I 
saw a person of bright appearance, who beck- 
oned me with his hand. I followed him : ho led 
me to the back part of the church, and descend- 
ing down a number of steps into a cellar under 
the church, it seemed as if the foundation of the 
church were removed, and the superstructure 
was now supported upon pillars of wood, which 
were worm-eaten and rotten. I was much a-s- 
tonished. My guide observing this, said, ' You 
see the situation of this foundation;' and then, 
pointing to the place by which wo entered, said 
' Escape !' I did so, and suddenly awoke. This, 
and a thousand circumstances which has'e since, 
happened, have satisfied me that it is inexpedient 
for me to attend any place of worship where the 
Gospel is not preached. But I condemn no man 
in this matter." — Experience of Mr. Elliott. 



[Baxter^ s Retrospect.] 
" There is another thing which I am changed 



20 



BAXTER— WHITEFIELD. 



in," says Baxter," whereas in my younger days 
I never Avas tempted to doubt of the truth of 
Scripture or Christianity, but all my doubts and 
fears were exercised at home, about my own 
sincerity and interest in Christ, and this was it 
which I called unbelief; since then my sorest 
assaults have been on the other side, and such 
they were, that had I been void of internal ex- 
perience, and the adhesion of love, and the spe- 
cial help of God, and had not discerned more 
reason for my religion than I did when I was 
A'ounger, I had certainly apostatized to infidel- 
ity, though for atheism or ungodliness m}' reason 
seeth no stronger arguments than may be brought 
to prove that there is no earth, or air, or sun. I 
am now therefore more apprehensive than here- 
tofore, of the necessity of well grounding men in 
their religion, and especially of the witness of 
the indwelling Spirit : for I more sensibly per- 
ceive that the Spirit is the great witness of Christ 
and Christianity to the world. And though the 
folly of fanatics tempted me long to overlook the 
strength of this testimony of the Spirit, while 
they placed it in a certain internal affection, or 
enthusiastic inspiration, yet now I see that the 
Holy Ghost in another manner is the witness of 
Christ and his agent in the world. The Spirit 
in the prophets was his first witness, and the 
Spirit by miracles was the second ; and the 
Spirit by renovation, sanctifieation, illumination, 
and consolation, assimilating the soul to Christ 
and heaven, is the continued witness to all true 
believers, and if any man have not the Spirit of 
Christ, the same is none of his (Rom. viii. 9). 
Even as the rational soul in the child is the in- 
herent witness of evidence, that he is the child 
of rational parents. And therefore ungodly per- 
sons have a great disadvantage in their resisting 
temptations to unbelief, and it is no wonder if 
Christ be a stumbling block to the Jews, and to 
the Gentiles foolishness. There is many a one 
that hideth his temptations to infidelity, because 
he thinketh it a shame to open them, and be- 
cause it may generate doubts in others ; but I 
doubt the imperfections of most men's care of 
their salvation, and of theur diligence and resolu- 
tion in a holy life, doth come from the imperfec- 
tion of their belief of Christianity and the life to 
come. For my part I must profess, that when 
ray belief of things eternal and of the Scripture, 
is most clear and firm, all goeth accordingly in 
my soul, and all temptations to sinful compli- 
ances, worldlincss. or llcsh-pleasing, do signify 
worse to me, than an invitation to the stocks or 
Bedlam. And no petition seemeth more neces- 
sary to me than Lord, increase our faith : I be- 
lieve, help my unbelief.^' 



[Whitejield to Count Zinzendorff.] 
" Pr.'^.y, my Lord," .said Wiiitefield in a let- 
ter to Count Zinzendorir, " what instances have 
we of the first Christians walking round the 
graves of their deceased friends on Easter day, 
attended with hautboj's, trumpets, French horns, 
violins, and other kinds of musical instruments ? 



Or where have we the least rarintion made of 
pictures of particular persons being brought into 
the Christian assemblies, and of candles being 
placed behind them in order to give a transpa- 
rent view of the figures ? where was it ever 
known that the picture of the apostle Paul, rep- 
resenting him handing a gentleman and lady up 
to the side of Jesus Christ, was ever introduced 
into the primitive love-feasts ? Or do we ever 
hear, my Lord, of incense, or something like it, 
being burnt for him, in order to perfume the room 
before he made his entrance among the breth- 
ren ? Or can it be .supposed that he, who, to- 
gether with Barnabas, so eagerly repelled the 
Lyeaonians, when they brought oxen and gar- 
lands in order to sacrifice unto them, would ever 
have suiTered such things to be done for him, 
without expressing his abhorrence and detesta- 
tion of them '? and yet your Lordship knows both 
those have been done for you, without your hav- 
ing shown, as far as I can hear, the least dislike. 

" Again, my Lord, I beg leave to inquire 
whether we hear any thing in Scripture of el- 
dresses or deaconesses of the apostolical church- 
es seating themselves before a table covered with 
artificial flowers, and against that a little altar 
surrounded with wax tapers, on which stood a 
cross, composed either of mock or real diamonds, 
or other glittering stones ? And yet your Lord- 
ship must be sensible this was done in Fetter- 
lane chapel, for Mrs. Hannah Nitschman, the 
present general eldress of your congregation, 
with this addition, that all the sisters were seat- 
ed, clothed in white, and with German caps ; the 
organ also illuminated with three pyramids of 
wax tapers, each of which was tied with a red 
ribbon ; and over the head of the general eldress, 
was placed her own picture, and over that {hor- 
resco refercns .') the picture of the Son of God. 
A goodly sight this, my Lord, for a company of 
English protestants to behold ! Alas ! to what 
a long series of childish and superstitious devo- 
tions, and unscriptural impositions, must they 
have been habituated, before they could sit si- 
lent and tame spectators of such an unchristian 
scene. Surely had Gideon, though but an Old 
Testament saint, been present, he would have 
risen and pulled down this, as he formerly did 
his father's altar. Or had even that meek man 
Moses been there, I cannot help thinking, but he 
would have addressed your Lordship, partly at 
least, in the words -with which he addressed his 
brother Aaron, ' What did this people unto thee, 
that thou hast introduced such superstitious cus- 
toms among them?' 

" A like scene to this was exhibited by the 
single brethren in a room of their house at Hat- 
ton Garden. One of them who helped to fur- 
nish it, gave mc the following account. The 
floor was covered with sand and moss, and in 
the middle of it was paved a star of different col- 
oured pebbles ; upon that was placed a gilded 
dove, which spouted water out of its mouth into 
a vessel prepared for its reception, which was 
curiously decked with artificial leaves and flags ; 
the room was hung with moss and shells ; the 



WESLEY— GONZALO DE BERCEO— PAYNE. 



21 



Count, his son, and son in law, in honour of 
whom all this was done, with Mrs. Hannah 
Nitschraan, and Mr. Peter Boeblen and some 
other labourers, were present. These were seat- 
ed under an alcove, supported by columns made 
of pasteboard, and over their heads was painted 
an oval, in imitation of marble, containing cy- 
phers of Count Zinzendorif's family. Upon a 
side table was a little altar covered with shells, 
and on each side of the altar was a bloody heart, 
out of, or near which, proceeded flames. The 
room was illuminated with wax tapers, and mu- 
sicians placed in an adjacent apartment, whUe 
the company performed their devotions, and re- 
galed themselves with sweet-meats, coffee, tea, 
and vvdne. After this, the labourers departed, 
and the single brethren were admitted. I am 
told, that most, if not all of these leading persons 
were present also at the celebration of Mrs. Han- 
nah Nitschman's birthday. 

" Since my writing this, I have been told of a 
very singular expedient made use of by Mr. Pe- 
ter Boeblen, one of the brethren's bishops, in or- 
der to strengthen the faith, and to raise the di'oop- 
ing spirits of Mr. William Bell (who hath been 
unhappily drawn in with several others to be 
one of their agents) . It was this : it becig Mr. 
Bell's birthday, he was sent for from his house 
in Nevil's-alley, Fetter-lane ; but for a while, 
having had some words with Mr. Boeblen, he 
refused to come ; at length he complied, and was 
introduced into a hall, in the same allej', where 
was placed an artificial momitain, which, upon 
singing a particular verse, was made to fall down, 
and then behind it was discovered an illumina- 
tion, representing Jesus Christ and Mr. Bell, sit- 
ting very near, or embi'acing each other ; and 
out of the clouds was also represented plenty of 
money falling round Mr. Bell and the Saviour. 
This story appeared to me so incredible at the 
first hearing, that, though I could not doubt the 
veracity of the relator, yet fearing he might be 
misinformed, I sent for him again, and he assured 
me that ]\Ir. Bell told this story himself some time 
ago in company, and a person of good reputa- 
tion of that company related it to an acquaint- 
ance of mine." 



[The entailed Curse eiit off.] 

" I PREACHED at Croivlc, and afterwards 
searched the church-yard, to find the tomb of 
Mr. Ashhourn. We could find nothing of it 
there. At length we found a large flat stone in 
the church. But the inscription was utterly il- 
legible, the letters being filled up with dust. 
However wc made a shift to pick it out, and then 
read as follows : 

' Here lieth the body of Mr. Solomon Ash- 
bourn. He died in 1711, and solemnly bequeath- 
ed the following verses to his parishioners. 

' Ye stiff necked and uncircumciscd in heart and 
ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost. As 
your fathers did., so do ye. Acts, vii. 54. 

' I have laboured in vain. I have spent my 
strength for nought., and in vain. Yet surely 



my judgement is with the Lord ; and my work 
with my God.'' Isaiah, xlix. 4. 

" But that generation which was abandoned 
to all wickedness, is gone : so are most of their 
children. And there is reason to hope, that the 
curse intailed on them and their children is gone 
also. For there is now a more lively work of 
God here, than in any of the neighbouring places-" 
— Wesley's Journal, vol. xviii., p. 118. 



\_Stej)s in advance.] 
" Tal era como plata, mozo casto gradero, 
La plata torno oro quando fue epistolero, 
El oro margarita quando fue evangelistero, 
Quando subio a preste semeyo al lucero." — 
D. GoNZALo DE Berceo. S. Domijjgo 
DE Silos, p. 44. 



[Delusions of Satan^^ 

" My sei'iousness was increased by an extra- 
ordinary occurrence, which I simply relate just 
as it was. ' One night, as I was standing senti- 
nel at Mr. M — 's door, I heard a dreadful rat- 
tling, as if the house was all shaken to pieces, 
and tumbling down about my ears. Looking 
towards it, I saw an appearance, about the size 
of a six- weeks' calf, lying at the door. It rose, 
came towards me, looked me in the face, passed 
by, returned again, and went to the door. The 
house shook as before, and it disappeared. A 
few days after, our head Inn-keeper, Mr. SI — , 
told the ofilicer of the guard, that the same night 
Mrs. M — died, he, with eight persons more sit- 
ting up, observed the house shake exceedingly , 
that they were greatly surprised, and carefully 
searched every room : but to no purpose : that 
not long after, there was a second shaking as 
violent as the former. That a while after, the 
house shook a third time ; and just then Mrs. 
M— died.' 

" My companions and I were greatly strength- 
ened by an uncommon trial that bei'el us sooa 
after. We frequently went out at night, to pray 
by the side of the mountain. One night, as we 
were walking together, and talking of the things 
of God, I heard a noise, and saw something in 
the form of a large bear pursuing me closely. 
My hair stood on end, and as we were walking 
arm in arm, I suddenly pulled both my compan- 
ions round with me. They both saw him, and 
one of them fainted away. It then reared itself 
upon its hind legs into the air. I said, Satan, wo 
are come hither to serve God : and we will do 
it, in spite of thee, and all the devils in hell. In- 
stantly it sunk into the earth : we then prayed 
upon the very spot ; and soon found ourselves 
strong in the Lord, and in the power of his 
might." — Thojias Payne. 



[Curse of Duelling.] 

Last summer I received a letter from a friend 
wherein he writes these words. 

'■ I think it woidd be worth your while to take 



BURNET— CHARLES PERRONET. 



a view of those wondorful marks of the Lord's 
hatred to duelling: called The Brothers' Steps. 

" They are in the fields, about a third of a 
mile northward from Montague House. And 
the awful tradition concerning them is, That two 
brothers quarrelled about a worthless woman, 
and according to the fashion of those days fought 
with sword and pistol. The prints of their feet 
are about the depth of three inches, and nothing 
will vegetate, so much as to disfigure them. The 
number is only eighty-three : but probably some 
arc at present up. For I think, there were for- 
merly more in the centre where each unhappy 
combatant wounded the other to death. And a 
hank on which the first who fell, died, retains 
the form of his agonizing couch, by the curse of 
barrenness, while grass flourishes all about it. 
Mr. George Hall, who was the Librarian of Lin- 
coln"s-Iim, first shewed me these steps, twenty- 
eight years ago, when, I think, they were not 
quite so deep as now. He remembered them 
about thirty years, and the man who first showed 
them him, about thirty more : which goes back 
to the year 1692 : but I suppose they originated 
in king Charles H.'s reign. ]\Iy mother well 
remembered their being ploughed up, and corn 
sown to deface them about fifty years ago. But 
all was labour in vain ; for the prints returned in 
a while to their pristine form ; as probably will 
those that are now filled up. Indeed I think an 
account of them in vour magazine, would be a 
pious memorial of their lasting reality. 

" These hints are only offered as a small token 
of my goodwill to yourself, and the work by your 
Son and Brother in the Gospel, John Walsh." 

This account appeared to me so very extraor- 
dinarv, that I knew not what to think of it. I 
knew ]Mr. Walsh to be a person of good under- 
standing and real piety ; and he testified what 
he had seen with his own eyes : but still I 
wanted more witnesses : till awhile ago, being 
at Mr. Gary's, in Copthall Buildings, I occasion- 
ally mentioned The Brothers' Footsteps, and asked 
the company if they had heard any thing of them ? 
"Sir," said Mr. Canj, "sixteen years ago, I saw 
and counted them myself." Another added, 
"And I saw them four years ago." I could 
then no longer doubt but they had been. And 
a week or two after, I went with Mr. Cary and 
another person to seek them. 

We sought for near half an hour in vain. We 
could find no steps at all, within a quarter of a 
mile, no nor half a mile north of Montague House. 
We were almost out of hope, when an hcmest 
man who was at work, directed us to the next 
ground, adjoining to a pond. There we found 
what we sought for, about three quarters of a 
mile of Montague House, and about five hundred 
yards east of Tottenham Court Road. The steps 
answer Mr. Walsh's description. They are of 
the size of a large human foot, about three inches 
deep, and lie nearly from north-ea.st to south- 
west. We counted only seventy-six : but we 
were not exact in counting. The place where 
one or both the brothers are supposed to have 



fallen, is still bare of grass. The labourer showed 
us also the bank, where (the tradition is) the 
wTetched woman sat to see the combat. 

What shall we say to these things ? Why to 
Atheists or Infidels of any kind, I would not say 
one word about them. For if they hear not Mo- 
ses and the Proi)hets, they will not regard anj- 
thing of this kind. But to men of candour, who 
believe the Bible to be of God, I would say, is 
not this an astonishing instance, held forth to all 
the inhabitants of London, of the justice and 
power of God? Does not the curse he has de- 
nounced upon this ground bear some resemblance 
to that of our Lord on the ban-en fig tree. Hence- 
forth let no fruit grow upon thee for ever! I 
see no reason or pretence for any rational man 
to doubt of the truth of the story ; since it has 
been confirmed by these tokens for more than an 
hundred years successively. 



[Effects of Latimer's Preaching.] 
" Two entries made in the Council Books show 
the good effects of Latimer's zealous preaching. 
On the 10th of 3Iarch he brought in o€l04 re- 
covered of one who had concealed it from the 
king : and a little after ci'363 of the king's 
money." — Burnet, vol. 3, p. 196. 

To appreciate the power of his homely, but 
home preaching, the relative value of money at 
that time should be remembered. — R. S. 



[Charles Perronet in Commmiion with the Father 
and the Son.] 

" When I first sought the Lord, I found no 
intercourse open with him, though his Spirit daily 
changed my heart, and drew me from all out- 
ward things, to seek my all in Uncreated Good. 

'• The first six months I was refreshed by va- 
rious influences of grace, which drew me after 
heavenly things, but discovered nothing of him 
from whom they came. I was all desire, all 
fervour, and, on the stretch for divine communi- 
cations, as one dead to all below. Outward 
things could not allure me, because I had re- 
noimced them, and devoted myself to the love of 
Christ. But it was not till after much joy and 
sorrow, that I knew the might}-- All, for who.se 
sake all wa.s and is, the first eternal .spring of all 
things, in whom they begin and end. 

" After this, I was three months in deep dis- 
tress, through the loss of those meltings of heart, 
of that light and joy. and power to approach God 
in prayer. Then Christ restored the graces I 
had possessed with double increase, and the rev- 
elation of himself. The grace I received came 
now with .Jesus Christ himself, in so clear a 
manifestation, that from what I daily experienced, 
I could have preached him to all the world. If 
I had never heard the name of Christ, I could 
have declared him to be God and man, and the 
Mediator between both. Now I sought grace ; 
but Jesus above grace, and all that could be im- 
parted. Whatever help or strength I obtained, 
it seemed a small thing if he came not with what 



CHARLES PERRONET— PHILIP HENRY. 



23 



he bestowed. The Son of God was now ray 
refuge from every storm : my friend, my hiding- 
place on all occasions. I talked with him, he 
seemed to look upon me with precious smiles ; 
became my delightful abode ; gave me promises, 
and made all my existence glory in himself, fix- 
ing all my desiics upon his love and the glorious 
display of his own person. I could relish only 
Jesus ; to have been a moment with him I would 
have given up all besides. I was so engaged 
with Christ, that the thought how he had been 
despised while on earth, drowned my eyes with 
tears ; and the thought, that now he possessed 
all fulness, so satisfied my largest desires, that I 
had no choice whether to exist or not : whatever 
was myself, was no more. It seemed to make 
no part of my happiness. All centered in Jesus 
and him alone. 

"Before I experienced this, I had never known 
that prayer was offered up to Christ, but only in 
his name. But now all my cry was to him, as 
he was the only person of Godhead I beheld. At 
first he discovered himself as the Holy Lord and 
Ruler over his Redeemed : then as a Father of 
his adopted Children, a Friend, an intimate and 
condescending Companion : last of all, as the 
Spouse of his Church, of all believers ; which 
character exceeded eveiy other. Every mani- 
festation more abundantly knit my heart to him- 
.self, his word, and commandments. I could 
truly say, How dear are thy counsels to me, 
God ! All my study is in thy commandments. 

" The Scripture displays the relation God 
stands in to his people, in a multitude of sacred 
characters. Some of these relate to this world, 
some to the other : but all prove diversity of ex- 
perience ; and that one star differeth from an- 
other both in grace and gloiy. 

" Just after my uniting with the Methodists, 
the Father was revealed to me ; and soon after, 
the whole Trinity : I beheld the distinct Persons 
of the Godhead ; and worshipped one undivided 
Jehovah, and each person separately. After 
this, I often had intercourse with Christ and wjth 
the Father : afterward, with the Spirit also. But 
after four years, my usual communion was with 
Christ only : though at times with the Father 
likewise ; and not wholly without the Spirit. Of 
late I have found the same access to the Triune 
God. When I approach Jesus, the Father and 
Spirit commune with me, but not in the degi'ee 
as before. Whatever I receive now, centers in 
taking leave of earth and hasting to another 
place. I am as one that is no more. I stand 
and look back on what God has done ; his calls, 
helps, mercies, deliverances ; and adore and de- 
vote myself with new ardour. 

" In speaking of these things, it is hard to find 
»itteraiH!e, and human weakness, intermixing 
much of imagination, causes the truth to be re- 
jected. If it be asked, In what manner I beheld 
the triune God? I answer. It is above all de- 
scription ; it differs so much from what is human. 
Who can describe light, so as to make him under- 
stand that has never seen it? And he that hath 
thus seen Gt)d, can no more describe what he has 



seen, than he that hath not. In two of these Di- 
vine Interviews, the Father spoke while I was in 
agony of prayer for perfect conformity to himself; 
twice more, when I was in the depth of sorrow ; 
and each tijue in scripture words. 

" The manifestations to the Patriarchs were 
outward ; and therefore admitted of being de- 
scribed. But what I relate was not outward : it 
was not an external vision : it was not what we 
commonly call faith ; it was not an impression 
upon my mind, but different from all. While the 
soul is under the power of faith, the person of 
Christ is often presented to the imagination. But 
what I speak was not this ; rather, I suppose, it 
was a similitude of what is seen in eternity. But 
still only a smiilitude : for while we are in the 
body, all the operations of God's Spirit are wrought 
upon one body and spirit, inseparably conjoined. 
We are now composed of a material and umna- 
terial part; and nothing can possibly act upon 
one without affecting both. But by and by, we 
shall be, for a season, pure spirit : afterwards 
joined to a spiritual body so totally different from 
this eorruptilale bod}', that what we then perceive 
will be diilerent from all we perceive now. 

" It may be asked, ' was the appearance glori- 
ous ?' It was all divine : it was glory I had no 
conception of: it was God. The first time the 
glory of him I saw reached even to me, I was 
overwhelmed with it body and soul, penetrated 
through with the rays of Deity. 

"But was it light? It was not brightness 
more than darkness. Our common acceptation 
of glory above, is that of something glittering and 
something that \s our own. But here are two 
mistakes : 1. We do not consider the difference 
between this and the other world. To us, that 
is excellent which is bright and shining : but 
what is excellent to them, is of a kind which 
hitherto we have no conception of. 2. We im- 
agine glory to be something that is our oion y 
whereas it is all things centering in God. Sep- 
arate from him, there is nothing glorious ; spot- 
less souls would loath themselves, and their grace 
and glory, could it be possessed out of God. 
But there ho is the first and the last, the mighty 
All. All things are by him and all things are 
to him ; flowing back to their first rise, and rest- 
ing in him as their eternal Centre. There the 
clamour of self-seeking and self-complacency 
ceases, or it would not be heaven. We only 
know, That God is ; and he, being what he is, 
is our All. 

" In consequence of this, I could never rest in 
grace absent from God. After I had beheld him, 
nothing but his presence could sufliee." 



[Jllliteration.] 
Philip Henry would often eonlrive the head.s 
of his sermons to begin with the same letter, or 
rather two and two of a letter ; init he did not at 
all seem to affect or force it ; only if it fell in 
naturally and easily, ho thought it a good help to 
memory, and of use, especially to the younger 
sort. And he would say, tho chief reason why 



24 



GILPIN— GEORGE SHADFORD. 



he did it was because it is frequently observed in 
the Scripture, piirticularly the book of Psahns. 
And though it be not a fashionable ornament of 
discourse, if it be a Seripture ornanient, that is 
suflicient to recommend it. at least to jiistify it 
against the imputations of childishness. (Mr. Por- 
ter of Whitchurch very much used it, so did Mr. 
Maiden.) 

Some of his subjects, when ho had finished 
them, he made some short memorandums of in 
verse, a distich or two of each Sabbath's work, 
and gave them out in writing, among the young 
ones of his congregation, many of whom wrote 
them, and learned them, and profited by them. - 



[Gilpin and the Challenge Glove.] 
" Upon a certain Lord's-day, Mr. Gilpin com- 
ing to a church in those parts, before the people 
were assembled, and walking up and down there- 
in, espied a glove hanged on high in the church. 
Whereupon he demanded of the sexton what 
should be the meaning thereof, and wherefore it 
hanged in that place ? The sexton maketh an- 
swer that it was a glove of one of the parish, who 
had hanged it up there as a challenge to his en- 
emy, signifying thereby that he was ready to en- 
ter into combat with his enemy hand to hand, or 
any one else who should dare to take down that 
challenge. Mr. Gilpin requested the sexton by 
some means or other to take it down. ' Not I, 
sir,' replied the sexton, ' I dare doe no such thing.' 
' But,' said Mr. Gilpin, ' if thou wilt bring me 
hither a long staffe, I will take it doviTie myself:' 
and so when a long staff was brought, Mr. Gilpin 
tooke downe the glove and put it up in his bo- 
sorae. By and by came the people to church in 
abundance, and Mr. Gilpin, when he saw his 
time, went up into the pulpit. In his sermon he 
took occasion to reprove these inhuman challen- 
ges, and rebuked them sharply for that custome 
which they had of making challinges, by the 
hanging up of a glove. ' I heare,' saith he, ' that 
there is one amongst you who even in this sacred 
place hath hanged up a glove to this purpose, and 
threateneth to enter into combat with whosoever 
shall take it downe. Behold, I have taken it downe 
myself;' and at that word, plucking out the 
glo\-e, shewed it openlj', and then instructed them 
how unbeseeming those barbarous conditions 
were for any man that professed himself a Chris- 
tian ; and so laboured to persuade them to a i-ec- 
onciliation, and to the practice of mutual love and 
charity amongst themselves." — Life of Gilpin. 



also in the Bible published by the authority of 
King Henry VIII. So it was, likewise, in all the 
editions of the Bible that were successively pub- 
lished in England during the reign of King Ed- 
ward VI., Queen Elizabeth, and King James I. 
Na}-, so it is found in the Bibles of King Charles 
I.'s reign : I believe, to the period of it. The 
first Bibles I have seen wherein the word was 
changed, were those printed by Roger Daniel 
and Jolin Field, printers to the Parliament : in 
the year 1649. Hence it seems probable that 
the alteration was made during the sitting of the 
Long Parliament ; probably it was then that the 
Latin word Charity was put in place of the En- 
glish word Love. It was an unhappy hour this 
alteration was made ; the ill effects of it remain 
to this day : and these may be observed, not only 
among the poor and illiterate : not only thousands 
of common men and women no more understand 
the word Charity, than they do the original 
Greek ; but the same miserable mistake has dif- 
fused itself among men of education and learning. 
Thousands of these are misled thereby, and im- 
agine that the charity treated of in this chapter 
refers chiefly, if not wholly, to outward actions, 
and to mean little more than almsgiving ! I have 
heard many sermons preached upon this chapter : 
I)articularly before the University of Oxford, and 
I never heard more than one wherein the mean- 
ing of it was not totally misrepresented. But 
had the old and proper word Love been retained, 
there would have been no room for misrepresent- 
ation." — Quare ? Wesley, vol. 10, p. 156. 



['kyuTTT] — Charity — Love.] 
" Though I speak with the tongues of men and 
of angels and have not charity, I am become as 
sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal, fyc. 

" St. Paul's word is 'Aydnri, exactly answer- 
ing to the plain English word Love. And ac- 
cordingly it is so rendered in all the old transla- 
tions of the Bible. So it stood in William Tin- 
dal's Bible, which, I .•suppose, was the first En- 
glish translation of the whole Bible. So it was 



George Shadford. In the Jerseys. 
" One day a friend took me to see a hermit 
in the woods. After some difficulty we found 
his hermitage, which was a little place like a 
hog-sty, built of several pieces of wood, covered 
with bark of trees ; and his bed consisted of dry 
leaves. There was a narrow, beaten path, about 
twenty or thirty yards in length, by the side of 
it, -where he frequently walked to meditate. If 
one offered him food, he would take it ; but if 
money was offered him, he would be angry. If 
any thing was spoken to hira which he did not 
like, he broke out into a violent passion. He 
had lived in this cell seven cold winters ; and 
after all his prayers, counting his beads, and 
separating from the rest of mankind, still cor- 
rupt nature was all alive within him. Alas! 
alas ! what will it avail us whether we are in 
England or Ireland, Scotland or America ; 
whether we live amongst mankind, or retire into 
a hermitage, if we still carry with us our own 
hell, our corrupt, evil tempers !" 



[Love of Pre-eminence.] 
" In many of our societies there is a Diotre- 
phes, who loves to have the pre-eminence ; and 
if he does not receive all the respect, or find all 
the deference paid to his judgment which he 
thinks himself worthy of, his pride is hurt ; and 
he will complain of ill treatment, and threaten 



GILPIN— SOUTH. 



25 



to withdraw himself, and use all his mighty in- 
fluence to induce othei's to do the same. If his 
brethren are weak enough to regard his threats, 
and otfer a little incense to his abominable pride, 
he will condescend to abide with them a little 
longer, till, having increased in vanity and inso- 
lence, he, through the weakness of his brethi-en, 
becomes the tyrant of the society : and this op- 
pression being more than his brethren are dis- 
posed to bear, they at length oppose him, and 
then he retires disgusted, disappointed, and en- 
raged. Such a man is a curse to any society of 
' Christians ; and the sooner they are delivered 
from him the better : but his guilt is of the deep- 
est dye ! It is impossible to tell how many souls 
such a man may ruin. He may expect to be 
treated, at the last, as one of the best friends of 
the old murderer." — Qucere ? Wesley. 



Jl gentleman who is described as a peculiar genius 
of the jiresent age makes the folloiving remarks 
upon the practice of sleeping at Churchy ivith- 
out appearing to consider that part of the fault 
may sometimes be imputed to the preacher. 
" TiiE horrid habit of sleeping in some is a 
source of infinite pain to others, and damps more 
than any thing else the vivacity of the preacher. 
Constant sleepers are public nuisances, and de- 
serve to be whipped out of a religious assembly, 
to which they are a constant disgrace. There 
are some who have regularly attended a place 
of worship for seven years twice a day, and yet 
have not heard one whole sermon in all the time. 
" Ministers have tried a number of methods to 
rid our assemblies of this odious practice. Some 
have reasoned, some have spoke louder, some 
have whispered, some have threatened to name 
the sleeper, and have actually named him, some 
have cried fire, some have left off preaching. Dr. 
Young sat down and wept, Bishop Abbot took 
out his Testament and read Greek. Each of 
these awaked the auditors for the time ; but the 
destruction of the habit belongs to the sleeper 
himself, and if neither reason nor religion can 
excite him, why, he must sleep on I tliink till 
death and judgment awake him !" 



what moved with this unaccustomed spectacle, 
gocth on nevertheless in his sermon, and now a 
second time their weapons make a clashing 
sound, and the one side drew nearer to the oth- 
er, so that they were in danger to fall to blows 
in the midst of the church. Hereupon Mr. Gil- 
pin Cometh down from the pulpit, and steppmg 
to the ringleaders of either faction, first of all 
ho appeased the tumult. Next, he laboureth to 
establishe peace betwixt them, but he could not 
prevail in that : onely they promised to keepe the 
peace unbroken so long as Mr. Gilpin should 
remaine in the church. Mr. Gilpin seeing he 
could not utterly extinguish the hatred which 
was now inveterate betwixt them, desired them 
that yet they would forbear hostility so long as 
he should remaine in those quarters : and this 
they consented unto. Mr. Gilpin thereupon go- 
eth up into the pulpit againe (for he had not 
made an end of his sermon) and spent the rest 
of the allotted time which remained in disgracing 
that barbarous and bloody custome of theirs, and 
if it were possible in the utter banishing of it for- 
ever. So often as Mr. Gilpin came into those 
parts afterwards, if any man amongst them stood 
in feare of a deadly foe he resorted usually where 
Mr. Gilpin was, supposing himself more safe in 
his company, than if he went with a guard." — 
Life of Gilpin. 



[Mr. Gilpin and the Deadly feod.] 
" Upon a time when Mr. Gilpin was in these 
parts at a town called Rothbury, there was a 
pestilent faction amongst some of them that were 
wont to resort to that church. The men being 
bloodily-minded, practised a bloody manner of 
revenge, termed by them Deadly-feod. If this 
faction on the one side did perhaps come to the 
church, the other side kept away, because they 
were not accustomed to meet together without 
bloodshed. Now so it was that when Mr. Gil- 
pin was in the pulpit in that church, both par- 
ties came to church in the presence of Mr. Gil- 
pin ; and both of them stood, the one of them in 
the upper part of the church, or chancel, the 
other in the body thereof, armed with swords, 
and javelins in their hands. Mr. Gilpin, some- 



[Mysteries revealed to the Meek.] 
" Let this therefore be fixed upon, that there 
is no obedience comparable to that of the under- 
standing ; no temperance, which so much com- 
mends the soul to God, as that which shows it- 
self in the restraint of our curiosity. Besides 
which two uuportant considerations, let us con- 
sider also, that an over anxious scrutiny into 
such mj'steries, is utterly useless, as to all pur- 
poses of a rational inquiry. It tvcaries the mind, 
but not informs the judgment. It makes us con- 
ceited, and fantastical in our notions, instead of 
being sober and wise to salvation. It may pro- 
voke God also, by our pressing too much into the 
secrets of Heaven, and the concealed glories of 
his nature, to desert and give us over to strange 
delusions. For they are only things revealed (as 
Moses told the Israelites, in Deut., xxix. 29), which 
belong to the Sons of Men to understand and look 
into, as the sole and proper privilege allowed 
them by God, to exercise their noblest thoughts 
upon. But as for .such high mysteries as the 
Trinity, as the subsistance of one Nature in three 
Persons, and of three Persons in one and the same 
individual Natxire, these are to be reckoned in the 
numl)er of such sacred and secret things, as be- 
long to God alone perfectly to know, but to such 
poor mortals as we are, humbly to fall down be- 
fore and adore." — South's Sermons, vol. 4, p. 
321. 



{The Warning of the Whiston Cliffs.] 
" What shall we say to the afl^air of Whiston 
Cliffs ? Of which, were it not for the unparal- 



26 



WESLEY— SOUTH. 



lelcd stupiditj- of the English, all England would 
have run long ago IVom one sea to another. And 
yet, seven miles iVom the place, they knew little 
more of it in May last, than if it had ha])pcned 
in China or Japan. 

"The fact (of the truth of which any who will 
be at the pains of inquiring, may soon be satis- 
fied) is this. On Tuesday, March 25th last, be- 
ing the week before Easter, many persons heard 
a great noise near a ridge of mountains called 
Black Ilaniillon in Yorksliire. It was observed 
chiefly on the south-west side of the mountain, 
about a mile from the course where the Hamd- 
ton races are run, near a ledge of rocks, com- 
monly called Whistou Cliirs, two miles from Sut- 
ton, and about five from Thirsk. 

" The same noise was heard on Wednesday 
l)y all who went that way. On Thursday, about 
seven in the morning, Edward Abbot, Weaver, 
and Adam Bosomworth, Bleacher, both of Sut- 
ton, riding mider Whiston Cliffs, heard a I'oar- 
ing, (so they termed it) like many cannons, or 
loud and rolling thunder. It seemed to come 
I'rom the cliffs : looking up to which they saw a 
large body of stone, four or five yards broad, split 
and fly off from the very top of the rock. They 
thought it strange, but rode on. Between ten 
and eleven, a large piece of the rock, about fif- 
teen yards thick, thirty high, and between sixty 
and seventy broad, was torn off", and thrown into 
the valley. 

" About seven in the evening, one who was 
riding by observed the ground to shake exceeding- 
ly, and soon after, several large stones or rocks, 
of some tons weight each, rose out of the ground. 
Others were thrown on one side, others turned 
upside down, and many rolled over and over. 
Being a little surprised, and not very curious, he 
hasted on his way. 

" On Friday and Saturday the ground contin- 
ued to shake, and the rocks to roll over one an- 
other. The earth also clave asunder in very 
many places, and continued so to do till Sunday 
morning. 

'• Being at Osmothcrly, seven miles from the 
cliffs, on JNIonday, June 1, and finding Edward 
Abbot there, I desired him next morning to 
show me the way thither. I walked, crept, and 
climbed round and over great part of the ruins. 
I could not perceive by any sign, that there was 
ever any cavity in the rock at all ; but one part 
of the solid stone is cleft from the rest in a per- 
pendicular line, and as smooth as if cut with in- 
struments. Nor is it barely thrown down, but 
split into many hundred pieces, some of which lie 
four or five hundred yai'ds from the main rock. 

" The ground nearest the cliff is not raised, 
but sunk ' considerably beneath the level. But 
at some distance it is raised in a ridge of eight 
or ten yards high, twelve or fifteen broad, and 
near a hundred long. Adjoining to this lies an 
oval piece of ground, tliirty or forty yards in 
diameter, whi(;h has been removed whole as it 
is, from beneath the cliff", without the least fis- 
sure, with all its load of rocks, some of which 
were as large as the hull of a small ship. At a 



little distance is a second piece of ground, forty 
or fifty yards across, which has been also trans- 
planted entire, with rocks of various sizes upon 
it, and a tree growing out of one of them. By 
the removal of one of tbese, I suppose, the hol- 
low near the cliff' was made. 

" All round them lay stones and rocks, great 
and small ; some on the surface of the earth, 
some half sunk into it, some almost covered, in 
variety of positions. Between these the ground 
was cleft asunder in a thousand jilaces. Some 
of the apertures were nearly closed again, some 
gaping as at first. Between thirty and forty 
acres of land, as is commonly supposed, though 
some reckon above sixty, are in this condition. 

" On the skirts of these, I observed in abund- 
ance of places, the green turf, for it was pasture 
land, as it were pared oflT, two or three inches 
thick, and wrapt round like sheets of lead. A 
little further it was not cleft or broken at all, but 
raised in ridges, five or six feet long, exactly re- 
sembling the graves in a churchyard. Of these 
there is a vast number. 

" That part of the clifT from which the rest is 
torn, lies so high, and is now of so bright a col- 
our that it is plainly visible to all the country 
round, even at the distance of several miles. We 
saw it distinctly, not only from the street in 
Thirsk, but for five or six miles after, as we rode 
towards York. So likewise in the great North 
road, between Sandhutton and Northallerton." — • 
Wesley's Thoughts on the Earthquake at Lisbon, 

[Lengthy Prayers.] 

"Let us now," says South, "consider the 
way of praying, so much used and applauded by 
such as have renounced the communion and lit- 
urgy of our church ; and it is but reason that 
they should bring us something better in the 
room of what they have so disdainfully cast ofT. 
But, on the contrary, are not all their prayers ex- 
actly after the heathenish and pharisaical copy? 
always notable for those two things, length and 
tautology ? Two whole hours for one prayer, 
at a fast, used to be reckoned but a moderate 
dose, and that, for the most part, fraught with 
such irreverent, blasphemous expressions, that, 
to repeat them, would profane the place I am 
speaking in ; and indeed, they seldom carried on 
the M-ork of such a day (as their phrase was), 
but they left the church in need of a new conse- 
cration. Add to this, the incoherence and con- 
fusion, the endless repetitions, and the unsuffera- 
ble nonsense, that never failed to hold out, even 
with their utmost prolixity ; so that, in all their 
long fasts, from first to last, from seven in the 
morning to seven in the evening (which was their 
measure), the pulpit was always the emptiest 
thing in the church : and I never knew such a 
fast kept by them, but their hearers had cause 
to begin a thanksgi\'ing as soon as they had done. 
And, the truth is, when I consider the matter of 
their prayers ; so full of ramble and inconse- 
quence, and in every respect so very like the 
language of a dream ; and compare it with their 



SOUTH— COLUMB ANUS— FULLER. 



27 



carriage of themselves in prayer, with their eyes 
lor the most part shut, and their arms stretched 
out, in yawning posture ; a man that should hear 
any of them pray, might, by a very pardonable 
error, be induced to think that he was all the 
time hearing one talking in his sleep : besides 
the strange virtue, which their prayers had to 
procure sleep in others too. So that he who 
should be present at all their long cant, would 
show a greater ability in watching, than ever 
they could pretend to in praying, if he could for- 
bear sleeping, having so strong a provocation to 
it, and so fair an excuse for it. In a word, such 
were their prayers, both for matter and expies- 
sion, that could any one truly and exactly write 
them out, it would be the shrewdest and most 
effectual way of writing against them that could 
possibly be thought of." — South's Sermons, vol. 
2, p. 215. 



[Geasa-Drasidecht ; or, Sorceries of the Druids.] 
"I HAVE often inquired of your tenants' what 
they themselves thought of their pilgrimage to 
the wells of Kill-Aracht, Tobbar-Brightc, Tob- 
har-Muire, near Elphin Moor, near Castlereagh, 
where multitudes annually assembled to celebrate 
what they, in broken English, termed Patterns 
(Patron's days), and when I pressed a very old 
man, Owen Hester, to state what possible advant- 
ages he expected to derive from the singular 
custom of frequenting in particular such wells as 
were contiguous to an old blasted oak, or an up- 
right unhewn stone, and what the meaning was 
of the yet more singular custom of sticking rags 
on the branches of such trees, and spitting on 
them ; his answer, and the answer of the oldest 
men, was, that their ancestors always did it ; that 
it was a preservative against Geasa-Drasidecht, 
i. e., the sorceries of Druids ; that their cattle 
were preserved by it from infectious disorders ; 
that the daoini maithe, i. e., the fairies, were kept 
in good humour by it ; and so thoroughly per- 
suaded were they of the sanctity of these Pagan 
j)ractiees, that they would travel bareheaded and 
barefooted from ten to twenty miles for the pur- 
pose of ei-awling on their knees round these wells 
and upright stones, and oak trees westward, as 
the sun travels, some three times, some six, some 
nine, and so on, in uneven numbers, until their 
voluntary penances were completely fulfilled. 
The waters of Logh-Con were deemed so sacred 
from ancient usage, that they would throw into 
the lake whole rolls of butter, as a preservative 
for the milk of their cows against Geasa-Drasi- 
decht ! 

" The same customs existed amongst the Irish 
colonies of the Highlands and Western Islands ; 
and even in some parts of the Lowlands of Scot- 
land. 'I have often observed,' says Mr. Brand, 
'shreds, or bits of rags, upon the bushes that 
overhang a wall in the road to Benton, near 
Newcastle, which is called the Rag-well.^ Mr. 
Pennant says, they visit the well of Spye in Scot- 
land, for many distempers, and the well of Drach- 
aldy, for as many ollering small pieces of money 



and bits of rags.^' — Columbanus ad Hibernos, p. 
82, No. 3. 



[Pope^s Supremacy.] 
" It is very well known that even when Henry 
VIII. renounced the pope's supremacy, our 
chiefs, believing that he meant only to renounce 
the pope's temporal supremacy, joined him in 
that renunciation ! In their fourth general sub- 
mission, which was made in the 33d of Henry 
VIII., they unanimously acknowledged by in- 
denture that he was their sovereign loi'd and 
king ; confessing his supremacy in all causes, 
and utterly renouncing the pope's jurisdiction 
as to all manner of temporals both in church and 
state.'" — CoLUMBANUS ad Hibernos, p. 36, No. 2. 



[Head of the Church.] 
" Yet it must, in common justice, be acknowl- 
edged that the title of Head of the Church, 
though odious to a Catholic, means no more in 
the acceptation of an Englishman, than Tempore 
al Head of the Church, or Defender of the Faith. 
No Englishman ever yet for a moment supposed 
that the king could administer sacraments, or- 
dain priests, give a mission for preaching or 
teaching, or be the source of spiritual as of tem- 
poral power. They give him no authority in 
church discipline, but such as is necessary for 
maintaining order in the state, supporting by the 
civil sword the laws of morality, defending the 
rights of the inferior as well as of the superior 
clergy, and excluding all foreign interference 
from the management of those temporal con- 
cerns which are necessarily connected with every 
species of human authority. This is the expla- 
nation which the English divines give of their 
own principles ; and no one has a right to at- 
tribute to them principles which they utterly 
disavow. If they approached us as nearly in 
other points as in this, I should not despair of a 
gradual approximation, M'hich would end in mu- 
tual charity ; for it cannot be denied that the 
pope has no temporal power, and ought to have 
none, directly or indirectly, in any state but in his 
own." — CoLUMBANUS ad Hibernos, p. 91, No. 1. 



[Jesuitesses.] 
Fuller, writing about the year 16.50, says 
the Jesuitesses "began at Liege about thirty 
years since, Mistris Mary Ward and Mrs. Tvvitty 
being the first beginners of them. They arc not 
confined, as other nuns, to a cloister, but have 
liberty to go abroad where they please, to con- 
vert people to the Catholick faith. They wear a 
hukc {'^Y lil^'e other women, and difler but littla 



1 Council Book of Ireland, 32, 33, and 34 of Henry VIIL 

" This was not only done by the mere Irish," Bays Sir J. 
Davis, "but the chiefs of the degenerate Knglish families 
did perform the same; as Ilepnioml, Barry, and Roche, 
in Mounster, and the Bourkes in Coiinn^lit." 

- .Southey has put a not(? of inti'rnii;Mtiuii as above, but, 
no doubt, the word is right. Nares explains it— "A kind 
of mantle or cloke vv^orn in .Spain and the Low Countries.*' 
Sec Glossary in v. for autliorities. — J. W. W. 



SOZOMEN— WALTON— WILSON. 



in their habit from common persons. The afore- 
said two virginSj or rather viragins, travelled to 
Rome witli three of the most beautiful' of their 
society, endeavouruig to procure from his Holi- 
ness an establishment of their Order ; but no con- 
firmation, only a toleration would be granted 
thereof. Since I have read that, jlnno 1629, 
Mrs. Mary Ward went to Vienna, where she pre- 
vailed so far with the empress, that she procured 
a monastery to be erected for those of her Order, 
as formerly they had two houses at Liege. Since 
I have heard nothing of them, which rendereth 
it suspicious that their Order is suppressed, be- 
cause otherwise such turbulent spirits would be 
known by their own violence, it being all one 
with a storm not to be, and not to bluster : for 
although this may seem the speediest way to 
make their Order to propagate when Jesuita 
shall become hie et hcec, of the common gender, 
yet conscientious Catholics conceive these Lady- 
Errants so much to deviate iram feminine (not 
to say virgin) modesty, (what is but going in 
men being accounted gadding in maids) that they 
zealously decried their practice, probab}' to the 
present blasting thereof." — History of Abbeys, p. 
364. 

Urban VIII. suppressed them by a Brief dated 
21 May, 1631. Helyot, who has not thought it 
worth while to name the foimder of this curious 
societ}-, says that vmder his pontificate, or towai'ds 
the end of his predecessor's, certain women, or 
maidens, in some parts of Italy and in other prov- 
inces, took upon themselves the appellation of 
Jesuitejses, and assembled in community under 
pretext of leading a religious life, though they 
had not the permission of the holy see. They 
had colleges and houses of probation, and wore, 
according to this author, a peculiar habit ; but it 
is evident that, like the Jesuits, they must have 
been allowed to lay it aside whenever it would 
have exposed them to inconvenience, or inter- 
fered with their object, which was that of mak- 
ing converts. Their superior wa^j called the 
Prepostress, and they had Visitoresses, Rectress- 
es, and other dignitaries, all in the feminine gen- 
der. They went about, says Helyot, whither 
they would, under pretext of procuring the safety 
of souls, and doing many other things which were 
neither suitable to the weakness of their sex nor 
of their understanding ; the pope first desired 
them to desist by his nuncio in Low Germany, 
and by the bishops of the various places where 
they had established themselves, but they paid no 
regard to these admonitions. At length they 
began to teach things contrarj' to sound doctrine, 
and then the brief for their suppression was issued. 

Delacroix, in his Dictionnaire Historique des 
Cidtes Eeligieux, says that the two English 
young women who founded this society (and 
whom he calls Warda and Tuittia) were instiga- 
ted by the Jesuits in Flanders. " Le but de ces 
Jesuites etoit de former wie colonie de files qtc^ils 
enverroient comme autant de Mission^iaircs trav- 
ailler a la conversion des Anglois, et dotit ils es- 

1 In the margin Mrs. Vaux Fortescue is named as one. 



peraknt d' autant plus de fruit, que de pareils 
predicatcurs scroient mains suspects, et s^insinue- 
roient plus aiscment dans les esprits.^^ I know 
not on what authority this is asserted, but it is 
very improbable that the Jesuits should have 
been concerned, because Loj'ola himself ha\nng 
once been persuaded to undertake the superin- 
tendence of those women who wished to form a 
community of Jesuitesses, found it so impossible 
to manage them, that he besought the pope to 
exempt the company from taking charge of the 
sex. 



[ Wisdom of leaving Sectaincs alone.] 
" Themistius, the philosopher, wrote a book 
to persuade the Emperor Valens that he should 
let the diflferent sectaries alone : he remarked to 
him that there were even more speculative dis- 
putes among the heathens ; and he might have 
remarked that these disputes never produced any 
mischief, because they were never intermeddled 
with by the rulers." — Sozomen, 1. 6, c. 36. 



[Bishop Sanderson, ^c. — Extempore Sermons.] 

" About this time his dear and most intimate 
friend, the learned Dr. Hammond, came to en- 
joy a quiet conversation and rest with him for 
some days at Boothby Pannel, and did so, and 
having formerly persuaded him to trust his ex- 
cellent memory, and not read, but try to .speak a 
sermon as he had virit it ; Dr. Sanderson became 
so complient as to promise he would. And to 
that end they two went early the Sunday follow- 
ing to a neighbour minister, and requested to 
exchange a sermon ; and thej' did so. And at 
Br. Sanderson's going into the pulpit, he gave 
his sermon (which was a very short one) into 
the hand of Dr. Hammond, intending to preach 
it as it was writ ; but before he had preached a 
third part, Dr. Hammond (looking on his sermon 
as wi-itten) observed him to be out, and so lost 
as to the matte-r, especially the method, that he 
also became afraid for him : for it was discern- 
able to many of that plain auditory. But when 
he had ended this short sermon, as they two 
walked homeward. Dr. Sanderson said with 
much earnestness, ' Good doctor, give me my 
sermon, and know, that neither you, nor any 
man living, shall ever persuade me to pi-each 
again without m.y books.' To which the reply 
was, ' Good doctor, be not angry ; for if ever I 
persuade you to preach again without book, I 
will give you leave to burn all the books that I 
am master of." — Izaak Walton's Life. 



[Characteristic Anecdote of the Non-conforming 
Ministers.] 
The following anecdote which is related of 
Mr. Doolittle, is strongly characteristic of the 
non-conforming ministers of that age. Being en- 
gaged in the usual service on a certain occasion, 
when he had finished his prayer, he looked around 
on the congregation and observed a yoimg man 



ZEKERMAN— PARKER— COLLETT. 



29 



just shut into one of the pews, who discovered 
much uneasiness in that situation, and seemed to 
wish to go out again. Mr. DooHttle feeling a 
pecuhar desh-e to detain him, hit upon the fol- 
lowing expedient. Turning to one of the mem- 
bers of his church who sat in the gallery, he 
asked him this question aloud, "Brother, do you 
repent of your coming to Christ?" " No, Sir," 
he replied, '' I never was happy till then, I only 
repent that I did not come to him sooner." Mr. 
Doolittle then turned towards the opposite gal- 
lery, and addressed himself to an aged member 
in the same manner. " Brother, do you repent 
that j'ou came to Christ?" "No, Sir," he re- 
plied, "I have known the Lord from ray youth 
up." He then looked dowii upon the young 
man, whose attention was fully engaged, and 
fixing his eyes upon him, said, " Young man, 
are you willing to come to Christ?" This un- 
expected addi'ess from the pulpit, exciting the 
obsen'ation of the people, so aflected him, that 
he sat downa and hid his face. The person who 
sat next to hun encouraged him to rise and an- 
swer the question. Mr. Doolittle repeated it, 
'■ Young man, are you ■willing to come to Chi'ist ?" 
With a tremulous voice he answered, " Yes, Sir." 
"But when ?" added the minister in a loud and 
solemn tone. He mildly answered, " Now, Sir." 
" Then stay," said he, " and hear the word of the 
Lord w^hich you will find in 2 Cor., v. 2. ' Be- 
hold now is the accepted time, behold now is the 
day of salvation.' " By this sermon God touched 
the heart of this young man. He came into the 
vestr}' after service dissolved in tears. That mi- 
willingness to stay which he had discovered was 
occasioned by the strict injunction of his father, 
who threatened if ever he went to hear the fa- 
natics, he would turn him out of doors. Having 
now heard, and unable to conceal the feelings 
of his mind, he was afraid to meet his father. 
Mr. Doolittle sat down and wrote an affectionate 
letter to him, which had so good an eflect, that 
both father and mother came to hear for them- 
selves. The Lord graciously met with them 
both ; and father, mother, and son were received 
with universal joy, into that church. — Wilsox's 
History and Antiquities of Dissenting Churches. 



The Dying Speech of Andreas Zekerman, who 
icith three others was executed at Dublin a few 
years ago for the murder of Captain Glass. 
" I w.\s born at Lubeck in Holland. I got 
very little education, neither was I taught praver, 
or anything relating to it, though my father and 
mother were of the Calvinist persuasion, and 
fanght me to believe in predestination, which 
may be one great cause of my ruin. I was guid- 
ed by avarice : I would have money to spend, 
and was far from making a scruple of any un- 
lawful means to come at it ; and readil}', along 
with my three fellow-suflcrcrs, embraced the 
seeming favourable opportunity of committing 
murder and piracy to enrich myself. But we 
were all disappointed. It is an usual saying 
with tender Christians that man proposes but 



God disposes : it may be so for aught I know : 
such sort of lessons I have not much studied. I 
believe there is a powerful Being, viz. God ; that 
vice is not agreeable to Him, yet if a man be 
vicious it is not his fault, for he cannot help it ; 
and if a man be virtuous, no thanks to him for 
it, for he could not be otherwise ; for whatsoever 
course of life a man follows, or whatever he suf- 
fers, was and is unavoidable. Fate decreed it. 
I will not importune myself, for if I am predes- 
tinated to be happy hereafter I shall be .so : if 
miserable, it will be so. I cannot change my 
destiny. — Andreas Zekerman, in the 24th year 
of my age." 



[Unhallowed Discussio7t.] 
" The Thomists maintain the transmutation 
of the elements ; the Scotists the annihilation : 
and they proceed to abstract so long, till they 
could not only separate the matter and form and 
accidents of the bread from one another, but the 
paneity or breadishness itself from them all." — 
Bishop Parker's Reasons for abrogating the 
Test, p. 22. 



[Local Preachers amongst the Methodists.'] 
A LOCAL preacher among us, in general, is 
selected from his class by the leader, first called 
on to pray in our prayer-meetings ; then, as his 
abilities and his graces improve, he is raised to 
be the leader of a class, and then, from exhort- 
ing his little flock he is called on to exhort at 
some watch-night, or when there is a deficiency 
of preachers. The gradation from these steps 
to the office of a local preacher is natural and 
easy ; and in all the way he does not meet with 
such dangers and seductions as are often throviTi 
in the way of the young man whose course lies 
through academies and colleges. It has often 
been my fate to witness young men enter those 
seminaries with solid piet}', modest manners, and 
an humble deportment, who on coming from 
them, evinced that they had exchanged piety, 
modesty, and humility, for a little Latin, Greek, 
or Hebrew, captious criticism, assuming airs, 
and dogmatical positivity; amidst which com- 
parative rubbish, real religion was scarcely, if 
at all, discernible. And I have much reason to 
fear that those seminaries which, if well con- 
ducted, would be highly calculated to promote 
the interests of true religion, are in a consider- 
able degree pernicious to the souls of many who 
enter them. Leaving this in the hands of the 
great Governor of the universe, allow me, Mr. 
Editor, to address a few words to the leaders 
and principal friends in our congregations, rela- 
tive to that class of men whose cause I am ad- 
vocating. Recollect, my dear friends, that from 
the number of preaching-houses and chapels in 
each circuit, if you do not encourage yotir local 
preachers, you will soon have little or no preach- 
ing at all. Your travelling preachers exert them- 
selves in general to the utmost of their ability, 
and some of them exhaust health and strength in 



30 



GILPIN— PYVAH. 



your service. Did you know the very great dif- 
ficulty a superintendant has in forming a plan so 
as to divide the labours of the travelling preach- 
er among the various places, you would, I am 
convinced, abstain from those pressing applica- 
tions for the travelling preachers; which, though 
proceeding from the best motives, only contrib- 
ute to embarrass the snperintendant, and, when 
known to the local brethren, must hurt their 
feelings. 

My dear friends, let me beg of you to consid- 
er more attentively than j-ou have ever yet done, 
the situation of your local preachers ; many of 
them busily employed all the week in the manu- 
factory, warehouse, or behind the counter ; steal- 
ing from their sleep, their meals, or their domes- 
tic enjoyments, all the time they possibly can, to 
prepare for the Sabbath, besides abridging them- 
selves of many of the comforts of life that they 
may purchase a few necessary books ; and that, 
on the only day in which they can remain at 
home in the bosom of their families, and enjoy 
domestic peace and comfort, in all seasons and all 
weathers, they often walk five, ten, or even twen- 
ty miles, and preach two or tluee times, receiv- 
ing no other emolument than a little necessary 
refreshment for all this mental and bodily exer- 
tion and labour of love. Let me then ask you, 
can you bear to wound the feelings of such a 
man, by receiving him in a cold distant manner, 
inquiring of him why the superintendant did not 
come, or why some other travelling or local 
preacher was not sent ? Is it likely that after 
such a reception the good man should feel either 
liberty to preach or that atfection for his hearers 
which is so essential to his preaching with com- 
fort to himself or with a probability of his being 
useful to his audience ! Add to this, perhaps, 
he sees many of the usual hearers absent them- 
selves rather than hear him. Judge of the pain- 
ful feelings that must agitate the breast of this 
worthy man, thus circumstanced, as he takes his 
solitary walk home at night, and ask your o\sti 
hearts if he is likely to improve under such de- 
pressing circumstances ? He is not ; and, doubt- 
less, many useful labourers are thus prevented 
from entering the vineyard, and others discour- 
aged from persevering ; and many souls may 
now be perishing in ignorance through the chill- 
ing fastidiousness of some nice-cared critics • 
who, because the heavenly bread of life is not 
presented to them in such a vehicle as they ap- 
prove of, will not only not taste themselves, but 
do their utmost to prevent those from feedino- 
who are not so fashionable and so nice in their 
ideas. Ye that do thus are no true Methodists. 

J. CoLLETT. 



\Mr. Gilpin's Ministry.^ 
" This desolation of the congregations ap- 
peared most of all in Northumberland and the 
parts adjoining which are called Kiddesdale, and 
Tindale. For in these quarters especially in that 
time, the word of God was never heard of to be 
preached amongst them but by Mr. Gilpin's min- 



istry. So that once a yeare it was his customs 
to make a Journey amongst them. For which 
purpose he would usually take the opportimity of 
Christmass holidaycs, when in respect of frost 
and snow other men were loth to travell. That 
time he liked best, because then there came many 
holy-days together, and the people would more 
usually assemble upon the holy-dayes, whereas 
at other times they neither would come together 
.so easily, nor so often. He got himself a great 
deale of estimation and i-espect amongst this peo- 
ple both by preaching and by distribution of mon- 
ies to the poore in his journe}^, being sometimes 
benighted before he was aware, and forced to 
lodge in the snowe all night. In which extrem- 
ity, he commanded William Airy, who for the 
most part attended upon him, to trott the horses 
up and downe, and neither to permit them nor 
himself to stand still, whiles he himself, in the 
meane while did bestirre himselfe sometimes 
running sometimes walking, as not able to stand 
still for cold." — Life of Gilpin. 



[Story of Jonathan PyvahJ\ 
" A LITTLE before the conclusion of the ItiR 
war in Flanders, one who came from thence 
gave us a very strange relation. I knew not 
what judgement to form of this, but waited till 
John Haime should come over, of whose veraci- 
ty I could no more doubt, than of his understand- 
ing. The account he gave was this : Jonathan 
Pyvah was a member of our society in Flanders. 
I knew him some years, and knew him to be a 
man of unblamable character. One day he was 
summoned to appear before the Board of Gen- 
eral OlTicers. One of them said, ' What is this 
which we hear of you ? we hear you are turned 
projihet, and that you foretell the downfall of the 
bloody House of Bourbon, and the haughty House 
of Austria. We should be glad if you were a 
real prophet, and if your prophecies came true. 
But what sign do you give, to con\ance us you 
are so; and that your predictions will come to 
pass ?' He readily answered, ' Gentlemen, I 
give you a sign. To-morrow at twelve o'clock, 
you shall have such a stonii of thunder and light- 
ning, as you never had before since you came 
into Flanders. T give you a second sign : as lit- 
tle as any of you expect any such thing, as little 
appearance of it as there is now, you shall have 
a general engagement with the French within 
three days. I give you a third sign ; I shall be 
ordered to advance in the first line. If I am a 
false prophet, I shall be shot dead at the first 
discharge. But if I am a true prophet I shall 
only receive a musket-ball in the calf of my leg.' 
At twelve the next day there was such thunder 
and lightning as they never had in Flanders. 
On the third day, contrary to all expectation, 
was the general battle of Fontenoy. He was 
ordered to advance in the first line. And at the 
very first discharge, he received a musket-ball in 
the calf of his left leg. 

" And yet all this profited nothing, either for 
temporal or eternal happiness. When the war 



YEWDALL— COKE. 



31 



was over, he returned to England ; but the sto- 
ry was got before him : in consequence of which 
he was sent for by the Countess of St — s, and 
several other persons of quality, who were de- 
sirous to receive so surprising an account from 
his own mouth. He could not bear so much 
honour. It quite turned his brain. In a little 
time he ran stark mad. And so he continues to 
this day, living still, as I apprehend, on Wibsey 
Moonside, within a few miles of Leeds." — Quce- 
re? Wesley, vol. 10, p. 163. 



[Mr. Howel Haris's Family at Trevecca.} 
" During my travels in these parts, I had an 
opportunity of visiting the late Mr. Howel Har- 
is's family at Trevecca ; the house stands at a 
little distance from Lady Huntingdon's School, 
and although it has the appearance of a gentle- 
man's seat, yet is a place of great industry. The 
family consists of about one hundred and twenty 
persons ; they occupy a fann of four or five hund- 
red acres ; the women are employed in making 
flannels and the men in various branches of busi- 
ness. They follow the example of the Primitive 
Christians in having all things common. They 
have but one purse, and all eat at the same table, 
only the men and women are in different rooms. 
They are remarkably prudent, industrious, sober, 
and temperate ; their clothes are veiy plain, but 
decent ; and the decorum and regularity observ- 
ed by them is almost inconceivable. They rise 
every morning at five o'clock, and spend an hour 
together, in singing, prayer, reading or expound- 
ing the Scriptures. At eight o'clock they break- 
fast, and employ the remainder of the hour in re- 
ligious exercises, as they do likewise from one to 
two o'clock, when they dine. At eight o'clock 
in the evening they assemble again and unite in 
the worship of God, till ten, when they retire to 
rest. They have also fellowship meetings. The 
whole family evince a high degree of the fear of 
God, and many of them experience a large meas- 
ure of divine peace and happiness." — Z. Yew- 

DALL. 



[Question of Public Schools.] 
" The public schools have their excellencies 
no man can doubt ; but that the}' have their evils 
also, it would be folly to deny. It is deemed a 
branch of common politeness to study the appe- 
tite in .subordination to the health of a person 
advanced to a state of maturity. But in most 
public seminaries rigid discipline predominates 
over all. Fettered with an inflexible rule which 
refuses to bend to any circumstances or condi- 
tions, except those of imperious necessity, the 
governor iuul governess deem it no contemptible 
virtue to disregard the feelings of such as are 
committed to their care. Tenacious of their 
rights, prc-cstablishod usage determines every 
case. The rol)Ust may conform, hut the infirm 
must sink beneath the exercise of authority to 
which their strength is wholly unequal. In ev- 
ery department of life, we behold variety. No 



human law can enforce discipline uniformly ; 
without becoming oppressive to some or afford- 
ing laxity to others. In both these cases the 
end is defeated by the very measure w'hich was 
instituted to secure it ; the law becomes tyran- 
nical, and in proportion as it is thus applied, is 
manifestly unjust." — Doctor Coke. 



[ Take Care of Aged Minisiers?^ 
" This forms a new era in the life of a Meth- 
odist preacher, which all other ministers of the 
Gospel are unacquainted with. When his strength 
for labour fails him, he no longer draws his sup- 
port from any circuit, or society, but is made a 
supernumerary, and derives a small assistance 
for his future support from a fund to which he 
paid, during his health, one guinea per annum 
(now a guinea and a half) . When in his regu- 
lar work, he found a house in every circuit, to 
which he was appointed, ready furnished for the 
accommodation of himself and family ; but no 
sooner does he cease to fill the place, as an ef- 
fective man, but he quits his house, and leaves 
all the furniture, which is the property of the 
society, to his successor. 

" Thus, when his head is silvered by age, or 
his strength gone by affliction, he has to begin 
the world again. At that period of life, after 
long arrangements, the successful tradesman re- 
tires to reap the fruits of his industry. The 
worn-out servant of God, in the evening of life, 
has every thing to provide, and, in some cases, 
very little to provide with ; and white the minis- 
ter in the establishment, settled in his parish, 
can call in the aid of a curate when he is no 
longer able to do the duty of his station and j^et 
retain his living ; and the aged minister over a 
dissenting congregation, has his assistant while 
he continues to exercise the pastoral care over 
his flock ; the itinerant, worn out in the service 
of his blessed Master, is placed in circumstances 
directly opposite to these. 

" If I might be allowed to advocate the cause 
of such, I would say to the friends of itinerancy, 
look well to your aged ministers, particularly at 
the time they are quitting active .service ; make 
it your business to enquire into their circumstan- 
ces, that you maj'^ help them. Some of you can 
call to recollection that under the word of truth 
spoken by them, you were first convinced of sin ; 
that to them you made known your views and 
feelings ; that they directed you the way to God 
through Christ, and that when they were holding 
up the ability and willingness of Jesus to save 
sinners, you were encouraged to trust in Christ; 
and were .saved. Some of your dearest relatives 
have gone to glory, through their ministry. Have 
not these a claim on your bounty ? Forget them 
not in their old age." — Qwa/c .«' Wesley. 

[Painful Treatment of the Christian Ministry.] 

"The Christian Ministry is a troublosomo 

and a disgusted institution, and as little regarded 

by men as they regard their souls, but rather 



32 



SOUTH— WALTON. 



hatcil as much as they love their sins. The 
Church is evcrj' one's prey ; and the shepherds 
are pilled, and polled, and lleeced by none more 
tlian by their o\vn flocks. A prophet is sure to 
be without honour not only in his own country, 
but almost in every one else. I scarce ever 
knew an ecclesiastick but was treated with scorn 
and distance ; and the only peculiar respect I 
have observed shewn such persons in this nation 
(which yet I dare say they could willingly enough 
dispense with) is, that sometimes a clergpnan 
of an hundred pound a year has the honour to be 
taxed equal to a layman often thousand. Even 
those who pretend most respect to the Church 
and churchmen, will yet be found rather to ^lsc 
than to respect them ; and if at any time they do 
ought for them, or give any thing to them, it is 
not becau.se they are really lovers of the Church, 
but to serve some turn by being thought so. As 
some keep chaplains, not out of any concern for 
religion, but as it is a piece of grandeur some- 
thing above keeping a coach ; it looks creditable 
and great in the eyes of the world ; though in 
such cases he who serves at the Altar, has gen- 
erally as much contempt and disdain passed upon 
him, as he who serves in the kitchen, though 
perhaps not in the same way ; if any regard be 
had to him, it is commonly such an one as men 
have for a garment (or rather a pair of .shoes) 
which fits them, viz., to icear hira and wear hill), 
till he is worn out, and then to lay him aside. 
For be the grandee he depends upon never .so 
powerful, he must not expect that he will do any 
thing for him, till it is scandalous not to do it. 
If a first or second-rate living chance to fall in 
his gift, let not the poor domestick think, either 
learning, or piety, or long service a sufficient 
pretence to it ; but let him consider with him- 
self rather, whether he can answer that difficult 
question, ^Who was Mclchisedcck' s father ? Or 
whether instead of grace for grace he can bring 
gift for gift, for all other qualifications without 
it will be found empty and insignificant." — 
South, vol. 4, p. 136. 



[Unprepared Ministry under the Usurpatio7i.] 
" It is observed of the Levites, though much 
of their Ministry was only shoulder-work, that 
they had yet a very considerable time for prep- 
aration. They were con.seerated to it, by the 
Imposition of Hands at the age of five-and-twen- 
ty ; after which they employed five years in 
learning their office, and then at the thirtieth 
year of their age they began their Levhical Min- 
istration ; at which time also our Blessed Saviour 
began his Ministry. But now under the Gospel, 
when our work is ten times greater (as well as 
twice ten times more spiritual than theirs was), 
do we think to furnish ourselves in hal[the space ? 
There was lately a company of men called Try- 
ers, commissioned by Cromwell, to judge of the 
abilities of such as were to be admitted by them 
into the Ministry : Who (forsooth) if any of that 



1 A question very hardly solvable by a poor Clergyman, 
though nner so good a divine. 



Levitical age of thirty, presented himself to thera 
for their approbation, they commonly rejected 
him with scorn and disdain ; telling him, that if 
he had not been lukewarm, and good for nothing, 
he would have been disposed of in the Ministry 
long before ; and they would tell him also, that 
he was not only of a legal age, but of a legal 
spirit too ; and as for things legal (by which we 
poor mortals, and men of the letter, and not of 
the spirit, understand things done according to 
law) this they renounced, and pretended to bg 
many degrees above it ; for otherwise we may 
be sure, that their great master of misrule Oliver 
would never have commissioned thera to serve 
him in that post. And now what a kind of Min- 
istry (may we imagine) such would have stocked 
this poor Nation with, in the space of ten years 
more. But the truth is, for those, whose divini- 
ty was novelty, it ought to be no wonder, il' their 
divines were to be novices too ; and since they 
intended to make their preaching and praying 
an extemporary work, no wonder if they were 
contented also with an extemporary preparation."' 
— South's Sermons, vcl. 4, p. 63. 



Dr. Sanderson's Visitation and Assize Sermons. 
" Thourh they were much esteemed by them 
that procured and were fit to judge them, yet 
they were the less valued, because he read thera 
which he was forced to do ; for though he had an 
extraordinary memory (even the art of it), )'et he 
was punished with such an innate, invincible fear 
and bashfulness, that his memory was wholly 
useless, as to the repetition of his sermons, so as 
he had writ them ; which gave occasion to say, 
when some of them, which f.-ere first printed and 
exposed to censure (which was in the year 1632), 
That the best sermons that were ever read were 
never preached." — Izaak Walton's Life. 



[Notio7i of Jacob Bchmen that the Earth is to be- 
come transparent as Glass.^ 

" Not that I can believe that wonderful dis- 
covery of Jacob Behmen, which many so eagerly 
contend for. that the earth itself, with all its fur- 
niture and inhabitants, will then be transparent 
as glass. There does not seem to be the least 
foundation for this, either in Scripture or reason. 
Surely not in Scripture : I know not one text in 
the Old or New Testament, which affirms any 
such thing. Certainly it cannot be inferred from 
that text in the Revelation, chap, iv., v. 6, And 
before tfie throne there was a sea of glass, like 
unto crystal. And yet, if I mistake not, this is 
the chief if not the only scripture which has been 
urged in favour of this opinion ! Neither can I 
conceive that it has any foundation in reason. It 
has been warmly alledged that all things would 
be far more beautiful, if they were quite trans- 
parent. But I cannot apprehend this : yea, I ap- 
prehend quite the contrary. Suppose every part 
of a human body were made transparent as cr3-s- 
tal, would it appear more beautiful than it does 
now? Nay, rather, it woidd shock us above 



COLLIER— WESLEY. 



33 



measure. The surface of the body, in particu- 
lar. The human face divine is undoubtedly one 
of the most beautiful objects that can be found 
under heaven. But could you look through the 
rosy cheek, the smooth, fair forehead, or the ris- 
ing bosom, and distinctly see all that lies within, 
you would turn away from it with loathing and 
horror." — Quaere? Wesley, vol.9, p. 252. 



Respecting the King's Recovery. 
"One of the most remarkable answers to 
prayer that I ever was witness of, was at the time 
of his majesty's sore affliction, about fifteen years 
ago, when I was stationed in the Leeds circuit. 
As I well, knew how sincerely our late reverend 
father, Mr. Wesley, loved our gracious sovereign, 
I waited in earnest expectation that he would 
appoint a day of fasting and prayer on his behalf. 
As this was not done immediately, I appointed 
one myself, and we met together for prayer at 
nine o'clock in the morning, and again at twelve. 
At nine o'clock the Lord was graciously present 
with us, and we were blest with great enlarge- 
ment of heart in prayer. But at twelve in par- 
ticular, we had a very extraordinary time indeed. 
Such a divine influence evidently rested upon all 
present as it is not easy to describe ; such free- 
dom of mind, such enlargement of heart, such 
power to plead and to wrestle with God in prayer 
in behalf of the king, as I never was a witness 
of before or since. I believe I am as little gov- 
erned by impressions as any man living ; but I 
was powerfully constrained to believe, that from 
that ver)' time the king would recover. And it 
was with difficulty that I covdd refrain from tell- 
ing the people so. He did recover from that 
time. How many were praying for him with us, 
at the same time, is not for me to say. But 
when Mr. Wesley appointed a day for fasting and 
prayer, it was spent in thanksgiving for the king's 
recovery." — Qucere ? 



[Christian Names among the Puritans.] 
" Under the article of Baptism, the Book of 
Discipline runs thus : ' Let persuasions be used 
that such names that do savour either of Paganism 
or Popery be not given to children at their bap- 
tism, but principally those whereof there are ex- 
amples in the Scriptures.' 

" The Puritans were strict in keeping close to 
this rule, as may be collected from the odd names 
they gave their children : such as, the Lord is 
near, more tryall, reformation, discipline, joy 
again, sufficient, from above, free-gifts, more fruit, 
dust, &c. And here Snape was remarkably 
scrupulous ; for this minister refused to baptize 
one Christopher Hodkinson's child, because he 
would have it christened Richard. Snape ac- 
quainted Hodkinson with his opinion before-hand, 
he told him ho must change the name, and look 
out for one in the scripture. But the father not 
thinking this fancy would be so strongly insisted 
on, brought his son to church. Snape proceed- 
ed in the solemnity till he came to naming the 
C 



child ; but not being able to prevail for any other 
name than Richard, refused to administer the 
sacrament : and thus the child was carried away, 
and afterwards baptized by a conforming clergy- 
man." — Collier's Church History. 



[Account of Experiences.] 
" Four or five and forty years ago, when I 
had no distinct views of what the Apostle meant, 
by exhorting us to ' leave the principles of the 
doctrine of Christ, and go on to perfection ;' two 
or three persons in London, whom I knew to be 
truly sincere, desired to give me an account of their 
experience. It appeared exceedingly strange, 
being different from any that I had heard before : 
but exactly similar to the preceding account of 
entire sanctification. The next year, two or 
three more persons at Bristol, and two or three 
in Kingswood, coming to me severally, gave me 
exactly the same account of their experience. A 
few years after, I desired all those in London, 
who made the same profession, to come to me all 
together at the Foundery, that I might be thor- 
oughly satisfied. I desired that man of God, 
Thomas Walsh, to give us the meeting there. 
When we met, first one of us, and then the other, 
asked them the most searching questions we could 
devise. They answered every one without hesi- 
tation, and with the utmost simplicity ; so that 
we were fully persuaded they did not deceive 
themselves. In the years 1759, 1 760, 1 761 and 
1762, their numbers multiplied exceedingly, not 
only in London and Bristol, but in various parts 
of Ireland as well as England. Not trusting to 
the testimony of others, I carefully examined 
most of these myself: and in London alone, I 
found six hundred and fifty-two members of our 
society, who were exceedingly clear in their ex- 
perience, and of whose testimony I could see no 
reason to doubt. I believe no year has passed 
since that time, wherein God has not wrought 
the same work in many others ; but sometimes 
in one part of England or Ireland, sometimes in 
another, as ' the wind bloweth where it listeth :' 
and every one of these (after the most careful 
enquiry, I have not found one exception either 
in Great Britain or Ireland) has declared that 
his deliverance from sin was instantaneous, that 
the change was wrought in a moment. Had 
half of these, or one third, or one in twenty, de- 
clared it was gradually wrought in them, I should 
have believed this, with regard to them, and 
thought that some were gradually sanctified, and 
some instantaneously." — Qucerc '/ Wesley, vol. 
10, p. 58. 



[Pain of kneeling through Long Prayeis.] 
" There arc many weak and tender people, 
who cannot kneel long at one time ; and there 
are some preachers, &c., who spend more time, 
especially in their first prayer, than is propor- 
tionate to the other parts of the service. People 
who are weak or elderly, cannot long continue 
on their knees, which is not au easy posture | 



34 



ADAM CLARKE— SOUTH. 



and such knowing from past experience, that 
they are likely to have a long prayer, choose 
rather to stand all the time, as they know they 
could not continue to kneel so long, and would 
think it improper to rise up during the time of 
prayer. I shall beg leave to mention two instan- 
ces within my own knowledge. I said onoe to 
a pious couple whom I had known to be diligent 
in all the means of grace, ' Why do you not at- 
tend the puhh'e prayer-meeting, as you were ac- 
customed to do ?' ' We cannot without stand- 
ing during prayer, wliieh we think is unbecom- 
ing and would be a bad example : the prayers 
are so long, that we cannot kneel nil the time ; 
sometunes a verse of a hymn is given out while 
the people are on their knees, and two or three 
pray, we cannot kneel so long, and therefore are 
obliged to keep away.' In such a case I could 
only say, I shall endeavour to remedy this 
evil. 

" In the second instance, I was the chief suf- 
ferer ; at a public meeting a pious brother went 
to pray, I kneeled on the floor, having nothing 
to lean against or to support nic — he prayed 
forty-eight minutes — I was unwilling to rise, and 
several times was nigh fainting — what I suffered, 
I cannot describe. After the meeting was over, 
I ventured to expostulate with the good man, 
and in addition to the injury I sustained by his 
unmerciful prayer, I had the following reproof: 
' JNIy brother, if your mind had been more spirit- 
ual, you would not have felt the prayer too long.' 
More than twenty years have elapsed since this 
transaction took place, but the remembrance of 
what I then suffered still rests on my mind with 
a keen edge. The good man is still alive — will 
prohal)ly read this paper — will no doubt recol- 
lect the circumstance, and I hope will feel that 
he has since learned more prudence and more 
charity." — Adam Clarke. 



[Puritanical Preaching.'\ 

" First of all they seize upon some text, from 
whence they draw something (which they call a 
doctrine), and well may it be said to be drawn 
from the words ; forasmuch as it seldom natural- 
ly flow.s, or results from them. In the next place, 
being thus provided, they branch it into several 
heads, perhaps twenty, or thirty, or upwards. 
Whereupon, for the prosecution of these, they re- 
pair to some trusty concordance, which never 
fails them, and by the help of that, they range 
six or seven scriptures unilcr each head ; which 
scriptures they prosecute one by one, first am- 
plifying and enlarging upon one, for some con- 
siderable time, till they have spoiled it ; and then 
that being done, they pass to another, which in 
its turn suffers accordingly. And these imper- 
tinent and unpremeditated enlargements they 
look upon as the motions and breathings of the 
spirit, and therefore much beyond those carnal 
ordinances of sense and reason, supported by in- 
dustry and study ; and this they call a saving 
way of preacliing, as it must be confessed to be 



' away to save much labour, and nothing else thtit 
I know of But how men should thus come to 
make the salvation of an immortal soul such a 
slight, extempore business, I must profess I can- 
not understand ; and would gladly understand 
upon whose example they ground this way of 
preaching ; not upon that of the apostles I am 
sure. For it is said of St. Paul, in his sermon 
before Felix, that he reasoned of righteousness, 
temperance, and judgment to come. The words 
being in Acts, xxiv. v., 25, dia'Aeyofievn de avrS, 
and according to the natural force and import of 
them, sig-nifying, that he discoursed or reasoned 
dialectically, following one conclusion with an- 
other, and with the most close and pressing ar- 
guments from the most persuasive topics of rea- 
son and divinity. Whereupon we quickly find 
the prevalence of his preaching in a suitable ef- 
fect, that Felix trembled. Whereas had Paul 
only cast about his arms, spoke himself hoarse, 
and cried, you are damned, though Felix (as 
guilty as he was) might have given him the hear- 
ing, j'et possibly he might also have looked upon 
him as one whose passion had, at that tim.e, got 
the start of his judgment, and accordingly have 
given him the same coarse salute, which the 
same Paul afterwards so undeservedly met with 
from Festus ; but his zeal was too much under 
the conduct of his reason, to fly out at such a 
rate. But to pass from these indecencies to oth- 
ers, as little to be allowed in this sort of men : 
can any tolerable reason be given for those 
strange new postures used by some in the deliv- 
ery of the word ? Such as shutting the eyes, 
distorting the face, and speaking through the 
nose, which I think cannot so properly be called 
preaching, as toning of a sermon. Nor do I see, 
why the word may not be altogether as effectu- 
al for the conversion of souls, delivered by one 
who has the manners to look his auditory in the 
face ; using his own countenance and his own 
native voice, without straining it to a lamentable 
and doleful whine (never serving to any pur- 
pose, but where some religious cheat is to be 
carried on). That ancient, though seemingly 
odd saying, Loqucre ut te vidcam, in my poor judg- 
ment, carries in it a very notable instruction, and 
peculiarly applicable to the persons and matter 
here pointed at. For, supposing one to be a 
very able and excellent speaker, yet under the 
forementioncd circum.stanees, he must however 
needs be a very ill sight ; and the case of his 
poor suffering hearers very severe upon them, 
while both the matter uttered by him, shall grate 
hard upon the car, and the person uttering it, at 
the same time equally offend the eye. It is 
clear, therefore, that the men of this method 
have sullied the noble science of divinity, and 
can never warrant their practice, either from 
religion or reason, or tlie rules of decent and 
good behaviour, nor yet from the example of the 
apostles, and least of all from that of our Saviour 
himself For none surely will imagine that these, 
men's speaking, as never man spoke before, can 
pass for anv imitation of him." — South, vol. 4. 
p. 50. 



QU^RE? WESLEY. 



35 



[Falling-Fits common to all ^ges, under Relig- 
ious Excitement.] 

" This phenomenon of falling is common to 
all ages, sexes, and characters ; and when they 
fall they are differently exercised. Some pious 
people have fallen under a sense of ingratitude 
and hardness of heart ; and others under affect- 
ing manifestations of the love and goodness of 
God. Many thoughtless persons under convic- 
tions, have obtained comfort before they arose. 
But perhaps the most numerous class consists of 
those who fall under distressing views of their 
guilt, who arise with the same fearful appre- 
hensions, and continue in that state for some 
days, perhaps weeks, before they receive com- 
fort. I have conversed with many who fell un- 
der the influence of comfortable feelings, and 
the account they gave of their exercises while 
they lay entranced was very surprising. Their 
minds appeared wholly swallowed up in contem- 
plating the perfections of God, as illustrated in 
the plan of salvation, and whilst they lay appar- 
ently senseless, and almost lifeless, their mmds 
were more vigorous, and their memories more 
retentive and accurate than they had ever been 
before. I have heard men of respectability as- 
sert, that their manifestations of gospel trath 
were so clear, as to require some caution when 
they began to speak, lest they should use lan- 
guage which might induce their hearers to sup- 
pose they had seen those things with bodily eyes ; 
but at the same time, they had seen no image 
nor sensible representation, nor indeed any thing 
besides the old truths contained in the Bible. 

" Among those whose minds were filled with 
most delightful communications of divine love, I 
but seldom observed any thing ecstatic. Their 
expressions were just and rational, they convers- 
ed with calmness and composure, and on their 
first recovering the use of speech, they appeared 
like persons recovering from a violent disease 
which had left them on the borders of the grave. 
I have sometimes been present when persons who 
fell under the influence of convictions, obtained 
relief before they arose; in these eases, it was im- 
possible not to observe how strongly the change 
in their minds was depicted in their counte- 
nances ; instead of a face of horror and despair, 
they assumed one, open, luminous, serene, and 
expressive of all the comfortable feelings of re- 
ligion. As to those who fall down under convic- 
tions and continue in that state, they are not dif- 
ferent from those who receive convictions in other 
revivals, excepting that their distress is more se- 
vere. Indeed extraordinary power is the leading 
characteristic of this revival, both saints and sin- 
ners have more striking discoveries of the real- 
ities of another world than I have ever known on 
any other occasion." — Qucere ? Wesley. 



[Lengthy Preaching and Love Feast.] 
1806. "As the Caernarvon quarterly meet- 
ing was to be held in that town, and as our friends 
were persuaded that neither the old building we 



have to preach in, nor any other place that we 
could procure, would contain the people that 
would assemble on the occasion, therefore, al- 
though the season of the year was so unfavour- 
able, it being the twenty-first of January, they 
built a stage for the preachers to stand on and 
preach in the middle of the town. When the 
appointed time came, all that could not be ac- 
commodated in the neighbouring windows, which 
it was judged were about two thousand, endured 
the inclemency of the weather for seven hours to 
hear the word of life, and that with the greatest 
composure of mind ! Brother Parry and brother 
Williams, preached from ten till twelve o'clock, 
brother Davies and brother Jones, sen., from two 
till four. It was published for me and brother 
Jones, of Welsh Pool Circuit, to preach at six, in 
the preaching room ; but a little before the time, 
our friends informed us the attempt would be 
dangerous in the extreme : that the place would 
not hold one fourth part of the people that would 
strive to get in : and that it would be the most 
prudent way to continue our meeting in the open 
air. As soon as we had acceded to the proposal, 
the stage and neighbouring windows were well 
illuminated, and, as if the heavens approved of the 
steps we were taking, the clouds withheld their 
showers, and the winds became so calm as not 
to extinguish a single light, or incommode in any 
respect the assembled multitude, which was great- 
er than had been collected through the coux-se of 
the day ; for the coimtry people had not returned 
home, and the novelty of the thing had brought 
most of the inhabitants of the town together. 
There were twelve preachers on the stage, and 
about two thousand people before ns ! The dark- 
ness of the sky, and the stillness of the evening, 
the hghts interspersed, together with so many 
faces lifted up towards us, eagerly catching the 
word as it dropped from our lips, made the scene 
truly affecting, and awfully grand ; insomuch that 
to me it was one of the most pleasing sights iny 
eyes ever beheld ! Our meeting continued from 
six till nine o'clock, when about three hundred, 
from difTerent societies, retired to our room, and 
held a Love Feast for about two hours." — Quceie ? 



[Convulsive Faintings at Prayer.] 
" With respect to the largeness of the assem- 
blies, it is generally supposed that at many places 
there were not fewer than eight, ten or twelve 
thousand people : — at a place called Cane Ridge 
Meeting-house, many are of opinion there were 
at least twenty thousand ; there were one hundred 
and forty wagons which came loaded with people, 
besides other wheel carriages. Some persons had 
come two hundred miles. The largeness of these 
assemblies wa"s an inconvenience; — thoy were 
so numerous to be addressed by one speaker, it 
therefore became necessary for several ministers 
to ofiiciale at the same time at dilFcrent stands : 
this afforded an opportunity to those who were 
but slightly hnpressed with religion, to wander to 
and fro between the different places of worship, 
which created an appearance of confusion, and 



36 



ACTA SANCTORUM— FULLER— WHITAKER— SOUTH. 



gave irronnd to such as were unfriendly to the 
■work to char<Te it with disorder. Another cause 
also condnced to the same effect : Ahout this time 
the people be^an to fall down in great numbers, 
nndcr serious impressions : this was a new thing 
among Presbyterians : it excited universal aston- 
ishment, and created a curiosity which could not 
be restrained when people fell even during the 
most solemn parts of divine service. Those who 
stood near were so extremely anxious to see how 
thev were aflected that they often crowded about 
them so as to disturb the worship. But these 
causes of disorder were soon removed ; different 
sacraments were appointed on the same sabbath, 
which divided the people, and the falling down 
became so familiar as to excite no distui'bance." 
— Queer e ? 



[Sheep and Goats — What?] 
TuE blessed Jordan (to give him his Catholic 
title), who was the second general of the Domini- 
cans, made an odd use of this often used simili- 
tude in a speech to the friars of his order : '"Mihi 
et veris Prcelatis accidit, sicut pastori, qui magis 
gravatur custodia uniushirci quam centum ovium : 
sic 7nagis umcs in$olcns gravat Prcelatum et tur- 
bat conventum. quam alii Fratres duccnti, qui si- 
cut oves Domini Pastorcm seqtmntur, et sibilum 
ejus intelligunt, nee socios relinquunt, scd simul 
vadunt, stant, accubant, comedunt, bibimt. capite 
incliiiato lierbas colligunt in omnibus fructuosc, in 
pai'.cis teediosc. Scd aliqtii, ut hirci turbantes pas- 
torcm et gregcm, discurrimt, perstreptmt, in socios 
capita impingunt, ad alia saliunt, viam non tenent, 
sata aliorum ladunt, ncc virga nee pastoris da- 
more cohibentur, et ad ultimum, brcvcm caudam, 
id est, curiam patientiam habent, et ideo quando- 
qtie fada sua ostendunt. Pro Deo, carissimi, fu- 
gite hujusmodi mores hircinos, et estate ut oves 
Dei.'' — Acta Sanctorum, 13th Feb., p. 733. 



seaman nevertheless steers his ship right in the 
darkest night. Yea, the soldier at the same time, 
may shoot out his prayer to God, and aim his 
pistol at his enemy, the one better hitting the 
mark for the other." — Fuller's Good Thoughts. 



[Ejaadations.'\ 
"Ejaculations are short prayers darted up 
to God on emergent occasions. — The principal 
use of ejaculations is against the fiery darts of 
the Devil. Our adversary injects (how he doth 
it God knows, that he doth it we know) bad mo- 
tions into our hearts ; and that we may be as nim- 
ble ■with our antidotes, as he with poisons, such 
short prayers are proper and necessary. In hard 
havens so ehoaked up with the envious sands, that 
great ships drawing many feet of water cannot 
come near, lighter and lesser pennaces may free- 
ly and safely arrive. When we are time-bound, 
place-bound, or person-bound, so that we cannot 
compose ourselves to make a large solemn prayer, 
this is the right instant for ejaculations, whether 
orally utterred or only poured forth in^vs^ardly in 
the heart. 

'•Ejaculations take not up any room in the 
soul. They give liberty of callings, so that at 
the same instant one may follow his proper vo- 
cation. The husbandman may dart forth an ejac- 
ulation, and not make a balk the more. The 



[Support of the Clergy.'] 
"If it be allowed," says Dr. Whitaker (of 
WTialley, not of Manchester), "that this mode of 
pro\-iding for the Christian Priesthood is, strictly 
speaking, of divine institution, such a concession 
will supersede all reasoning, even in favour of 
the appointment. But waWng for the present a 
point which I mean not either to affirm or deny, 
I would ask, whether at the foundation of par- 
ishes, and for many centm-ies after, it were pos- 
sible to devise a method of supporting an incum- 
bent equally ■wise and proper, -with that of a 
manse, glebe and tithes. The pastor was not to 
be a vagrant among hLs flock ; an house, there- 
fore, was to be provided for him. He w^anted the 
common necessaries of life (for it was held at 
that time that even spiritual men must eat and 
drink), and money there was none to purchase 
them ; a moderate allotment, therefore, of land 
w^as also required. But the gro-^nh of grain, a 
process which demands much care and attention, 
would have converted the incumbent, as it has 
been well and frequently urged of late, into an 
illiterate farmer. It was proper, therefore, that 
the glebe should be restricted within such limits 
as would suffice for the production of milk, but- 
ter, cheese, animal food, and such other articles 
as require little labour, while the bread-corn and 
other grain of the minister should be supplied 
by the industrj' of his parishioners. And if the 
minister fed the people, as it was his office to 
do, with ' the bread that endureth,' there was an 
harmony as well as equity, in requiring that they 
should feed him in return ■with that ' which per- 
isheth.' But this primitive and pleasing recipro- 
cation of good offices too quickly ceased to be 
universal ; and the common corraption of our 
nature will supersede the necessity of enquiring, 
whether the evil began with a subtraction of 
tithes or teaching. The declension would be mu- 
tual ; and law, not love, wonld soon become the 
measure both of the one payment and the other." 
— History of Craven, p. 6. 



[Disrespectful Treatment of the Clergy in En- 
gland.] 
" Upon the whole matter, if we consider the 
treatment of the clergy in these nations, since 
Popery was driven out, both as to the language 
and usage which they find from roost about them ; 
I do, from all that I have read, heard, or seen, 
confidently aver (and I wish I could speak it 
loud enough to reach all the corners, and quar- 
ters of the whole world) that there is no nation 
or people under heaven. Christian or not Chris- 
tian, which despise, hate, and trample upon their 
clergy or priesthood comparably to the English. 
So that (as matters have been carried) it is really 



SOUTH— BERNINO. 



no small argument of the predominance of con- 
scienee over interest, that there are yet parents 
who can be willing to breed up any of their sons 
(if hopefully endowed) to so discouraged and dis- 
couraging a profession." — Soutu's Scrtnons, vol. 
5; p. 420. 



[Difference of Ministrations.] 
" There are others of a melancholy, reserved, 
and severe temper, who think much and speak lit- 
tle ; and these are the fittest to serve the Church 
in the pensive, afflictive parts of religion ; in the 
austerities of repentance and mortification, in a 
retirement from the world, and a settled compo- 
sure of their thoughts to self-reflection and med- 
itation. And such also are the ablest to deal 
with troubled and distressed consciences, to meet 
with their doubts, and to answer their objections, 
and to ransack every corner of their shifting and 
fallacious hearts, and in a word, to lay before 
them the true state of their souls, having so fre- 
quently descended into, and took a strict account 
of their own. And this is so great a work, that 
there are not many whose minds and tempers are 
capable of it, who yet may be serviceable enough 
to the Church in other things. And it is the 
same thoughtful and reserved temper of spirit, 
which must enable others to serve the Church 
in the hard and controversial parts of religion. 
Which sort of men, (though they should never rub 
men^s itching ears from the pulpit) the Church 
can no more be without, than a garrison can be 
without soldiers, or a city without walls ; or than 
a man can defend hunself with his tongue, when 
his enemy comes against him with his sword. 
And therefore, great pity it is, that such as God 
has eminently and peculiarly furnished, and (as 
it were) cut out for this service, should be cast 
upon, and compelled, to the popular, speaking, 
noisy part of divinity ; it being all one, as if, when 
a town is besieged, the governor of it should call 
off a valiant and expert soldier from the walls, to 
sing him a song or play him a lesson upon the 
violin at a banquet, and then turn him out of 
town, because he could not sing and play as well 
as he could fight. And yet as ridiculous as this 
is, it is but too like the irrational and absurd hu- 
mour of the present age ; which thinks all sense 
and worth confined wholly to the pulpit. And 
many excellent persons, because they cannot 
make a noise with chapter and verse and harangue 
it twice a day to factitiQus tradesmen and ignorant 
old ivomen, wee esteemed of as nothing and scarce 
thought worthy to eat the Church's bread." — 
SouTu's Sermons, vol. 3, p. 429. 



[Christians looking to the Sun-rising.] 
" The Primitive Christians used to assemble 
on the steps of the Basilica of St. Peter, to see 
the first rays of the rising sun, and kneel, curva- 
tis cervicibus in honorcm spcndidi Or6iS." — S. 
Leo. Serm. 7, de Nativit. 

The practice was prohibited as savouring of, 
or leading to Gentilism. — Berniko, vol. 1, p. 45. 



[God's Witness of Himself.] 
" I n.vvE been ever prone to take this for a 
principle, and a very safe one too, viz. : That 
there is no opinion really good (I mean good in 
the natural, beneficent consequences thereof) 
which can be false. And accordinglj^, when re- 
ligion, even natural, tells us, that there is a God, 
and that he is a re warder of every man accord- 
ing to his works ; that he is a most wise Govern- 
or, and a most jus^ and impartial Judge, and for 
that reason has appointed a future estate, where- 
in every man shall receive a retribution suitable 
to what he had done in his life time. And more- 
over, when the Christian religion farther assures 
us, that Christ has satisfied God's justice for sin, 
and purchased eternal redemption and salvation, 
for even the greatest sinners, who shall repeat 
of, and turn from their sins ; and withall, has 
given such excellent laws to the world, that if 
men perform them, they shall not fail to reap an 
eternal reward of happiness, as the fruit and ef- 
fect of the fore-mentioned satisfaction ; as on the 
other side, that if they live viciously, and die im- 
penitent, they shall inevitably be disposed of into 
a condition of eternal and insupportable misery. 
These, I sav, are some of the principal things, 
which religion, both natural and Christian, pro- 
poses to mankind. 

"And now, before we come to acknowledge 
the truth of them, let us seriously, and in good 
earnest examine them, and consider how good, 
how expedient, and how suitably to all the ends 
and uses of humane life it is, that there should 
be such things ; how unable society would be 
to subsist \\'ithout them ; how the whole world 
would sink into another chaos and confusion, 
did not the awe and belief of these things (or 
something like them) regulate and control the 
exorbitances of men's headstrong and unruly 
wills. Upon a thorough consideration of all 
which, I am confident, that there is no truly 
vvise and thinking person, who (could he sup- 
pose that the fore-cited dictates of religion should 
not prove really true) would not however wish 
at least that they were so. For allowing (what 
experience too sadly demonstrates) that an uni- 
versal guilt has passed upon all mankind through 
sin ; and supposing withall that there were no 
hopes, or terras of pardon held forth to sinners, 
would not an universal despair follow an univers- 
al guilt? And would not such a despair drive 
the worship of God out of the world ? For cer- 
tain it is, that none would pray to him, serve or 
worship him, and much less sufler for him, who 
despaired to receive any good from hiin. And 
on the other side, could sinners have any solid 
ground to hoj)c for pardon of sin, witiiout an 
antecedent satisfaction made to the Divine Jus- 
tice so infinitely wronged by sin? Or could the 
honour of that great Attribute be preserved 
without such a compensation? And yet farther, 
could all ihd wit and reason of nuin conceive, 
how such a satisfaction could be made, had not 
religion revealed to us a Saviour, who was both 
God and Man, and upon that account only fitted 



38 



JEREMY TAYLOR— SOUTH— HUNTINGTON. 



and enabled to make it? And after all could the 
benefits of this satisfaction be attainable by any, 
but upon the conditions of repentance, and chanj^e 
of life, would not all piety and holy living be 
thereby banished from the societies of men? So 
that we see from hence, that it is religion alone 
which opposes itself to all the dire consecjuences, 
and (like the angel appointed to guard Para- 
dise with a flaming sword) stands in the breach 
against all that despair, violence, and impiety, 
which would otherwise iiTcsistibly break in upon, 
and infest mankind in all their concerns, civil 
and spiritual. 

"And this one coasideration (were there no 
farther argim:ients for it, cither from faith or 
philosophy) is to me an irrefragable proof of the 
truth of the doctrines delivered by it. For, that 
a falsehood (which as such, is the defect, the 
reproach, and the ver)' deformity of nature) 
should have such generous, such wholesome, 
and sovereign effects, as to keep the whole 
world in order, and that a hjc should be the 
great bond or ligament which holds all the so- 
cieties of mankind together ; keeping them from 
cutting throats, and tearing one another in pieces, 
as (if religion be not a truth, all these salutarj-, 
pubHck benefits must be ascribed to tricks and 
Iks) would be such an as.sertion, as. upon all the 
solid grounds of sense and reason (to go no far- 
ther), ought to he looked upon as unmeasurably 
absu'd and unnatural." — Soutu's Sermons, vol. 
4, p. 406. 



[Meditation.] 
"I\ meditation, .strive rather for graces than 
for gifts, for affections in the way of virtue more 
than the overflowings of sensible devotion ; and, 
therefore, if thou findest any thing, by which 
thou mayest be better, though thy spirit do not 
actually rejoice, or find any gust or relish in 
the manducation, yet choose it greedil}'. For 
although the chief end of meditation be affec- 
tion, and not determinations intellectual ; vet 
there is choice to be had of the affections; and 
care must be taken, that the affections be desires 
of virtue, or repudiations and aversions from 
something criminal ; not joys and transportations 
spiritual, comforts, and complacencies; for they 
are not part of our duty : sometimes they are 
encouragements, and .sometimes rewards ; some- 
times they depend upon habitude and disposition 
of body, and seem great matters, when they 
have little in them; and are more bodii}' than 
spiritual, like the gift of tears, and yearning of 
the bowels; and sometimes they are illusions 
and temptations, at which if the soul stoops and 
be greedy after, they may prove like Hippome- 
nes' golden apples to Atalanta, retard our course 
and possibly do- some hazard to the whole race." 
^Jeremy Taylor, vol. 1, p. 114. 



and wild opinions, which have so disturbed the 
peace, and bid fail- to destroy the religion of the 
nation. For the consciences of men have been 
filled with wind and noise, empty notions and 
pulpit tattle. So that amongst the most seraph- 
ieal illuminati, and the highest puritan perfec- 
tionists, you shall find people, of fifty, three- 
score, and fourscore years old, not able to give 
that account of their faith, which you might have 
had heretofore from a boy of nine or ten. Thus 
far had the pulpit (by accident) disordered the 
church, and the desk must restore it. For you 
know the main business of the pulpit in the late 
times (which we are not thoroughly recovered 
from yet, and perhaps never shall) was to please 
and pamper a proud, senseless humour, or rath- 
er a kind of spiritual itch, which had then seiz- 
ed the greatest part of the nation, and worked 
chiefly about their ears ; and none were so over- 
ran with it, as the holy sisterhood, the daughters 
of'Sion, and the matrons of the new Jerusalem 
(as they called themselves). These brought 
with them ignorance and itching ears in abund- 
ance ; and holderforth equalled them in one, and 
gratified them in the other. So that whatsoever 
the doctrine was, the application still ran on the 
surest side: for to give those doctrine and use- 
men, those piilpit-cngineers their due, they un- 
derstood how to plant their batteries and to 
make their attacks perfectly well ; and knew 
that by pleasing the wife, they should not fail 
to preach the husband in their pocket. And 
therefore, to prevent the success of such pions 
frauds for the future, let children be tvcll-prin- 
cipled, and in order to that let them be carefully 
catechised.'^ — South's Sermoyis, vol. 5, p. 31. 



[Evil Results of Want of Catechising.] 
" It is want of catechising which has been 
the true cause of those numerous sects, schisms, 



[Sti-atagems of Satan.] 
"I HAVE known the time," says the S. S. 
William Huntington, "when I was enframed in 
the same fight, that as fast as I shifted my ground, 
the Devil shifted his-. When I had made a thing 
clear by the Word of God, he attacked the Word 
also, and told me that the Scriptures were a de- 
vice of his to puzzle, bafllc and confound mankind. 
When I flew to the divine Being, he told me, as 
the fool sa3's in the Psalms, ' There is no God.' 
When I fled to the works of creation and asked 
who made these things ? he told me plainly that 
he did. When I asked who made me? he answers 
in the affirmative, that he did. When I asked why 
men worshipped God? he told me he received 
worship and 1 must pray to him, for there was 
no other to pray to ; — thus was my mind followed, 
harassed, confused and confounded ; but not one 
of these lies could fasten on my conscience, 
though I was dumb, and without an answer." — 
Gleanings of the Vintage, part 1, p. 38. 



[Effects of the Predestinarian Doctrine.] 

There is a curious passage in the works of 

William Huntington, S.S., more illu.strative of 

the effects of the Predestinarian doctrines than 

that Arch-Calvinist would have liked to allow. 



SCOTT— STRYPE. 



39 



It occurs in his second operation vipon Timothy 
Priestley (vol. x., p. 248). " I could at this imie," 
be says, "bring two persons to friend Timothy, 
who are so willing to be delivered from sin, and 
with the mind to serve the law of God, that I 
verily believe they would part with the whole 
world if they had it, pluck out their own eyes 
and give them to Timothy, and suffer every 
bone in their bodies to be broken on the wheel, 
for one beam of hope, much more to be per- 
suaded that the good hand of God is with them. 
And I add that all the above bodily sufferings 
would be but a flee-bite to what they daily feel 
in their minds : and they are not driven into this 
willingness to be saved by what Timothy calls 
an accidental frame, for they have been thus 
willing for years. One of them has lain at the 
pool above thirty years : it came on the person 
when a child. They have puzzled and wearied 
all the divuies that they have hitherto consulted ; 
and for my part I should like to see Timothy 
try the validity of this evidence of his upon 
them. But alas, they find it is not of him that 
willeth, nor oi" him that runneth: but of God, 
who will have mercy on whom he will have 
mercy. The grand question with them is, not 
whether they will be saved? this they could 
answer without hesitation : but it is, whether 
they may be saved, or whether God %oill save 
them? Let them be persuaded of this, and the 
work is done." 



[ Unfounded Charge of the Bishops' hindering of 
the Printing of Good Books.^ 

In a Dialogue upon the causes of our civil 
wars under Charles the First, translated from 
the Dutch, it is said of the bishops, " they have 
to their power forbidden the printing of all good 
books, and contrarily, sufl'ered to be printed all 
arniinianish, papish, vain books of Amadis de 
Gaul, and of comedies to 40,000 in a year." — 
Scott's Edition of the Somers' Tracts, vol. 5, 
p. 17. 



[Be:a''s Rejection of all profane Stiulics for 
Christ.] 
" Ii enini in causa sunt, ii mukiplicibus tan- 
dem eflecerunt precibus, ut opus hoc ab ipso 
auctore in hac summa senecta, in tantis occupa- 
tionibus sit coUectum et reeognitum. Sed re- 
censendae sunt causa?, quibus hoc ut faceret, 
passus sibi est ab amicis persuaderi. Intellexit 
enim et pro certo compertum habuit. Juvenilia 
ista sua poemata ab Adversariis non tam in sui, 
quam in Dei ipsius odium, sul>indc recudi, ct 
hoc non tantum, sed ct multo indigniora effingi 
ac addi. Quic sane audacia, vol inrpietas potiiis, 
detestanda est et intolerabilis. Scripsit ista D. 
Beza, liberius quidem sed juvcnis admodum, ct 
adhortante viro optimo doctissimoque Meliore 
Volmario preceptore suo, edidit, incitatus insu- 
per exemplis, tam rccentiorum, quam veterum. 
Sed quam primum Christi cognitione fuisset im- 
butus, et veras Ecclesise civis factus esset, nemo 



ista prius, nemo severius, et quidem publice, 
quam ipse D. Beza damnavit ; ac ab eo tempore 
omnia sua dicta et .scripta in solius Redemptoris 
sui laudem direxit." — Ded. Preface to the Ge- 
neva Edition of Beza^s Poemata Varia (1597), 

by ViNCESLAUS MoRKOVVSKY DE ZaRTRISELL. 

Inserted in Sir Egerton Brydges' Polyanthea. 
Librorum Vetustiorum, p. 337. 



[Bczah Rejection of Poetry.] 
" PoETAs (quos naturae quodam impulsu ama- 
bat) non legit tantum, sed imitari studuit ; unde 
ab eo intra annum vicesimum scripta sunt fere 
omnia poemata ilia, qua; praeccptori illi suo in- 
scripsit. In quibus non mores, sed styloin Ca- 
tulli et Nasonis, ad imitandura sibi proponens, 
epigrammata qusedum licentiosius, quam postea 
voluisset, scripta efludit. Ilia enim ipsemet paulo 
post, omnium prunus damnavit ac detestatus est. 
Ac sane vivunt contrario librorum omnium genio. 
Nam quum advcrsariorum scriptis helium indi- 
cere advorsarii soleant, eaque abolere omni co- 
natu studeant, miseris cpigrammatis illis proro- 
gat lueem pervicax et inextinguibilis concepti 
adversus ipsorum parentem odii flamma; quae- 
que Beza seternum abolita et extincta optavit, 
illi ex pulvere excitant, et repetitis hoc etiam 
tempore editionibus crebris, maligne eadem in 
conspectum hominum proferunt ac reponunt. 
Quid vero KaKo^Oeia iUa sua consequuntur ? Ni- 
hil aliud, sane, quam quod se Dei, bonorumque 
omnium, dignos odio ; Bezam autem omni illorum 
benevolentia, amore, et tolerantia dignissimus 
ostendunt, qui quidem juvenilis Musae ad Deum 
celebrandum in melius conversione et seria com- 
mutatione, Angclos^ in coelo exhilarevit." — Fayi 
in Vila et Op. Bezee, p. 8, 10. Given in Sir 
Egerton Brydges' Polyanthea, p. 431. 



[Hoiu to distingtcish a True Preacher and a False.] 

" Will you know how to discover a true 
preacher from a false?" said one who seems to 
have been of the latter description himself, in 
Henry the Eighth's days, " You have a dog, 
which is your conscience. Whensoever you .shall 
come to any sermon, ask your dog what he saith 
unto it ? If he say it be good, then follow it : but 
if j'our dog bark against it and say it is naught, 
then beware and folluw it not." — Strype's Mem. 
of Cranmcr, p. 106. 



[ Why the Bahylonical Building should decay.] 

" God forbid that the trial of true religion 
should be either upon our upright conversation 
or theirs, lest if it lay in man's j)erfection, both 
the Jew and the Turk might cither of them 
sooner boast of it than either of us. The wisdom 
of God hath not so builded his church upon sand. 
If it were founded upon the works of man, then 
should his church never stand, neither by them 
nor by us. Wo are but feeble and windshaken 



» Luc, XV. 10. 



40 



STUDLEY— BALE— POWEL. 



pillars, unable to underprop and bear such a 
weif^ht ; and therefore, howsoever they build 
their ehurch, we build not ours on ourselves, but 
we build both it and ourselves upon that unmove- 
able roek, Jesus Christ; and therefore, howso- 
ever the wind and the weather do shake us and 
overthrow us throuiih our own weakness, yet 
our foundation abideth sure, and doth neither fall 
nor flit away, but abideth so for ever, that we 
ma}- be still raised and set up on the same again. 
Deceitful therefore is their dealing who to with- 
draw nn;n from our church do unjustly say that 
when we fall, our foundation falleth also : but 
most justly may we assure men, that their Bab- 
ylonical buildintr must needs come to decay, 
being founded on the sand of Tiber banks, which 
is daily washed and eaten away. How can that 
foundation stand which is made of earth and clay, 
dust and ashes, of flesh, blood and bones ; of 
popes' mitres, cardinals' hat*, monks' hoods, 
friars' cowls, nuns' veils, shaven crowns, pates, 
beads, tapers and crosses, anointings and greas- 
ings, blessings, kissings, images of metal, wood, 
gla-ss and stone, holy oil, holy cream, albs, vest- 
ments, palls, copes, rotchets, sm-plices, tippets, 
coifs, chrisms, mantel and the ring, sensings, 
pilgrimages, offerings, creeping to crosses, Win- 
ifred's needle, the blood of Hales, fasting day, 
holydays, ember days, croziers, polaxes, dirges, 
exorcisms, conjurings, masses, trentals, holy wa- 
ter, Purgatory, saints' relics, St. Francis's breech- 
es, limbo patrum, S. John Shorns (sic) boots, the 
rood of Chester, our Lady of Walsingham, rotten 
bones, shrines, and a thousand such apish toyes, 
which daily (as they themselves perceive) do 
putrefy, rot, and consume to nothing." — John 
Studley's Epis. to the Reader, jnefixcd to his 
translation of Bale's Pageant of Popes, 1574. 



and that monks, laymen and nuns, disagreeing 
both in life and sect, should dwell together, like 
a spiritual and Christian congregation, using one 
order, one cloister, and like ceremonies. Is it 
not wonderful that so many stout enemies hang- 
ing over them, and looking still to devour them, 
as Satan and the Pope, their most bitter ene- 
mies, they should not only be safe, but also live 
so long time in quietness ? Thanks be therefore 
unto God, because he hath appointed the pastor 
of his scattered and dispersed flock, the captain 
of the banished, to be the chief of the miserable 
people, with w'hose counsel, government and wis- 
dom, so great a congregation of people, being 
not only diverse, but contrary one to another, 
hath been nourished together under one band of 
love, so that now nothing is more loving than 
those enemies, nothing more like than their un- 
likeness, nothing more happy than these miser- 
able men." 



[jlll One in Christ.] 
Bale, in the Epistle Dedieatoiy to his Pa- 
geant of Popes, says of Geneva, " I greatly mar- 
vel at the notable Providence of our God, which 
.so stirred up the minds of the citizens and mag- 
istrates, that they were not afraid to receive 
so many thousand strangers into the suburbs of 
our city : again, did so turn the hearts of the 
strangers, that although they were more in num- 
ber and the superiors, yet would submit them- 
selves under their power, as though they were the 
inferiors, insomuch that they did not acknowl- 
edge themselves to be lords and citizens, but pri- 
vate men and strangers. Let other men feign 
other miracles, but Geneva seemeth to me to be 
the wonderful miracle of the whole world : so 
many from all countries come thither, as it were 
unto a sanctuary, not to gather riches, but to 
live in poverty : not to be satisfied, but to be 
hungry : not to live pleasantly, but to live mis- 
erably : not to save their goods, but to lose them. 
Is it not wonderful that Spaniards, Italians, Scots, 
Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, tUsagreeing 
in manners, speech and apparel, .sheep and wolves, 
bulls and bears, being coupled with the only yoke 
of Chri.st, should live so lovingly and friendly; 



[Impropriations of the Children of Babylon.] 
''We see and feel to our great grief that our 
ministry in many, yea in most places, is unpro- 
vided. — This specially ariseth of the spoil which 
the children of Babylon in times past have made 
by impropriating and annexing the living of so 
many particular churches to the maintenance of 
their cloisters, abbeys and dignities by their anti- 
Christian dispensations. Whereby they have left 
the ministry so marvellously unprovided and so 
beggarly, as that in some places there are to be 
found many parishes together, whereof all the 
livings that now remain to them are not sufficient 
for the competent maintenance of one man and his 
family. Which lamentable estate of our chm-ch 
deterreth many from undertaking that holj' and 
honourable function, who, having sufficient gifts, 
seeing the ministry opprest M-ith beggary, and 
subject to other discredit and uiconvenience aris- 
ing thereof, bestow themselves in some other law- 
ful calling, wherein the)"^ may be able to live in 
wealth and credit. By which means the unsuf- 
ficient and unlearned ministrv' seized upon the 
possessions of the church, to the infinite hinder- 
ance of the Gospel, to the increase and strength- 
ening of Poperv. Alas, alas, that the poor parish, 
according unto God's ordinance, giveth a tithe of 
all they have, to have a man of God amongst 
them, who may teach them the right way to 
serve and honour the Lord, and to save their 
souls; — alas, I say, that this tithe should be taken 
away, and still retained by the greedy Nabals 
and hold-fast Labans of the world, and applied 
to profane uses, leaving the poor spoiled ot' their 
goods, and the w-hole parish unfurnished of one 
who should be their guide to everlasting life." — 
The Auctors Tears and humble Petition unla 
Almighty God, anne.ved to Gabriel Powel'.i 
Consideration of the Papists^ Reasons for Tolcr 
ation in England. 1604. 



[Encroachments of the Puritans.] 
" The Pmitan, as he increaseth daily above 



MAXIMILIAN MISSON— HOARE. 



41 



the Protestant in number, so is he of a more pre- 
suming, imperious, and hotter disposition and 
zeal, ever strongly burning in desire to reduce 
all things to tlie form of his own idea or imag- 
ination conceived : and therefore by discourse of 
reason not unlike (the enterprise being to be par- 
alleled by many examples) to attempt the over- 
throw of the Protestant, and bring the kingdom, 
especially the ecclesiastical state, to a parity, 
or popular form of government, if the Catholic 
(perclaance the powerablest let thereof) were 
once extinguished; and to extiiiguish him, no 
mean more potent than to forbid and punish the 
exercise of his religion. And what confusion, 
havock, and effusion of blood such an attempt 
would work in the commonweal, it is easy to 
conjecture, wliiles the Puritan with his com- 
plices, and such as thirst (an infinite number) to 
have matters in scufiluig, to impugne on the one 
side, and the bishops, deans, canons, and the 
greatest possessors of spiritual livings, with all 
those that do adhere to them, defend on the other 
side, and either party stiffly and violently perse- 
cuting other, as is the custom in such commo- 
tions, without regard of God or country." — 
Supplication to the King^s most excellent Majesty. 
1604. 



James II. 



It is said by Maximilian Misson, the trav- 
eller, that " James II. was not installed in the 
Royalty on his coronation day, after the manner 
of his Protestant predecessors. The delicacy of 
his conscience, and the designs he had then in 
view, obliged him to change the form of the cer- 
emonies ; so that his Majesty neither received the 
communion, nor took the usual oaths and engage- 
ment." Soon after the coronation, an exact his- 
tory or account of that ceremony was printed 
and distributed to many persons of rank by the 
King's special order, and Misson says he had 
these particulars from that authentic book, which 
he believes never was sold. " Every one," he 
adds, "sees the divers consequences of this mat- 
ter of fact, and especially how some misinformed 
writers have inconsiderately insinuated that this 
prince, who acted sincerely according to liis re- 
ligious principles, had violated his solemn prom- 
ise." — Preface to the fourth edition, p. xxiii. 

This same writer gives us a poem upon the 
expected birth of the Pretender, which, extra- 
ordinary as it Ls, those pers-ons who are at all 
conversant with Catholic devotional poetry will 
have no hesitation in believing genuine. In Feb- 
ruary, 1688, an English Jesuit at Loretto shewed 
him an angel of gold, holding a heart bigger than 
an egg, which was covered with diamonds of 
great value. This costly offering, which was 
the last present the Idol of the temple had re- 
ceived, came from the queen of England. " This 
reverend father informed mc also," says Misson, 
addressing his correspondent, " of a great piece 
of news, of which you ought, in my opinion, to 
have siven us some advice. He assured us that 



that Princess was big with child, and added that 
undoubtedly it was by a miracle : since they had 
calculated that the very moment in which the 
l)resent entered, was the happy minute in which 
she conceived. He made the following verses 
upon this subject, and would needs give me a 
copy of 'em. He introduces the angel speaking 
to our Lady, and our Lady answering :" — 

ANGELUS. 

Salve, Virgo potens! En supplex Angelus ad- 
sum, 

Reginse Anglorum munera, vota, fero. 
Perpetuos edit geraitus mcestissuna princeps ; 

Sis pia, et afflictae quam petit affer opem. 
Casta Maria petit sobolem ; petit Anglia ; summi 

Pontificis titubans Relligioque petit. 
Inculti miserere uteri ; sitientia tandem 

Viscera, fcecundo fonte rigare veils. 

VIRGO. 

Nuncie ccelestis, Regmse vota secundo : 

Accipiat socii pignora chara tori. 
Immo, Jacobus, dum tales fundo loquelas 

Dat, petit, amplexus : concipit iUa. — Vale. 

ANGELUS. 

Sed natum, Regina, Marem Regina perop- 
tat, 
Nam spem jam regni filia' bina fovet. 
Dona, Virgo, Marem. 

VIRGO. 

Jam condunt ilia natum 
Fulcrmn erit imperii, relligionis honos. 

ANGELUS. 

Reginam exaudit Regina Maria Mariam. 
Alleluia ! felix, ter, quater, Alleluia. 



\Saint Osana and the Rector's Concubine.] 
" In the North of England beyond the Hum- 
ber, and in the church of Hovedene, the concu- 
bine of the rector incautiously sat down on the 
tomb of saint Osana, sister of king Osred, which 
projected like a wooden seat ; on wishing to re- 
tire, she could not be removed until the people 
came to her assistance : her clothes were rent, 
her body laid bare, and severely afflicted with 
many strokes of discipline, even till the blood 
flowed; nor did she regain her liberty, until by 
many tears and sincere repentance she had show- 
ed evident signs of compunction." — Hoake's 
Giraldus, vol. 1, p. 29. 



[The Thief at St. Edmundshmf s Shriue.] 
" A MIRACLE happened at St. Edmundsbury 
to a poor woman, who often visited the shrine of 
the saint, under the mask of devotion ; not with 
the design of giving, but of taking something 
away, namely, silver and gold olicrings, which 
by a curious kind of theft, she licked up by kiss- 



1 The Princesses of Orange and Denmark.^ 



42 HOARE— BERNAL DIAZ— GAGE— FULLER— BARLO WE— SCOTT. 



ing, and carried away in her month. But in one 
of these attempts her tonjfnc and hps adhered to 
the altar, when by Divine interposition she was 
detected, and openly dis<ror<red the secret theft. 
Many persons, both Jews and Christians, ex- 
pressinjf their astonishment, floekod to the place, 
where lor the greater part of the day .she re- 
mained motionless, that no possible doubt might 
be entertained of the miracle." — Hoare's Girnl- 
dus, vol. 1, p. 29. 



[St. Patrick's Horn.] 

"TiiF horn of Saint Patrick, not golden m- 
deed, but brazen, which lately was brought into 
these parts from Ireland, excites our admiration. 
The miraculous power of this relio first appeared 
with a terrible example in that country, through 
the foolish and absurd blowing of Bernard, a 
priest. The most remarkable circumstance at- 
tending this horn is, that whoever places the 
wider end of it to his ear, will hear a .sweet sound 
and melody united, such as ariseth from a harp 
gently touched." — Hoare's Giraldus, vol. 1, p. 
31. 



[ Wounds cured with Oil, and the Wounded blessed 
and psahned.] 
"When night parted us we cured our wounds 
with oil, and by a soldier called Juan Catalan, 
who blessed us and psalmed us, and I say truly 
we found our Saviour Jesus Christ was pleased 
to give us strength, besides the many mercies 
which he daily vouchsafed us, for they presently 
healed, and thus wounded and bandaged, we had 
to fight from morning till night ; for if the wound- 
ed had remained in the camp, and not gone forth 
to battle, there would not have been twenty sound 
men from every company. So when our Ilas- 
cellan friends saw that this man blessed us, all 
their wounded came to him, and he had enough 
to do to cure them all day long." — Bernal 
Diaz, p. 142. 



Reformation^ S^c. 
" In the morning early notice was given unto 
us that one Friar Pablo dc Londres, an old crab- 
faced English frier, living in St. Lucar, had got 
the Duke of Medina his letter, and sent it to the 
Governor of Cales, charging him to seek for me 
and to stay me, signifying the King of Spain's 
will and pleasure ' that no English should pass 
to the Indies, having a country of their otvn to 
convert.' " — Gage's Survey of the West Indies, 
p. 31. 

"Sad the times in the beginning of Queen 
Elizabeth, when by her Majesty's injunctions, 
the clergy were commanded to read the chap- 
ters over once or twice by themselves, that so 
they might be the better enabled to read them 
distinctly in the congregation." — Fuller's Trijle 
Reconciler, p. 82. 



I HAVE seen a history of the Loretto Lady, 
printed on a single sheet in Wel.sh, which was 
purchased at Loretto by one of Wynn's ances- 
tors about a century ago ; he brought home a 
copy in English also. It was ready for pilgrims 
of every nation. — R. S. 

"I LET passe," says Barlowe, "my lord car- 
dinal's acte in pull)'ngc down and suppressing of 
religious places, our Lord asoile his soule. I wyll 
wrestle with no soules : he knoweth by this tyme 
whyther he dyd well or evyll. But thys dare I 
be bolde to .saye, that the countries where they 
stode fynde suche lacke of them, that they would 
he had let them stand. And thinke you then 
that there wold be no lack founden if the rema- 
naunt were so served to ? I wene men wold so 
sore mysse theym, that inany which speke agaynst 
them wolde sone laboure his owne handes to set 
them up agayne." — Dialoge, &c. 



I 



\ 



Bishop Croft, the humble Moderator. 
" I BESEECH you tell me, did not Christ and 
the apostles preach the best way? and are not 
we to follow their example ? Who dare say 
otherwise? yet many do otherwise; they take 
here or there a sentence of Scripture, the shorter 
and more abstruse the better, to show their skill 
and invention. This they divide and subdivide 
into generals and particulars, the q^iid, the quale, 
the quantum, and such-like quack-salving forms ; 
then they study how to hook in this or that quaint 
sentence of philosopher or Father, this or that 
nice speculation, endeavouring to couch all this 
in most elegant language ; — in short, their main 
end is to show their wit, their reading, and what- 
ever they think is excellent in them : No doubt 
rarely agreeing with that of St. Paul, ' I de- 
termined not to know anything among you save 
Jesus Christ and hun crucified ; and my speech 
and preaching was not with enticing words of 
man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit 
and power :' 1 Cor. ii. And I verily believe this 
is the reason why preaching hath so little effect 
in these days, because they labour to speak the 
wisdom of this world, which is foolishness with 
God ; nor do they preach in demonstration of the 
Spirit, but in demonstration of their learning. I 
know full M'cU this unapostolic way of preacliinfr 
was used by some of the ancient fathers, espe- 
cially the Greeks, who, always fond of niceties 
and curiosities, and being now become Christians 
(as I said before) transplanted their beloved rhe- 
torical flowers of human learning into Christian 
gardens, which proved rather weeds to overrun 
the seed of soimd and plain apostolic doctrine, 
human nature being a soil apter to give nourish- 
ment and vigour to human principles than divine. 
But when did ever any learned, witty, rhetorical 
harangue, or cunning syllogistical discourse, eon- 
vert the tythe of St. Peter's or St. Paul's foolLsh 
preaching, as he terms it, ' but the wisdom of 
God to those that are perfect,' and sound in 
the faith." — Scott's Somers' Tracts, vol. 7, p. 
290. 



NORDEN— PETTY— FULLER— BARLOWE—WADSWORTH, ETC. 43 



[Pallets, or St. Eppalets.] 
" Eppalets, or Hippoletts, vulgarly Pallets 
in Hertfordshire. This place was dedicate to a 
supposed saint of that name, that in his life-time 
was a good tamer of colts, and as good a horse- 
leach ; and for these qualities so devoutly hon- 
oured after his death, as all passengers by that 
way on hm'scback, thought themselves bound to 
bring their steeds into the church, even up to the 
high aulter, where this holy horseman was shryn- 
ed, and where a priest continually attended to 
be^stow such fragments of Eppolettes' myracles 
upon their untamed coltes and old wanton and 
forworne jades, as he had in store, and did availe 
so much the more or less as the passengers were 
bountifuU or hard-handed, but he that was coy 
of his coyne had but a cold and counterfeit cure." 
— NoRDEN's Hartfordshire. 



[Spiritual Pride not confined to the Rich.}^ 
Sir William Petty says it is natural " for 
those who have less wealth, to thinic they have 
the more wit and understanding, especially of 
tlie things of God, which they think chiefly be- 
long to the poor." — Political Arithmetic. 



Doctor Sanders — Cranmerh Enemy. 

" SuFFiCETH it us to know that as the Herne- 
shaw, when unable by raaine strength to grap- 
ple with the Hawke, doth slice upon her, bespat- 
tering the Hawke's wings with dung or ordure, 
so to conquer with her taile which she cannot 
doe with her bill and beake, so Papists, finding 
themselves unable to encounter the Protestants 
by force of argument out of the Scripture, cast 
the dung of foule language and filthy railing upon 
them, wherein Sanders exceedeth all of his So- 
ciety." — Fuller, Abel Red., p. 226. 

Sanders was famished in Ireland. — Ibid. 



[Conversion of Bohemia. '\ 
The Bohemians who came with Anne when 
she married our Richard II. took back with them 
the books of Wicklifle, w^hich thus fell into the 
hands of John Huss, a more illustrious Reformer. 
" This Queen Anne," says Fuller, " taught our 
English women modestie in riding on side-sad- 
dles, in exchange whereof the English taught her 
countrymen true religion. The conversion of 
Bohemia may fitly be stiled the issue of this mar- 
riage. See here the pedigree of the Reforma- 
tion, whej'cin Germany may be counted the son, 
Bohemia the father, and England the grand- 
father." — Life of Huss, Abel Rcdivivus. 



[TyndaVs Bokes.] 

" And then are they also to all T\nidal's bokes, 

whiche for the manyfolde mortall hercsyes con- 

teyned within the same openlye condompned and 

forbydden, they are, I saye, yet unto those bokes 



so sore afTectionate, that neyther the condcmp- 
nation of them by the clerg}', nor the forbyJding 
of them by the kinges hyghnes, with his open 
proclamations upon greate paynes, nor the daun- 
ger of open shame, nor parell of paynfuU deth, 
can cast them out of some fond folkes handes, 
and that folke of every sorte." — Barlowe's X>ia- 
lose. 



[English Roman Catholic Fugitives.] 
" By this may be discerned the number of our 
English fugitives, with their colleges, nunneries, 
and monasteries beyond the seas, which yeerely 
draw out of our land a hundred at least, of young 
gentlemen and gentlewomen ; who although they 
pretend conscience and want of charity here the 
occasion of their departure, yet none (I dare say) 
in the world, they being gone over, more envi- 
ous and hard-hearted than the)' themselves each 
to other. As your private-gentlemen fugitives 
hunt after advancement by disparaging others of 
their own rank, your priests disparage the Jes- 
uits ; the Jesuits the priests ; the priests again 
the monk.s, the monks the friars, and the Jesuits 
all. Insomuch that if you visit any of them, 
your entertainment shall be scarce anything save 
their upbraidings and exclamations against one 
another's monasteries and private persons : so 
that it would be no small pains for a man so long 
to travel amongst them, until he might find three 
persons to speak well of each other ; this being 
a fault so common amongst them, that they are 
noted amongst all nations whatsoever with whom 
they converse. Others there are whose most 
earnest expectation and heartiest desire is the 
ruin and utter destruction of their own native 
country, which is the issue of their departure; 
and accordingly God doth prosper them, laying 
on them the like punishment he inflicted on the 
Jews, by dispersing of them through many na- 
tions, and giving them up to dissension among 
themselves, and living in great want and mis- 
ery." — -Wadsworth's English Spanish Pilgrim, 
p. 76. 



[Candle-crossing of the Dead.] 
" I WAS once called to one of my kinsfolk : it 
was at that time when I had taken degree at 
Cambridge, and was made Master of Arts : I 
was called, I say, to one of mj' kinsfolk which 
was very sick, and died immediately after my 
coming. Now, there was on old cousin of mine, 
which after the man was dead, gave nic a wax 
candle in my hand, and commanded me to make 
certain crosses over him that was dead, tor she 
thought the devil should run away by and by. 
Now I took the candle, but I could not cro.ss 
him as she would have me to do, for I had never 
seen it afore. Now .she, perceiving that I could 
not do it, with a great anger took the candle out 
of my hand, -saying, ' It is pity that my father 
spendeth so much money upon thee !' and she 
took the candle and crossed and blessed him, so 
that he was sure enough. No doubt she thought 



44 



LATIMER— NICHOLSON AND BUEN. 



that the devil could have no jiower airainst him." 
— Lati.mer's Sermon on the Epistle for the 21st 
Sutulay after Trinity. 



[Superstitious Ringing of Bells.] 
'• Ye know when there was a storm of fearful 
weather, then we ran<^ the holy bells ; they were 
they that must make all things well ; they must 
drive away the devil. But I tell you, if the holy 
bells would serve against the devil, or that he 
might be put away through their sound, no doubt 
we would soon banish him out of all England. 
For 1 think if all the bells in England should be 
rung together at a certain hour, I think there 
would almost be no place but some bells would 
be heard there. And so the devil should have 
no hiding-place in England, if ringing of bells 
would serve. But it is not that that will serve 
against the devil : yet we have believed such 
fooleries in times past, but it was but mocking, 
it was the teaching of the devil. And no doubt 
we were in a miserable case, when we learned 
of the devil to fight against the devil."' — Lati- 
mer, Ibid. 



[The Devil not afraid of Holy-Water.] 
" What a trust and confidence have we had 
in holy water and holy bread ! also in ringing of 
holy bells and such fooleries, — but it was good 
sport for the devil ; he could laugh and be merry 
at our foolishness ; yea, and order the matter 
.so to keep us in the same error. For we read 
in stories that at sometimes the devil went away 
from some men, because of the holy water, as 
though that holy water had such strength and 
power that he could not abide it. O crafty 
devil ! he went away, not for fear of the holy 
water, but because he would maintain men in 
error and foolishness. And no doubt it was the 
deviPs teaching, the using of this holy water. 
It was not long ago since I, being with one of 
my neighbours that was sick, there came in an 
old woman, and when she saw the man sore sick, 
she asked whether there was no holy water to 
be gotten. See here the foolishness of the peo- 
ple, that in the time of the light of God's most 
holy Word, will follow such phantasies and de- 
lusions of the devil." — Latuier, Ibid. 



[Latimer on Restitution.] 
'' At my first preaching of restitution, one 
man took remorse of conscience, and acknowl- 
edged himself to me that he had deceived the 
King, and willing he was to make restitution ; 
and so the first Lent came to my hands c£20 to be 
restored to the King's use. I was promised e£20 
more the .same Lent, but it could not be made, 
so that it came not. Well, the next Lent came 
.£320 more. I received it myself and paid it to 
the King's Council. So I was asked what he 
w^as that made this restitution. But should I 
have named him? Nay, they should as soon 
have tills weasand of mine. Well now this Lent 



came c£l80 10s. which I have paid and deliver- 
ed this present day to the King's Council, and so 
this man hath made a godly restitution. And 
so, quoth I to a certain nobleman that is one of 
the King's Council, if every man that hath be- 
guiled the King should mfike restitution after this 
sort, it would cough the King d£20,000 I think, 
quoth I. Yea, that it would, quoth the other, a 
whole cCl 00,000. Alack! alack! make resti- 
tution for God's sake ; ye will cough in hell else, 
that all the devils there will laugh it yoiur cough- 
ing. There is no remedy but restitution, open 
or secret, or else hell. This that I have now 
told you of was a secret restitution. 

'■ Some examples hath been of open restitu- 
tion, and glad may he be that God was so friend- 
ly unto him, to bring hun unto it in this world. 
I am not afraid to name him. It was Master 
Sherington, an honest gentleman, and one that 
God loveth. He openly confessed that he had 
deceived the King, and he made open restitution. 
Oh, what an argument may he have against the 
devil, when he shall move him to desperation." 
— Latimer's /ast Sermon on Luke., xii. 15, before 
Kins Edward VI. 



[First Ring of Bells in E7igland.] 
" The first ring of bells in England wa.s at 
Crojiand. Turketule the Abbot, who died 975, 
made one large one, which he called Guthlac, 
after the Saint who first cleared that place of the 
devils that molested it, and sanctified it by his 
life and death. Turketule's successor, Egelric, 
added six others, which he named Bartholomeo, 
Bertelin, Turketule, Tolwin, Pega, and Bega. 
Pega was a Saint, and sister to Guthlac. Berte- 
lin was his disciple, and author, as it appears, of 
most of the fables related of him. There was an 
especial good reason for naming one after St. 
Bartholomeo, for consecrated bells have a virtue 
against thunder and lightning ; and the identical 
thumb with which that apostle used to cross 
himself when it thundered, was among the relics 
of the monastery, having been presented to Tm'k- 
etule by the Emperor." — Queer e ? 



[Orders appertaining to the Church of Croslh- 
waite, i. e. Keswick.] 

"The Commissioners for Ecclesiastical causes, 
Ann. Eliz. 13, make order concerning the goods 
of the church of Crosthwaite (Keswick), namely; 
that the eighteen sworn men and churchwardens 
should pro\"idc, before Christmas then next fol- 
lowing, two fair large communion cups of sil- 
ver, with covers, one fair diaper napkin for the 
communion and sacramental bread, and two fair 
pots or flagons of tin for the wine ; which they 
shall buy with the money they shall receive for 
the chalices, pipes, paves, crosses, candlesticks, 
and other church goods that they have to sell ; 
and that they shall sell for the use of the church, 
such popish relics and monuments of superstition 
and idolatry as then remained in the parish ; and 
namely, two pipes of silver, one silver paxe, one 



LATIMER— MONSTRELLET—MANOEL DA ESPERANCA. 



45 



cross of cloth of gold, which was on a vestment, 
one copper cross, two chalices of silver, two cor- 
porate rasts, three hand-bells, the Sion whereon 
the paschal stood, one pair of censures, one ship, 
one head of a pair of censures, twenty-nine brazen 
or latyn-chrismatories, the vail cloth, the sepul- 
chral cloths, and the painted cloths, with the pic- 
tm-es of Peter, Paul, and the Trinity. They far- 
ther decree, that the four vestments, three tuni- 
cles, five chestables, and all oth«r vestments be- 
longfing to the said parish church, and to the chap- 
els within the said parish, be defaced and cut in 
pieces, and of them, if they will serve thereunto, 
a covering for the pulpit, and cushions for the 
church be provided : and likewise the albes and 
amvsies sold, and fair linen cloths for the commu- 
nion table, and a covering of buckram fringed for 
the same be provided, and that for the chapels in 
the same parish be provided decent communion 
cups of silver or tin. And that a decent perclose 
of wood, wherein morning and evening prayer 
shall be read, be set up without the quire door, 
the length whereof to be seven foot, and breadth 
seven foot, -with seats and desks within the same. 
And that they take care that the church be fur- 
nished with a Bible of the largest volume, one 
or two communion books, four psalter books, the 
two tomes of the homilies, the injunctions, the 
defence of the apology, the paraphrases in En- 
glish, or instead thereof Marlorat upon the Evan- 
gelists, and Beacon's Postil, and also four psalter 
books in metre. And that there be no service 
on the forbidden holy days, viz., on the feasts or 
days of All Souls, St. Katherine, St. Nicholas, 
Thomas Becket, St. George, Wednesday in Eas- 
ter or Whitsun week, the Conception, Assump- 
tion, and Nativity of our Lady, St. Laurence, 
Mary Magdalene, St. Anne, or such like : and 
that none shall pray on any beads, knots, portas- 
ses, papistical and superstitious Latin primers, 
or other like forbidden or ungodly books : and that 
there be no communion at the burial of the dead, 
nor any month's minds, anniversaries, or such 
superstitions used." — Nicholson and Burn's 
Cumberland, p. 89. 



[S(. Blessis' Heart ami St. Algare's Bones.\ 
" To let pass the solemn and noetiirnal bac- 
chanals, the prescript miracles that are done upon 
certain days in the West part of England, who 
hath not heard? I think ye have heard of St. 
Blessis' heart which is at Malvern, and of St. Al- 
gare's bones, how long they deluded the people, 
I am afraid to the loss of many souls." — Lati- 
MEii's Sermon preached before the Convocation 
of the Clergy. 



{Romish Trumpery. \ 
" Some brought forward Canonizations, some 
Expectations, some Pluralities and Unions, some 
Tot-Quots and Dispensations, some Pardons, and 
these of wonderful varieties, srtme Stationarics, 
some Jubilaries, some Pocularies for drinkers, 
some Manuaries for handlers of reliqnes, some 



Pedaries for pilgrims, some Oscularies for kiss- 
ers ; some of them engendered one, some other 
such features, and every one in that he was de- 
livered of was excellent, poHtic, wise, yea, so 
wise, that with their wisdom they had almost 
made all the world fools." — ^Latimer, Ibid. 



[ Why Kings should not have too many Horses.] 
" I WAS once offended with the King's horses, 
and therefore took occasion to speak in the pres- 
ence of the King's Majesty, that dead is, when 
abbies stood. Abbies were ordained for the com- 
fort of the poor, wherefore I said it was not de- 
cent that the King's horses should be kept in 
them, as many were at that time, the living of poor 
men thereby minished and taken away. But 
afterward a certain nobleman said to me, What 
hast thou to do with the King's horses ? I answer- 
ed and said, I .spake ray conscience as God's 
word dii'ected me. He said. Horses be the main- 
tenance and part of a King's honour, and also 
of his realm, wherefore in speaking against them 
ye are against his honour. I answered, God 
teacheth what honour is decent for a King, and 
for all other men according to their vocations. 
God appointeth every King a sufficient living for 
his estate and degree both by lands and other 
customs ; and it is lawful for every King to en- 
joy the same goods and possessions ; but to ex- 
tort and take away the right of the poor is against 
the honour of the King ; if you do move the King 
to do after that manner, then you speak against 
the honour of the King." — Latimer's First Ser- 
mon before King Edward VI. 



[Lying Miracles.] 
" During the reign of Pope Sixtus IV. a J'oung 
virgin called Stine, in the town of Hame in West- 
phalia, who had been lately converted to the 
Christian faith, was marked on the hands, feet, 
and side, with the wounds of our Saviour. About 
fifteen weeks after her conversion, on the feast 
of the holy sacrament, she displayed her wounds 
in the presence of twelve witnesses, and foretold 
that within two hours afterward they would be 
no more seen ; which was verified, — for at that 
precise time the wounds were all perfectly 
healed." — Contin. of Monstrellet. Johnes^s 
TransL, vol. 2, p. 122. 

1 506. " In Lombardy there was a nun of the 
order of Jacobins, who, like to St. Catharine of 
Sienna, had, every Friday, marks on her hands 
and feet, similar to the wounds of our Saviour, 
that ran blood, which appeared to all who saw 
it very marvellous." — Ibid., vol. 12, p. 106. 



[Pedro de Olivam and the Franciscans.] 
" Pedro de Olivam litigated certain privileg- 
es enjoyed by a convent of Franciscans. They 
admonished him not to be the enemy of the Moth- 
er of God. He replied that white he lived he 
would maintain his quarrel. He soon died. 



46 



GENEBRARD— BERNAL DIAZ. 



knawing the tongue that had offended, and was 
buried in the sepulchre of his fathers. After 
thirtv-thrce years the grave was opened and the 
corpse found entire, — qnc tinha nojo a terra de 
Ihe comer o scit corpo blasfemo ct urrogante — for 
the earth had loathed to consume his proud and 
blasphemous body." — Historia Scrafica. Man- 
gel DA ESPERANCA. 

[Literal acceptation of the ti'ords — " My goods 
are nothing imto thee^ — Abuse of God^s bless- 
ings.] 
" En ce temps n'estoit point de memoire 
De tant de Bulles, ne de Prothenotaires, 
Qui ont huit, neuf Dignitez ou Prehendes, 
Grans Abbayes, Priourez et Commandes ; 
Mais qu'en font-ils '? ilz en font bonne chiere : 
Qui les dessert ? ilz ne s'en soucient guere : 
Qui fait pour eulx ? ung autre tient leur place : 
Mais, ou vont-ilz ? ilz courrent a la chace : 
Et qui chante ? ung ou deux povres moines : 
Et les Abbez ? ilz auroient trop de peine : 
De contempler? ce n'est pas la maniere : 
Et du Service ? il demeure derricre. 
Ou va I'argent ? il va en gourmandise : 
Et du conte ? sont les bieirs de I'Eglise : 
Et les Offrendes ? en chiens et en oyseaulx : 
Et des habitz ? ils sont tons damoyseaulx : 
Et les rentes ? en baings et en luxure : 
De prier Dieu ? de cela I'en n'a cure : 
He povres gens ? ceulx la' meurent de fain : 
He n'ont-ilz riens ? I'en ne leur donne brain : 
On est Charite ? elle est en pelerinage : 
Et Aumosne ? elle va en voyage : 
He que fait Dieu ? il est bien aiise es Cieulx : 
He quoy ! dort-il ? I'en n'en fait pis ne mieulx. 
Es Monasteres, en lieu de Librairie, 
He qu'y-a-t'il ? une faulconnerie, 
Et aux perches ou estoient veultz et fiambeaulx, 
L'en y juche maintenant les oyseaulx : 
Et les Fondeurs ? ilz sont bien loing de conte : 
Et leurs Obitz? tant que I'argent se monte : 
De reparer Cloistres et lieux si beaulx ? 
Attendre fault qu'on les face nouveaulx. 
Que font Evesques ? ilz sont de biens rempliz : 
Et si ont honte de porter leurs sourpliz : 
Mais en ce lieu ilz ont robbe bastardo 
De caraelot, afiin qu'on les regardc. 
Ont-ilz wesselle ? les beaulx grans drcssouers 
D'or et d'argent, flacons, potz, drasouers ; 
He qu'ont les povTes ? ilz ont les trenchouers, 
Qui demeurent du pain dcssus la table ; 
Et le rehes ? I'en le porte a Testable 
Pour le mengier dcs paiges ct des chiens ; 
Aucunesfoiz s'il en demeure ricns, 
L'en le jettc au povres emmy la rue." 

Les Vigilles de Charles vii. per Maistre 
Marcial de Paris, dit d'Auvcrgne. 
Paris, 1724, torn. 2, p. 24. 



contemplation et reverence des sainctz et sainetes 
ou ilz vont, il me plaist de traicter et dire aul- 
cune chose sur le fait et condition de leur pele 
rinaige. Et disons que tons pelerins de quelque 
paj's et royaulme chrestien quilz soient, sont en 
especial en sauvegarde du saint Pere de Romme, 
peuvent faire et acomplir leurs pelerinages et 
voyages par toute la crestiente, la ou leur devo- 
tion sera, ou saint sepulcro, on ailleurs ou ilz au- 
ront voue a aUer en pelerinaige, soit en temps 
de guerre, de paix ou de trefves, quelque temps 
quil soit. Et en ce cas cy sont privilegiez com- 
me gens deglise, lequel privilege les sainctz peres 
de Romme leur ont acorde le temps passe a la 
reverence et honneur de Dieu et des sainctz et 
des sainetes dont ilz sont pelerins. Et sans faulte 
toute personne qui met la main sur pelerin ou 
pelerine, il va contre lordonnance et sauvegarde 
du pape (en laquelle ilz sont tons et toutes com- 
me jay dit), et pechent mortellemen, et encou- 
rent la sentence dexcommunieraent. Item ilz 
ont encores une autre prerogative et privilege, 
que en quelque part quilz passent en faisant leur 
pelerinaige, soit en allant, ou en venant, ilz ne 
doivent payer aucun passage ou autres treua- 
ges." — V Arbre de Batailles, cap. 123. 



[Divers Sects.] 
" There are at this day in this your majesty's 
realm, four known religions, and the professors 
thereof distinct both in name, spirit, and doctrine ; 
that is to say, the Catholicks, the Protestants, 
the Puritans, and the Householders of Love, be- 
sides all other petty sects, newly born, and yet 
grovelling on the ground." — Brief Discowrse 
why Catholiques refuse to go to Church. 1580. 

[Romish Frajtd.] 
"A.D. 1374. In the Valley of Jehosaphat, 
near Jerusalem, they found in a sepulchre full of 
earth, a whole body, with a long beard, under 
whose head was a stone with this inscription in 
j Hebrew, ' I Seth, the third born son of Adam, 
believe in Jesus Christ the Son of God, and in his 
mother, who are to proceed from my loins.' " — 
Genebrard, in Chronol., 1. 31, c. 35, quoted by 
Bernino. 



[Les privileges que droit donne aux pelerins.] 
" Pour ce que gens seculiers ne scevent pas 
les privileges que droit donne aux pelerins quant 
ilz vont en pelerinaige travaillans leurs corps on 



[Gomara's heretical Doubts as to the Appearance 
of the Apostles Santiago and St. Pedro.] 
" Here it is that Gomara says that Francisco 
de Morla rode forward on a dappled grey horse, 
before Cortes and the cavalry came up, and that 
the Apostle Santiago or St. Peter was there. I 
must say that all our works and victories are by 
the hand of our Lord Jesus Christ, and that in this 
battle for each of us there were so many Indians 
that they could have covered us with handfuls of 
earth, if it had not been that the great mercy of 
God helped us in every thing. And it may be 
that he of whom Gomara speaks was the glorious 
Apostle Santiago or St. Pedro, and I as a sinner 
was not worthy to see him, but he whom I then 



IZAAC WALTON— MACKENZIE— WESLEY— HERHERA. 



47 



saw there and knew was Francisco de Morla on 
a chesnut horse, who came up with Cortes ; and 
it seems to me that now while I am writing this, 
the whole war is represented before these sinful 
eyes, just in the manner as we then went through 
it. And though I as an unworthy sinner did not 
deserve to see either of those glorious Apostles, 
there were in our company above four hundred 
soldiers, and Cortes and many other knights, and 
it would have been talked of, and testified, and 
they would have made a Chui-ch, and when they 
peopled the town it would have been called San- 
tiago de la Vitoria, or St. Pedro de la Vitoria, as 
it is now called S. Maria de la Vitoria. And if 
it was as Gomara says, bad Christians must we 
have been, when our Lord God sent us his holy 
Apostles, not to acknowledge his great mercy, 
and venerate that Church daily. And would to 
God it had been as the chronicler says ! but till I 
read his chronicle I never heard such a thing from 
any of the conquerors who were there." — Bernal 
Diaz, p. 22. 



[Charles /.'s Repentance for Slrafford^s Death 
and abolishing Episcopacy in Scotland.] 
" Charles I. in hi.s troubles " told Dr. Sander- 
son and Morley, or one of them that then waited 
with him, " That the remembrance of two errors 
did much afflict hun, which were, his assent to 
the earl of Strafford's death, and the abolishing 
episcopacy in Scotland; and that if God ever re- 
stored him to be in peaceable possession of his 
crown, he would demonstrate his repentance by 
a public confession and voluntary penance" (I 
think barefoot) " from the Tower of London, or 
Whitehall, to St. Paul's Church, and desire the 
people to intercede with God for his pardon." I 
am sure one of them that told it me lives still, 
and will witness it. — Iz.iac Walton's Li/e of 
Bishop Sanderson. 



[Izaac Walton'' s Thanksgiving for not belonging 
to the bringers in of the Covenant.] 
"When I look back," says good old Izaac 
Walton, "upon the ruin of families, the blood- 
shed, the decay of common honesty, and how the 
former piety and plain dealing of this now sinful 
nation is turned into cruelty and cunning ! when 
I consider this, I praise God that he prevented 
me from being of that party which helped to bring 
in this covenant, and those sad confusions that 
have followed it. And I have been the bolder to 
say this of myself, because in a sad discourse with 
Dr. Sanderson, I heard him make the like grate- 
ful acknowledgement." 



[French Missionaries in Canada.] 
" They habituated themselves to the savage 
life, and naturalized themselves to the savage 
manners, and by thus becoming dependent, as it 
were, on the natives, they acquired their con- 
tempt, rather than their veneration. If they had 
been as well acquainted with human nature as 



they were with the articles of their faith, they 
would have known that the uncultivated mind of 
an Indian must be disposed by much preparatory 
method and instruction to receive the revealed 
truths of Christianity, to act under its sanctions, 
and be unpelled to good by the hope of its re- 
ward, or turned from evil by the fear of its pun- 
islunents. They should have begun their work 
by teacliing some of those useful arts which are 
the inlets of knowledge, and lead the mind by de- 
grees to objects of higher comprehension. Agri- 
culture so formed to fix and combine society, and 
so preparatory to objects of superior considera- 
tion, should have been the first thing introduced 
among a savage people ; it attaches the wander- 
ing tribe to that .spot where it adds so much to 
their comforts, while it gives them a sense of prop- 
erty and of lasting possession, instead of the mi- 
certain hopes of the chase, and the fugitive prod- 
uce of uncultivated wilds. Such were the meaiLs 
by which the forests of Paraguay were converted 
into a scene of abundant cultivation." — Macken- 
zie's Travels. 



[ Wesley and the Creek Indians.] 
" He that is above," said Wesley to the Creek 
Indians, " will not teach you, unless you avoid 
what you already know is not good." One of 
the Indians answered, " I believe that. He will 
not teach us while our hearts are not white. Our 
men do what they know is not good; they kill 
their own children. And our women do what 
they know is not good ; they kill the child before 
it is born. Therefore, He that is above does not 
send us the good book." — Wesley's Journal, No. 
l,p. 37. 



[Romish Fratids.] 
" The Dominicans in Mexico called Purgato- 
ry Little Hell to make it comprehensible by the 
Indians, Infierno Chiquito.^' — Padila, 83. 

" The Dominican habit is the Virgin Mary's 
taste, she gave the pattern to St. Reginald — and 
she explained its mystic meaning — the white em- 
blematical of spiritual purity, the black of repent- 
ance in the body." — Ibid., p. 475. 

" The Priests used to reward the Indians who 
discovered an Idol. Father Jordan de Santa Cat- 
alina, after one of his successful searches saw an 
Indian, whom he had just rewarded for bringing 
him an idol, busy in making another — which the 
poor fellow said was to be ready for the father 
next thne." — Ibid., p. 643. 

" When first the Mexicans saw a sambenito, 
they were so pleased with it that they made some 
in imitation and sold about the streets." — Ibid., 
p. C43. 



[Hcrrera on the Conversion of the Indians.] 
" Hekreka has a curious passage concerning 



48 



PERAMAS— LANGSDORFF— GUMILLA— HERRERA. 



the conversion of the Indians. Columbus, he says, 
being wrecked on the Island of Hayti. '■juzgo que 
Dios nucstro Scnor, avia pcrmitido la pcrdida de 
la nao. para que sc hizicssc assicnto alii, y se co- 
mcn^assc por aquclla Ma la prcdicacion y conoci- 
micnto dc su sautissimo tiombre, el qual es muchas 
vezes su voluntad que no se cstrcnda por amor de 
SH scrvicio, y caridad de los proximos, sino tam- 
hien por el premio qu-c los hombres piensan aver 
rn este mundo, y en el otro ; porque no es de rrecr 
que ninguna nacion del mnndo emprendiera los 
trahajos a que el Almirante y sus CastcUanos se 
pusieron en negocio tan ditdoso y peligroso, sino 
fuera eon esperan^a de algun premio, el qual ha 
llevado despues adelante la continuacion desta su 
santa obra ; y quiso Dios ha:^r con los Indios y 
los CastcUanos, como un padre que quiere casar 
una hijii muy fea, suple esta falta con el dote, 
porque quando las Indias no fueran ticrras de 
tanta riqucza, nadic se pusiera a padecer los tra- 
bajos que adelante sc diran, &c.' " — 1, 1, 18. 



said, wo must pass over this, for I do not know 
what it means. There happened, however, to 
be a Dominican visiting in the house, and young 
Vergara, when his repetition was over, asked 
what the meaning of this commandment was. 
The friar told him it was that he must never put 
his fingers into a kettle of boiling water. Little 
as the danger appeared to be of leading him into 
temptation by such an explanation, the very next 
morning he dipt his hand into the boiling water, 
and immediately danced about the room exclaim- 
ing. Oh dear ! Oh dear ! I've committed adul- 
tery, I've committed adultery !" — P. 2. 



[ Cruelties inflicted on the Negroes at Cayenne, — 
and apologetic Reasoning.] 

'■ By the French laws, if a negro at Cayenne 
ran away, and the master denounced him to the 
Greffe, he was, on being retaken, to have his ears 
cut off, and be burnt on the back with a fleur- 
de-lis ! for the second offence to be hamstrang ! 
and hanged for the third. On ne scauroit doutes, 
says P. Fauque the Jesuit, que la sevcrite de ces 
loix n'en retienne le plus grand nombre dans le 
devoir. Where did he find his notions of duty ? 
He saj's also, 't7 «'y a guere d^ esperance pour le 
salut d' un ncgre qui meurt dans son marronnage.^ 
Lettres Edifiantes, tom. 8, p. 8, 10, edition 1781. 
His arguments when he got among the Mar- 
roons are curious enough. ' Souvencz-vous, mes 
rhcrs cnfans, que quoiquc vous soyez esclavcs, voua 
etes cependant Chretiens comme vos Makres ! Quet 
inalheur pour vous si, apres avoir etc les esclavcs des 
hommes en ce monde et dans le temps, vous deveniez 
lis esclavcs du demon pendant toute Vetcrnitc. Ce 
malhcur pourtant vous arrivera infailliblemcnt, 
si vous ne vous ranges pas a votre devoir, puis- 
quc vous etes dans ivn etat habituel de damnation, 
car, sans parler du tort que vous faites a vos mai- 
ircs en les privant de votre travail, votis n'entcn- 
dez point le messe les jours saints : vous n^ap- 
prochez point des Sacramens ; vo^ts vivez dans 
le. concubinage, w' etant pas maries devant vos 
legitimes Pastcjtrs.^ " — P. 20. 

How triumphantly might the negro have re- 
plied ! 



[Extremes meet :—~Protestant Mission Persecu- 
tion.] 

" NoTwiTHSTA^TDiNG they are much more free 
from cares in their natural state, an irresistible 
desire of freedom sometimes breaks out in indi- 
viduals. This may probably be refen-ed to the 
national character. Their attachment to a wan- 
dering life, their love of alternate exercise in 
fishing and hunting, and entire indolence, seem 
in their eyes to overbalance all the advantages 
they enjoy at the mission, which to us appear 
very great : the consequence is, that everj^ now 
and then attempts at escape are made. On such 
occasions, no sooner is any one missed, than 
search is immediately made after him, and as it 
is always known to what tribe the fugitive be- 
longs, and on account of the enmity which sub- 
sists among the different tribes, he can never take 
refuge in any other (a circumstance which per- 
haps he scarcely thought of beforehand), it is 
scarcely possible for him to evade the researches 
of those who are sent in pursuit of him. He is 
almost always brought back again to the mission, 
where he is bastinadoed, and an iron rod of a foot 
or a foot and a half long, and an inch in diameter, 
is fastened to one of his feet : this has the double 
use of preventing him from repeating the attempt, 
and of frightening others from imitating him." — 
Langsdorff, vol. 1, p. 171. New California. 



[ Pcramas^ instructive Story on the Seventh Com- 
mandment.] I 
" Peramas relates an odd and instmctive story 
of Vergara in his childhood. Being piously dis- 
posed and born of pious parents, he was taught 
to give an account of the sermons which he heard. 
In thus repeating the substance of a discourse 
upon the Commandments, when the boy came to 
the seventh, Thou shalt not commit adultery, he 



[Bloody Religion of the Mexicans.] 
" A Spaniard observing a Mexican not long 
after the conquest remarkably punctual in his 
attendance at mass, asked him how it was that 
he could so thoroughly have forsaken the belief 
in which he had been bred up. The Mexican's 
reply is remarkable : ' The religion of our fathers.' 
said he, 'was .so bloody and so cruel, and bur- 
thened us so grievously, that to rid ourselves of 
such a yoke we should gladly have recourse not 
merely to your law which is so holy a one, but 
any other whatsoever.' " — Gumilla, c. 17 



[Their Prediposition thereby to receive the Chris- 
tian Faith.] 
" No nations in the Indies," says Herrera 
(5, 4, 7), "have received the Gospel better than 
those who had been most subordinate to their 
Lords, and had laboured raider the greatest bur- 



RANDOLPH- PERCIVAL STOCKDALE— BISHOP SMALRIDGE. 49 



dens of tribute and of diabolical ceremonies. 
Thus the dominions of the kings of Mexico and 
of the Ingas have advanced the most in Chris- 
tianity, and there is least difficulty there both 
in spiritual and temporal government, for the in- 
sufferable yoke of the laws of the devil had wea- 
ried them, and that of Christ therefore appeared 
to them just and easy ; and the difficulty of be- 
lieving such high mysteries was facihtated be- 
cause the devil had taught them things still more 
difficult." 

This is not the less true because it is express- 
ed in mythological language ; and it would prove 
as true in Asia, as it did in America. 



to Mr. Whitfield, and tell him, from me, he may 
preach any thing to my soldiers that is not con- 
trary to the articles of war." — Percival Stock- 
dale's Memoirs, vol. 1, p. 440- 



[The Negro's Call to Prayer.] 
" Cambo, a negro in one of the southern states 
of America, being desired to give some account 
of his conversion, said, ' After me was brought 
here and sold as a slave, as me and Bess were 
working in de field, me began to sing one of my 
old country songs. It is time to go home ; — when 
Bess say to me — Cambo, why you sing so for '? — 
Me say. Me no sick, me no sorry, why me no 
sing ? Bess say you better pray to your bless- 
ed Lord and massa to have massy on your soul. 
Me look round, me look up, me see no one to 
pray to : but de words sound in my ears, better 
pray to your Lord and massa. By 'm bye me 
feel bad, — sun shine sorry, birds sing sorry, laun 
look sorry ; but Cambo sorrier dan em all. Den 
me cry out, massy, massy Lord ! on poor Cam- 
bo ! By 'm bj^e water come in my eyes, and 
glad come in my heai't. Den suit look gay, 
woods look gay, birds sing gay, laun look gay, 
but poor Cambo gladder dan em all. Me love my 
massa some : me want to love him more.' " — 
Evangelical Magazine, October, 1812, p. 389. 



[ Simoniacal Corruptions . ] 
" Will you buy any parsonages, vicarages, 
deaneries, or prebendaries ?" says Randolph's 
Pedlar, in the Shew ; " The price of one is his 
lordship's crackt chambermaid ; the other is the 
reserving of his worship's tithes, or you may buy 
the knight's horse three hundred pounds too 
dear, who, to make you amends in the bargain, 
will draw you on fairly to a vicarage. There 
be many tricks ; but the downright way is three 
years purchase. Come, bring in your coin ! 
J.iivings are majori in jirelio^\\\Si\\ in the days of 
doomsday book : you must give presents for 
your presentations : there may be several means 
for your institutions, but this is the only way to 
Induction that ever I knew." 



[The Methodist Dog.] 

" In the early days of Methodism, about fifty 
years ago, meetings for preaching and pra}'er, 
though not near as frequent as at the present 
period, were, however, somewhat regular; and 
about Bristol, usually well attended. The peo- 
ple who frequented the meetings at that place, 
had repeatedly observed a dog that came from a 
distance ; and as at the house to which he be- 
longed, the Methodists were not respected, he 
always came alone. 

" At that time, the preaching on the Sabbath 
began immediately after the service of the church 
concluded : and as this remarkable animal, on 
those occasions, invariably attended, he acquired 
the name of the ' Methodist Dog.' Being gen- 
erally met by the congregation returning from 
the church, he was constantly abused and pelted 
by the boys belonging to the party. 

" His regular attendance had often been the 
subject of public debate : and merely to prove 
the sagacity of the animal, the meeting, for one 
evening, was removed to another house. What- 
ever were the thoughts entertained concerning 
him, surprising as it may seem, at the proper 
and exact time, he made his appearance ! 

" A few weeks after this, his owner returning 
intoxicated from the market at Leeds, was in a 
narrow, shallow stream, unfortunately drowned : 
and astonishing to relate, the faithful dog no 
longer attended the preaching. 

" Diversity of opinions may prevail on this 
subject, but good John Nelson used to say con- 
cerning it, ' The frequent attendance of this dog 
at the meeting, was designed to attract his mas- 
ter's curiosity, and engage him thereby to visit 
the place ; where hearing the gospel, he might 
have been enlightened, converted, and eternally 
.saved.' But, added he, ' the end to be answered, 
being frustrated by his death, the means to secure 
it were no longer needful.' " — Qucere ? Wesley. 



[Military Preaching.] 
" When Lord George Germains commanded 
the camp near Brompton, and at Chatham in 
1757, Whitfield went to Chatham, sent his re- 
spects by Captain Smith to his lordship, and re- 
quested permission to preach in the camp. Lord 
George replied, Make my compliments, Smith, 



[How a Moderate Person is to avoid the Imputa- 
tion of being Lukewarm.] 
" Would a moderate person avoid the impu- 
tation of being Lukewarm, he must take care 
that he be moderate only in such things where 
there is danger of excess, and where consequently 
there is room and occasion for moderation ; wiiere 
a mean is commendable, he must neither fly too 
high, nor creep too low, but in those things, in 
which it is laudable to excel, he must not affect 
moderation ; abcmt things in their nature, in their 
use, and in their consc([ucncc altogether indiffer- 
ent, he may be indifferent, or not much con- 
cerned ; but ho should neither be, nor desire to 
be thought a moderate lover of piety and virtue, 
of peace and order ; one that hath a moderate 
concern for the laws and liberties of his country, 



50 



BISHOP SMALRIDGE— BISHOP YONGE. 



for the welfare and prosperity of his church, for 
the honour, safety, or life of his pruice." — Bishop 
Smalridge's First Charge, p. 18. 



[Religious Prudence; or, Let not your Good be 
evil spoken q/".] 
'■ There have been consultations in the last 
convocation, whether it ml^ht not be proper to 
extend that canon against frequent resorting to 
taverns, and alehouses, and playing at dice, cards 
and tables, to other instances of the same or like 
kind ; which though not wholly unlawful, nor in 
the laity disallowable, yet in the clergy are of 
evil lame, and tend to the diminution of their 
character ; but whether any such enlargement 
of the canon shall be thought expedient, or not, 
every prudent and grave clergyman will make it 
a rule to hunself, from which he will not lightly 
swerve, to abstain from all actions, however in- 
nocent, which have the semblance of evil : and 
if there be any other places, the resorting to which 
may be of as ill fame as the frecjuenting taverns 
or alehouses, or any other games or sports, as 
improper for a clergyman to indulge himself in, 
as those specified in the canon, or any other ac- 
tions of any kind whatsoever, which may give 
offence to sober-minded Chiistians, and briug a 
scandal upon his ministry, he wiU be as careful 
to keep at a distance from all such actions, as if 
they were in the canon expressly and by name 
forbidden.'' — Bishop Smalridge's First Charge, 
p. 21. 



have sat upon the throne since that happy event, 
as it will most undoubtedly continue to be pro- 
tected by our present most gracious sovereign. 
Popery indeed is said to be gaining ground in the 
kingdom ; how truly it is said I know not with 
certainty ; but we all know, that as the zeal of 
that persuasion is not easily subdued ; so the ci- 
vility always paid to foreign ministers gives it 
room to exert itself within the metropolis. Yet 
arc the laws so strongly framed against it ; and 
so powerful is the just authority of government, 
that it cannot make great inroads upon us with- 
out giving such an alarm as will possibly be fa- 
tal to itself. This is our case in these respects.. 
But what can learning, or moderation, or author- 
ity itself do with fanaticism ? It disregards and 
derides learning, and will not enter the lists with 
it, how capable soever some few of its leaders, 
certainly not many of its votaries, may be to use 
the unhallowed weapons of the schools. All Eu- 
rope, about the time of the Reformation, experi- 
enced its w"ant of moderation in itself, and there 
is no probability of its regarding it in others. As 
it pretends to inspiration and immediate commu- 
nications with Almighty God, it must of course 
exalt itself above all earthly ordinances. And 
thus it cannot be convinced by learning, softened 
by moderation, or easily controlled by authority."' 
— Bishop Yonge's Charge, 1763, p. 4. 



[ Super stili 071 and Enthusiasm — Evils oj".] 
" With superstition and enthusiasm w^e have 
a kind of civil w'ar. They who are actuated by 
them are of our own faith in one common Lord 
and Saviour ; but yet destroy every end and de- 
sign of that faith, by adding to it what doth not 
appertain to it ; or by taking it off" from its rea- 
sonable foundations ; or by seducing mankind to 
pay little, if any, regard to its moral effects. 

" The writers against the Gospel have been 
almost totally silenced, by the superior learning 
and abilities of those great persons, ever to be 
remembered with honour, who from time to time 
have undertaken its defence. — The more regular 
Protestant separatists from the ecclesiastical es- 
tablishment, whilst they have given no small as- 
sistance to the common cause, and acquired no 
small share of credit in contributing to the vindi- 
cation of our holy faith, rest satisfied (at least not 
violently discontented) with that toleration which 
they claim of con'imon right ; and which the 
moderation of wise and good government will 
never deny them. They have now too the ex- 
perience of many years to convince them, that 
they are in no danger of those hardships of which 
their forefathers complained with but too much 
justice. Nor do we ourselves want the same 
experience of the vanity of all those groundless 
jealousies consequent upon the great and glorious 
revolution, our ancient establishment having been 
protected and encoui'agcd by all the princes who 



[TTic Public Liturgy — the Clergy'' s Duly con- 
cerning] 

" To this the Publich Liturgy you have prom- 
ised to conform, and subscribed yoin- hands to 
that promise as also to the 2d of the three Arti- 
cles mentioned in the 36th Canon. That the Book 
of Common Prayer containeth in it nothing con- 
trary to the Word of God, and that you yourselves 
ivill use the Form in the said Book prescribed, i)i 
publick Prayer, and Administration of the Sac- 
raments and none other. Does he make good 
these subscriptions who reads the Common Prayer 
very seldom, or not in order, or not the whole, but 
only some parts and pieces, or if he do read the 
whole, reads it so hastily, or so slightly and awk- 
wardly as that an impartial hearer might be ajit 
to think that he had no good liking to it ? 

" Whereas a man that is sincere and in good 
earnest in this part of religious wor.ship would 
be careful to read it, leisurely, plainly and dis- 
tinctly, well remembering that he addresses him- 
self as the mouth and leader of the congrega- 
tion to that God who knows and who requires 
the heart in all such services ; he would also u.so 
his best endeavour to read with such proper and 
becoming tone and accent as may best excite 
attention, affection and fervor in hunself an<l 
others. 

" There is indeed a natural indLsposition in 
some men to all kinds of vocal harmony, even to 
that which consists only in the elevation and de- 
pression of the voice in proper places and pe- 
riods ; I call them proper, not only with regard 
to the art of music, but even to the sense of the 
words. Bat I shall not urge this further than 



BISHOP OF LINCOLN— BISHOP TALBOT— BISHOP COMPTON. 51 



the natural capacity of men will bear. There 
is certainly a. felicity in voice and accent, which 
they ought to make good use of to whom God 
has given it, and those that want it, can only 
use their endeavour to attain to such a degree, 
as to avoid at least all gross, absurd, and ridic- 
ulous pronunciation. 

" But such as do not think this worthy their 
labouring after, I am sure they cannot excuse 
themselves in neglecting, omitting or altering any 
part of the publick offices ; and though they read 
them not with that propriety of lotterance and ac- 
cent which may promote attention and devotion, 
they ought at least to perform the offices as they 
are directed and prescribed, for nothing less than 
this can answer their subscription, which will 
remain in the bishops' custody as a witness of 
their insincerity.'''' — Bishop of Lincoln's Advice 
to his Clergy, 1697, p. 11. 



[Requisite Caution on celebrating Marriage.^ 
" I AM sorry there are so many in this Church 
and some in this diocese who abuse their trust in 
this matter. It is .so presumptuous and so pei*- 
fidious a practice that it cannot be censured too 
severely. Such as can be tempted for a little 
sum of money or a great one to marry any per- 
sons that resort to them, without the publication 
of banns, or licence duly obtained, or with licence 
at uncanonical hours and in a clandestine manner, 
cither in their own houses or in their churches, 
are not fit to be intrusted with such a power ; 
they do an illegal and uncanonical act knowingly 
and wilfully, which they that have any sense of 
their character, and ti'ust and duty to their su- 
periors would not do : especially such as dare 
presume to marry those whom they kriow or have 
reason vehemently to suspect to be either stolen, 
or not have the consent of parents, or guardians, 
or friends. These are the j^esls and shame of our 
profession ; their greediness of profit has de- 
bauched their consciences, and they have no feel- 
ing of their own wickedness, nor any regard to 
ihe many evil consequences that attend this prac- 
tice; as the mine of the branches of noble fam- 
ilies ; disquieting parents and relatives, and alien- 
atuig their affections ; incouraging disobedience 
in children; and that indeed which is the least 
to be lamented, exposing themselves to igno- 
miny, contempt and punishment, not to mention 
wliat has sometimes happened, legitimating, as 
much as in them lyes, incestuous nurtures. One 
would think that no considering man of con- 
science and probity, could be i)revailed upon for 
a present benefit to drive on such a pernicious 
and dishonourable trade, and persist in it with 
defyancc of all admonition, censure, and punish- 
ment. This I could not forbear to say out of 
that just indignation I have to this most treach- 
erous and imprudent practice." — Bisnop of Lin- 
coln's Charge, 1697, p. 26. 



[By Meekness to tvin the Gainsayers.] . 
" There may be some in your parishes that 



dissent from it ; with these you .should often con- 
fer, and endeavour to make them sensible of their 
errour, and recover them from it in the spirit of 
meekness. Avoid all hard language and bitter 
reflections either before their faces or behind 
their backs ; no man was ever convinced by be- 
ing called ill names or by any bad usage ; it is 
a bad cause that stands in need of such methods 
to defend it ; j^ours I am sure wants it not, nor 
does indeed allow of it ; treat them vvdth love 
and gentleness, make them friendly visits at their 
houses, and receive them kindly at yours ; satisfy 
them that you intend nothing but their good, that 
what you do towards them proceeds from a prin- 
ciple of conscience, they living within the lim- 
its of your parishes, you think yourselves obliged 
in charity to their .souls, to endeavour to recover 
them from the unhajipy separation in which they 
are engaged, and to bring them back to your 
flock. Tell them that though the act of indul- 
gence has indeed remitted the civil punishments, 
yet the obligation of conscience to preserve peace 
and not break the unity of the Church, still re- 
mains : and if there be any principle of Church 
Communion, this is one, that in whatever Church 
God's providence has placed me, if that Church 
injoyns no sinful terms of communion, I am obli- 
ged in conscience to communicate with that 
Chui-ch ; desire them to consider seriously wheth- 
er our Church injoyns any thing upon their faith 
or practice which God has forbidden, or wants 
any thing that he has made necessary to salva- 
tion ; desire them to instance in the particulars, 
and show from the Scriptures, that the thing 
they complain of is there made sinful, or that 
which they apprehend we want, is there neces- 
sarily enjoyned ; and if they cannot do this, as • 
I am very sure they cannot, ask them whether, 
since they cannot prove it to be a sin to commu- 
nicate with us, they must not acknowledge it to 
be a sin to separate from us. Let them know, 
that prejudice of education, humour and fancy, 
the gratifying an itching ear, having men's per- 
sons in admiration, and such like, will be very 
bad pleas for disturbing the peace of the Church, 
rending the body of Christ, and making way by 
such divisions for the common enemy of the 
reformed religion to subvert and destroy that 
Church which is the great, the chiefest bulwark 
of it." — Bishop Talbot's Charge, 1716, p. 2L 



[Piipii^t.'i — Quakers — Enthusiasts, <§-f. Each sit 
tip an Infallible Judge.] 
■■ TiiEKE arc three unhappy constitutions which 
blind the eyes of .such as are under enchantment 
of any of them. 1. They that set up an infal- 
lible judge above or to controul tlie Scriptures ; 
whether in one person, as the Papists ; or in 
every individual, as the Quakers, and other en- 
thusiasts ; whereby the Word of God is so sub- 
jected to the will of man that it becomes a nose, 
of wax, no longer to be understood by conuiton 
sense and the unanimous consent of the Church, 
but as those judges are pleased to expound if. 
2. They that are so overborne by their passions 



52 



BISHOP OF OXFORD— BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 



whom the God of this world has so blinded, that 
they cannot, they will not see the things which 
belong to their peace. 3. And lastly, they that 
make their reason supreme judge of what is fit 
to be believed. 

'■ Now a Papist may be convinced of his mis- 
take by having the follies, errors and contradic- 
tions of their several popes exposed to them ; and 
an enthusiast by strong physick and a severe diet : 
affliction or sober reflections may open a sinner's 
eyes, and shew him the errour of his wa)'S ; but 
when a man is blown up with such a proud opin- 
ion of his own abilities, that he -will allow noth- 
ing to be beyond the reach of his own appre- 
hension ; this is far the most dangerous condi- 
tion of the three. For you must touch hira in 
the tenderest part, his understanding, and con- 
vince him to be a fool, before you can make him 
wise. A very different task it must be to bring 
a man down from the seat of judgment to stand 
guilty at the bar. Therefore Solomon says, 
Seest thou a man wise in his own conceit ? there 
is more hope of a fool than of him. 

" Thus, like a headstrong horse, when he gets 
the bridle in his teeth, they run headlong with- 
out fear or wit. Reason is their pretence, but 
passion their guide ; whilst they boast of pursu- 
ing the dictates of true judgment they are mis- 
led by the dotage of a crazed nature ; through 
an unwary and rash purtiality to their own suf- 
ficiency, they reject that means which alone can 
save them." — Bishop Compton's Tenth Confer- 
ence ivith his Clergy, 1697, p. 8. 



[Evils of Party-divisions.] 
"By whom or thi'ough what means these tares 
came to be sown among us, is not very easie, 
and perhaps not material, to determine. Some 
derive them from the long rebellion of the last 
age. The feigned shews and pretences of some 
men at that time to more than ordinary piety 
and devotion under which the worst designs 
were often cloaked and carried on, are thought 
to have bred in others an aversion to all outward 
appearances of religion, and at length to have 
ended in prophaneness, scepticism, and down- 
right infidelity. And as from one extreme men 
often run into another, so it hath been observed, 
that the superstition and hypocrisie of one age 
are commonly followed by atheism and irreligion 
in the next. Some again are of opinion, that if 
after the happy restoration of our ancient gov- 
ernment in Church and State, due measures for 
the suppression of vice, and for the encourage- 
ment of true religion and virtue had been seri- 
ously pursued, these evils might have been, if 
not wholly prevented and remedyed, at least 
very much lessened and abated ; and therefore 
refer to this account the licentious and disorderly 
way of living, to speak nothing more severe of 
it, which from great examples in the reign im- 
mediately following diffused itself, as 'tis com- 
mon and almost natural for ill habits and cus- 
toms to do, through all inferior ranks and de- 
grees of men amongst us. Others date the 



more than ordinary increase of irreligion from 
the late happy revolution, and it must be owned, 
that in great mutations of publick affairs men 
of heterodox principles commonly appear more 
open and undisguised, than in quiet and settled 
times ; hoping perhaps that the prevalent hu- 
mour of changing may furnish a favourable op- 
portunity to establish their new opinions, or at 
least that in the publick hurry and confusion 
they themselves shall escape with connivance 
and impunity. 

" Some of our historians complain of the 
growth of scepticism and prophaneness about 
the time of the Reformation. Neither is it 
strange, that the obliging men under the sever- 
est penalties to a sort of half popery in one 
reign, to be compleat protestants in the next, to 
resume all their former superstitions in the third, 
and in the fourth to be protestants again, togeth- 
er with the shameful compliances of too many 
with these alterations, and this in the compass 
of a few years, unsettled in many, and in others 
almost quite the principles of religion and virtue. 
Whether something of the same kind, though in 
a less degree, did not happen at the Revolution, 
others, who are more conversant in the transac- 
tions of that and the times immediately preced- 
ing may better judge. This seems to be on all 
hands confessed by sober and considerate men, 
that there is scarce any thing which hath con- 
tributed more to the corruption both of men's 
morals and principles, than our unfortunate di- 
vision into parties, which seem to have so far 
prevailed, as even to destroy the distinction of 
virtue and vice, religion and prophaneness, in- 
somuch that in order to be reputed one of the 
best or worst men in the world, there needs 
scarce any other accomplishment, than with in- 
temperate zeal to engage on one side, and 
against another." — Bishop of Oxford's Charge, 
1716, p. 11. 



[Rural -Deans.] 

"' This is a vast business in this large diocese, 
and requires great diligence and application of 
mind ; and I have often been much concerned 
and grieved that I want that assistance of which 
the constitution and external regimen and ad- 
ministration of the church has been provided ; — 
I mean the assistance of Bnral Deans, which of- 
fice is a part of our constitution, and is yet ex- 
ercised in some dioceses of this kingdom, but has 
unhappily been disused in this (for how long 
time I know not), to the great loss and hindrance 
of ecclesiastical administration. 

" By the impartial and diligent execution of 
this office, the bishop might be eased in a great 
part of that duty, which is too heavj- a burden 
for his own shoulders. The ignorant, the fac- 
tious, the scandalous, the negligent, the dissent- 
ing, might easily be detected in a small deanery ; 
and being signified to the bishop, or rather first 
of all and immediately to the archdeacon, might 
be timely and duely corrected and reformed. 
For the archdeacon inhabiting within his arch- 



BISHOP OF LINCOLN— SHAFTESBURY. 



53 



deaconry, as is most proper, might easily be re- 
sorted to upon occasion, and so hear and amend 
many faults which might be brought to him by 
the rural dean, without application to the bishop. 
" If a bishop of this extensive diocese was 
provided of active and faitlil'ul persons in the 
several deaneries, which retain the name yet, his 
business might be manageable, and his authority 
and government useful ; whereas, for want of 
these, no bishop here can do so much and so 
well as he might be willing and glad to do." — 
Bishop of Lincoln's Charge, 1697, p. 7. 



[The Chancel] 

" As there is in every church a font for bap- 
tism, so there is a part of the church very con- 
venient and proper, and generally fitted and 
prepared for the celebration of the Lord's Sup- 
per, which we call the Chancel. Here the Com- 
munion Table may be placed, and the commu- 
nicants receive with greater order, decency, and 
convenience for devotion, than in the body of the 
church, and the seats there. I doubt not but 
you, m}' Brethren, are sensible of this, and sat- 
isfied in it, finding great inconvenience in conse- 
crating in so strait a place as an ally of the 
Church, and delivering the bread and wine in 
narrow seats over the heads and treading upon 
the feet of those that kneel ; when by removing 
into the Chancel at the time of that solemnity, 
every one may kneel without disturbance, and 
receive with easiness, and see the whole office 
performed. 

" This is so proper and so becoming, that one 
cannot but wonder that the parishioners in any 
place should be averse to receive the Sacrament 
in this order, and that Rectors, as well impro- 
priate as propriate, should not take more care 
to fit their Chancel for this purpose, but that 
some lie wholly disused, in more nastie manner 
than any cottager of the parish would keep his 
own house ; others are employed for keeping 
school, by reason of which the seats, pavement, 
and windows are commonly broken and defaced, 
not to mention other rudenesses and indecencies 
which are not fit to be permitted in a place set 
apart for God's worship. 

" But the reason that some give, as I have been 
informed, why they except against the use of the 
Chancel at the time of celebrating the Lord^s 
Supper, is still more to be wondered at. They 
say it is Popery, and that ministers that use their 
Chancels for this office are Popishly inclined. 
But why Popery ? Is it because the Romish 
priests before the Reformation made use of the 
Chancel to say Mass ? So they used the body 
of the church to perform other parts of the Pop- 
ish service, and for that reason they may as well 
except against the use of the church for reading 
the Scriptures and preaching, as again.st the use 
of the Church for administering the Communion ; 
and there want not those who carry the argu- 
ment so far as to cry down the use of Churches 
in general : But how weak and how unreasona- 
ble is this? What if the Popish priest said 



Mass at the altar in the Chancel, may not the 
ministers of the Church of England for that rea- 
son perform the Communion Service there with- 
out the imputation of Popery ? If there be any 
Popery, it must be in the Communion office, and 
if that have anything of Popery in it, why do 
they receive the communion in the Church ? If 
it have not, why may they not receive it in the 
Chancel? For there cannot be Popery in the 
Fabrick, nor in the seats, or table, it must be in 
the Office, or nowhere ; and one may safely af- 
firm that no man can prove it to be there." — 
Bishop of Lincoln's Charge, 1697, p. 21. 



[ Considerations on Religious Pomp and Circum- 
stances.] 

"I SHALL conclude with observing how ably 
the Roman Christian and once Catholic Church, 
by the assistance nf their converted emperors, 
proceeded in the establishment of their growing 
hierarchy. They considered wisely the super- 
stitions and enthusiasms of mankind ; and proved 
the different kinds and force of each. All these 
seeming contrarieties of human passion they 
knew how to comprehend in their political mod- 
el and subservient system of Divinity. They 
knew how to make advantage, both from the 
high speculations oi philosophy, and the grossest 
ideas of vulgar ignorance. They saw there was 
nothing more difficult than that enthusiasm which 
ran upon spirituals, according to the simpler 
views of the Divine existence, and that which 
ran upon external pi'oportions, magnificence of 
structures, ceremonies, processions, quires, or 
those other harmonies which captivate the eye 
and ear. On this account they even added to 
this latter kind, and displayed religion in a yet 
more gorgeous habit of temples, statues, paint- 
ings, vestments, tapers, mitres, purple, and the 
cathedral pomp. With these arms they could 
subdue the victorious Goths, and secure them- 
selves an Attila, when their Caesars failed them. 

" The truth is, 'tis but a vulgar species of en- 
thusiasm, which is moved chiefly by shciv and 
ceremony, and wrought upon by chalices, can- 
dles, robes, and figured dances. Yet this, we 
may believe, was looked upon as no slight ingre- 
dient oi devotion in those days ; since at this hour 
the manner is found to be of considerable effica- 
cy with some of the devout amongst ourselves, 
who pass the least for superstitious, and are reck- 
oned in the number of the polite world. This 
the wise hierarchy duly preponderating, but be- 
ing satisfied withal that there were other tem- 
pers and hearts which could not so easily be cap- 
tivated by this exterior allurement, they assigned 
another part of religion to proselytes of another 
character and complexion, who were allowed to 
proceed on a quite different bottom ; by the in- 
ward way of contemplation and Divine love. 

" They are indeed so far from being jealous 
of mere enthusiasm or the ecstatic manner of de- 
votion, that they allow their Mysticks to write 
and preach in the most rapturous and seraphic 
strains. They suffer them, in a manner, to su- 



54 



SHAFTESBURY. 



persetle all external worship, and triumph over 
outward forms ; till the refined religionists pass- 
ed so far as either expressly or seemingly to dis- 
suade the practice of the vulgar and established 
ceremonial duties. And then, indeed, they check 
the supposed exorbitant enthusiasm which would 
prove dangerous to their hierarchal state. 

" If modern visions, prophecies and dreams, 
chariits, t7iiraclcs, e.vorcis7ns, and the rest of this 
kind be comprehended in that which we call fa- 
naticism or superstition ; to this spirit they allow 
a full career; whilst to ingenious WTiters they 
afford the liberty, on the other side, in a civil 
manner to call in question these spiritual feats 
performed in monasteries, or up and down by 
their mendicant or itinerant priests, and ghostlv 
missionaries. 

'■ This is that antient hierarchy, which in re- 
spect of its first foundation, its policy, and the 
consistency of its whole frame and constitution, 
cannot but appear in some respects august and 
venerable, even in such as we do not usually es- 
teem weak e)"es. These are the spiritual con- 
querors, who, like the first Csesars, from small 
beginnings established the foundations of an al- 
most universal monarchy. No wonder if at this 
day the immediate view of this hierarchal resi- 
dence, the city and court of Rome be found to 
have an extraordinary effect on foreigners of oth- 
er later churches. No wonder if the amazed 
surveyors are for the future so apt either to con- 
ceive the horridest aversion to all priestly gov- 
ernment ; or, on the contrary, to admire it, so 
far as even to wish a coalescence or reunion 
with this ancient Mother -ChMYch. 

'' In reality, the exercise of power, however 
arbitrary or despotic, seems less intolerable un- 
der such a .spiritual sovereignty, so extensive, 
antient, and of such a long succession, than un- 
der the petty tyrannies and mimical politics of 
some new pretender. The former may even 
persecute with a tolerable grace. The latter, 
who would willmgly derive their authority from 
the former, and graft on their successive right, 
must necessarily make a very awkward figure. 
And whilst they strive to give themselves the 
same air of independency on the civil magistrate, 
whilst they affect the same authority in govern- 
ment, the same grandeur, magnificence, and 
pomp in worship, they raise the highest ridicule 
in the eyes of those who have real discernment, 
and can distinguish originals from copies. 

imitatores, servum piciis /" 

Shaftesbury's Characteristics, 
vol. 3, p. 90. 



[Sheep called by Name.] 
" I HAVE met with an illustration of Scripture 
which interests me. Having had my attention 
directed last night to the words, John, x., 3, The 
sheep hear his voice, and He calleth His own 
sheep by name, ^c, I asked my man if it was us- 
ual in Greece to give names to the sheep : he 
informed me that it was, and that the sheep obey- 



ed the shepherd when he called them by their 
names. This morning I had an opportunity of 
verifying the truth of this remark. Passing by 
a flock of .sheep, I asked the shepherd the same 
question which I had put to my servant, and he 
gave me the same answer. I then bade him to 
call one of his sheep : he did so, and it instantly 
left its pasturage and its companions, and ran up 
to the hand of the shepherd with signs of pleas- 
ure, and with a prompt obedience which I had 
never before observed in any other animal. It 
Ls also true of the sheep in this country, that a 
stranger u-ill they not folloic, but icill flee from 
him; for they know not the voice of strangers. 
The shepherd told me that many of his sheep are 
still wild ; that they had not yet learned their 
names ; but that by teaching they would all learn 
thom. The others which knew their names he 
called tame. How natural an application to the 
state of the human race does this description of 
the sheep admit of ! The Good Shepherd laid 
down His life for His sheep ; but many of them 
are still wild ; they know not his voice. Othere 
have learned to obe)' his call and to follow him ; 
and we rejoice to think that even to those not yet 
in his fold the words are applicable. Them also I 
must bring ; and they shall hear my voice ; and 
there shall be onefold and one shepherd.'' — Church 
Missionary Record, p. 98. 

[Rcligioiis Societies and Orders — analyzed.] 
"Universal good, or the interest of the world 
in general, is a kind of remote philosophical ob- 
ject. That greater community falls not easily 
ujider the eye. Nor is a national interest, or 
that of a whole people, or body politic, so readi- 
ly apprehended. Li less parties, men may be 
intimately conversant and acquainted ■with one 
another. The)' can there better taste society, 
and enjoy the common good and interest of a 
more contracted public. They view the whole 
compass and extent of their community ; and see 
and know particularly whom they serve, and to 
what end they associate and conspire. All men 
have naturally their share of this cotnbini7ig prin- 
ciple : and they who are of the sprightliest and 
most active faculties, have so large a share of it, 
that unless it be happily directed by right rea- 
son, it can never find exercise for itself in so re- 
mote a sphere as that of the body politic at large. 
For here perhaps the thousandth part of those 
whose interests are concerned, are scarce so 
much as known by sight. No visible band is 
formed ; no strict alliance : but the conjunction 
is made with different persons, orders, and ranks 
of men ; not sensibly, but in idea ; according to 
that general view or notion of a state or common- 
icealth . 

" Thus the social aim is disturbed, for want 
of certain scope. The close sympathy and con- 
spiring virtue is apt to lose itself, for want of 
direction, in so wide a field. Nor is the passion 
anywhere so strongly felt, or vigorously exert- 
ed, as in actual conspiracy or war : in which the 
highest geniuses are often known the forwardest 



SHAFTESBURY. 



55 



to employ themselves. For the most generous 
spirits ai'e the most combining. They delight 
most to move in concert ; and feel (if I may so 
say) in the strongest manner, the force of the 
confederating charm. 

" 'Tis strange to unagine that war, which of 
all things appears the most savage, should be 
the passion of the most heroic spirits. But 'tis 
in war that the knot oi fellowship is closest drawn. 
'Tis in war that mutual .succour is most given, 
mutual danger run, and common affection most 
exerted and employed. For heroism and philan- 
thropy are almost one and the same. Yet by a 
small mis-guidance of the affection, a lover of 
mankind becomes a ravager : a hero and deliv- 
erer becomes an oppressor and destroyer. 

" Hence other divisions amongst men. Hence, 
in the way of peace and civil goverm^ient, that 
love of party and subdivision by cabal. For se- 
dition is a kind of cantonizing already begun 
within the state. To cantonize is natural, when 
the society grows vast and bulky ; and powerful 
states have found other advantages in sending 
colonies abroad than merely that of having el- 
bow-room at home, or extending their dominion 
into distant comitries. Vast empires are in 
many respects unnatural ; but particularly in this, 
that, be they ever so well constituted, the affairs 
of many must, in such governments, turn upon 
a very few; and the relation be less sensible, 
and in a manner lost, between the magistrate and 
people, in a body so unwieldy in its lunbs, and 
whose members lie so remote from one another, 
and distant from the head. 

" 'Tis in such bodies as these that strong fac- 
tions are aptest to engender. The associating 
spirits, for want of exercise, form new move- 
ments, and seek a narrower sphere of activity 
when they want action in a greater. Thus we 
have wheels within wheels. And in some nation- 
al constitutions (notwithstanding the absurdity 
in politics) we have one empire within another. 
Nothing is so deliglitful as to incorporate. Dis- 
tinctions of many kinds are invented. Religious 
Societies are formed. Orders are erected; and 
their interests espoused and .served with the ut- 
most zeal and passion. Founders and patrons 
of this sort are never wanting. Wonders are 
performed in this wrong social spirit, by those 
members of separate societies. And the asso- 
ciating genius of man is never better proved than 
in those very societies which are formed in op- 
position to the general one of mankind, and to 
tlie real interest of the state." — Shaftesbury's 
Characteristics, vol. 1, p. 111. 



[Question of revived Prophecy.] 
" The new prophesying sect pretend, it seems, 
among many other miracles, to have had a most 
signal one, acted premeditately, and with warn- 
ing, before many hundreds of people, who act- 
ually give testimony to the truth of it. But I 
would only ask, Whether there were present, 
among those hundreds, any one person who, hav- 
ing never been of their sect, or addicted to their 



way, will give the .same testmdony with them? 
I must not be contented to ask, Whether such a 
one had been wholly free of that particular en- 
thusiasm ? but whether before that time he was 
esteemed of so sound a judgement and clear a 
head, as to be wholly free of melancholy, and in 
all likelihood incapable of all enthusiasm be- 
sides ? For otherwise, the panic may have 
been caught ; the evidence of the senses lost, as 
in a dream ; and the imagination so inflamed, as 
in a moment to have burnt up every particle of 
judgement and reason. The combustible mat- 
ters lie prepared within, and read}' to take fire 
at a spark, but chiefly in a multitude seized with 
the same spirit. No wonder if the blaze rises 
so of a sudden ; when innumerable eyes glow 
with the passion, and heaving breasts are la- 
bouring with inspiration ; when not the aspect 
onl)', but the very breath and exhalations of men 
are infectious, and the inspiring disease imparts 
itself by insensible transpiration. I am not a 
divme good enough to resolve what spirit that 
was which proved so catching among the antient 
prophets, that even the profane Saul was taken 
by it. But I learn from Holy Scripture that 
there was the evil as well as the good spiirit of 
prophecy. And I find by present experience, 
as well as by all histories, sacred and profane, 
that the operation of this spirit is evei'j'where 
the same, as to the bodily organs. 

"A gentleman who has writ lately in defence 
of revived prophecy, and has since fallen him- 
self into the prophetic ecstacies, tells us, ' that the 
antient prophets had the Spirit of God upon them 
under ecstacy, with divers strange gestures of body 
denominating them madmen (or enthusiasts), as 
appears evidently says he, in the instances of Ba- 
laam, Saul, David, Ezekiel, Daniel, &c.' And 
he proceeds to justify this by the practice of the 
apostolic times, and by the regulation which the 
apostle himself applies to these seemingly irreg- 
ular gifts, so frequent and ordinary (as our au- 
thor pretends) in the primitive church, on the 
first rise and spreading of Christianity. But I 
leave it to him to make the reseml)lance as well 
as he can between his own and the apostolic 
way. I only know that the symptoms he de- 
scribes, and which himself (poor gentleman !) la- 
bours under, are as heathenish as lie can possible- 
pretend them to be Christian. And when I saw 
him lately under an agitation (as they call it) 
uttering prophecy in a pompous Latin style, of 
which, out of the ecstacy, it seems, he is wholly 
incapable, it brought into ray mind the Latin 
poet's descriptions of the Sibyl, whose agonies 
were so perfectly like these. 

-Subito non vultus, non color nnus, 



Non compt(E mansere comce ; sed pectus anhelum, 
Et rabie fera corda tument ; majorque videri. 
Ncc mortalc sonans : affiata est numine quando 

Jam propriore Dei 

And again, presently after, 
Immanis in antra 



Bncchatur Vales, magnum si pcctore possit 
\ Excussissc Dcum : tanto magis Ilk fatigat 



56 



FREEMAN. 



Os rabidum, fera corda domans, fingitque pre- 
niendo.'' 

Shaftesbury's Characteristics, 
vol. 1, p. 44. 



[Correspondences in Nature — how they 'lead on to 
proper Thoughts.] 

" A MAN who looks at nature with an att^tive 
eye, will observe in it many correspondences. 
Some of these correspondences are of necessity, 
and others appear to be the effect of positive in- 
stitution. Of the former are all geometrical re- 
lations, and the harmony of nmnbers ; as, to give 
only one example, the harmony which exists be- 
tween numbers in arithmetical and geometrical 
progression, from which is derived the whole 
doctrine of logarithms. Every person present 
will recollect man}- instances of correspondence, 
which seem to be of positive institution, in the 
art or science with which he is best acquainted. 
A man who has frequently contemplated with 
delight these correspondences, may, perhaps, be 
ready to expect them where he will look for 
them in vain ; or at least he may wish that they 
were still more mmaerous. In particular, he 
would be not a little pleased if an exact harmo- 
ny was to be found between the motions of the 
earth and the moon and the apparent diurnal 
and annual revolutions of the sun. If he was to 
give a theoretical account of what he would 
choose the year and its divisions to be, he would 
say, — The year consists of an even number of 
months, and of days, without any fractions. The 
motions of the moon and earth are so exactly 
accommodated to each other, that the last day 
of the last month is the last day of the year. 
Eight is a number which can be evenly divided 
for ever : there are therefore eight months in 
the year. The moon revolves round the earth, 
from change to change, precisely in sixty-four 
days, which are conveniently distributed into 
eight weeks : so that the year consists of eight 
months, sixty-four weeks, and five hundred and 
twelve days. For the sake of producing the 
variety of the seasons, the axis of the earth is 
inclined to the plane of its orbit ; but this orbit 
is a circle ; and consequently the seasons are of 
equal lengths. Such an arrangement prevents 
the painful labours of the astronomer : chronol- 
ogy is freed from all its embarrassments ; gold- 
en numbers and other hard words, which would 
puzzle the heads of the unlearned, are unknown ; 
every man, without any mathematical skill, can 
make his own almanack ; the length of the }'ear 
is the same in all ages and countries, and there 
can be no necessity of ever reforming the cal- 
endar. 

" A theory of this sort is apt to enter the mind 
of a man, who thinks, but who does not think 
profoundly. With Alphonzo, king of Castile, 
who lived at a period when the science of astron- 
omy was imperfectly understood, he may be ready 
to say. The universe is strangely made ; if I had 
been consulted, I could have arranged the heav- 
enly bodies in a more exact order. 



" That the actual state of things differs from 
this theory ; that there is no exact correspond- 
ence between the motion of the earth and the 
moon, no harmony between the day and the year, 
is ■well known. The year does not comprise a 
precise number of days, or equal parts of a day ; 
it cannot be measiu^ed by any number of moons ; 
nor by any number of weeks, hours, minutes, or 
even seconds. In consequence of this want of 
harmony, astronomy is one of the most dilficult 
of all sciences, and chronology is full of perplex- 
ities. Many ages elapsed before even the length 
of the year was ascertained- They who made 
it consist of twelve moons, found that the com- 
mencement of the year was continually moving 
backward, from winter to autumn and from sum- 
mer to spring. He, therefore, who first conjec- 
tured that it contained three hundred and sixty 
days, was supposed to possess great sagacity ; 
and still wiser was he thought, who approached 
nearer, by adding five days more. An Ulustrious 
action of a renowned conqueror was the inven- 
tion of the leap-year. But neither was his year 
exact ; for after the lapse/ of a number of centu- 
ries, the calendar was perceived to have fallen 
again into confusion ; so that it became necessary 
to reform it once more ; which was accordingly 
done by Pope Gregory XIII. The Gregorian 
year is that which is now in use ; but even this 
measurement, though it approaches very near to 
the truth, is not exact ; for after many thousand 
years have passed away, should the world exist 
so long, another reformation of the calendar wiU 
be required. In the mean while, the period of a 
month, though it was first suggested by, is some- 
what longer than the revolution of the moon ; 
and it cannot be divided into an equal nmuber of 
weeks. The months themselves are not of the 
same length ; and the commencement of the year 
is placed arbitrarily, and not on the days when 
the sun crosses the equinoctial line, nor on the 
days when it is either at its greatest or least dis- 
tance from the earth. 

'■ Thus irregular is the year. Happily, how- 
ever, in the present state of knowledge, no evils 
whatever result from this irregularity. We have 
calendars of time as exact as if astronomy was 
the easiest of sciences ; and though every man 
cannot calculate his own almanack, yet when it 
is made for him by the learned, it can be ren- 
dered intelligible to a simple capacity. The Be- 
ing who gives motion to the earth and the heav- 
enly bodies, could undoubtedly have arranged 
them in a different order, so as that there should 
have been more points of harmony and coinci- 
dence between them ; but in the arrangement 
which exists, his power and wisdom are suffi- 
ciently di-splayed. If the duration of the year 
could be measured by a precise number of days 
and moons, men would be ready to overlook the 
Author of nature, and would no more perceive 
his hand, than they now perceive it in the har- 
mony of numbers, which is believed to be inde- 
pendent of his will, and to be the result of the 
necessary relation of things : but when they learn, 
that to a certain number of days must be added, 



EVANGELICAL MAGAZINE. 



57 



hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of seconds, 
to complete the year, and that this measure con- 
tinues the same, without the smallest variation, 
from age to age, they are obliged to confess that 
it must proceed from the positive institution of a 
divine agent, and that he holds a balance, which 
is so exquisitely exact, as to weigh the most 
ponderous masses of matter, not only to tons, but 
to scruples and grains." — Freejian's Eighteen 
Sermons, p. 76. 



[Religious Twaddle.] 
"Mr. Editor, 
"I have seen it more than once recommended, 
in your valuable miscellany, to the attention of 
professing individuals and families, who ai-e in the 
habit of visiting watering places in the season, to 
retire to those places where they could render 
themselves useful in assisting some rising inter- 
est, while they could command all the advantages 
of sea air and bathing. At Seaton a congrega- 
tion has been recently raised, and a church 
formed, of the Independent denomination; also 
considerable exertions are making to promote the 
Redeemer's cause in its populous and dark neigh- 
bourhood ; but the countenance and assistance 
of good people are greatly wanted. Those who 
are attached to the salubrious air of Devonshire 
and to its beautiful sea-coast, will find, at the 
abovementioned village, commodious bathing, 
and lodgings good and reasonable, a delightful 
public walk and an open shore, with an interest- 
ing and most healthy neighbourhood, blended 
with the preaching of the gospel of Christ, and 
a small society of his true followers. Applica- 
tion on the subject of lodgings, &c., addressed to 
the Rev. J. Gleed, will meet with prompt atten- 
tion." — Evangelical Magazine, foi- July, 1831. 



[The proper Claim of our Clergy and Flocks at 
Home to be looked to — and then ivc may go and 
offer our Gift for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel in Foreign Parts. 

"It has for .some time been impressed upon 
my mind, and, doubtless, the same fact has been 
obvious to others, that, notwithstanding our ex- 
ertions for the support of the gospel in distant 
lands, a criminal indifference is manifested to- 
wards the claims of those whose energies and 
whose lives are spent in labours at home. There 
are many congregations that give annually a 
much larger sum to public institutions than they 
give for the support of their own ministers. While 
their names are emblazoned on the pages of a 
periodical, and the largeness of their contribu- 
tions acquire for them the character of liberality, 
in many instances, the man who has called forth, 
and cherished, and given direction to their zeal, 
is left to struggle with pecuniary difficulties, and 
to mourn over embarrassments from which they 
have abundant means to extricate him. 

" I am perfectly aware, that many churches 
are ignorant of their pastor's perplexities ; but 
is it not a wilful ignorance? Might they not, 



by a moment's reflection, ascertain that his sal- 
ary is inadequate to his expenditure ? In de- 
ciding on what is necessary to place a minister 
above trials of this nature, we must not calculate 
the bare amount that will cover his domestic 
outlay ; but remember that food and raiment 
form a small part only of what is required. He 
has a library that is constantly calling for addi- 
tions ; on his hospitality there are many claims 
— on his liberality there are more — the stranger 
is his guest, and the poor are his dependants. 
From the charge which has been here advanced, 
numbers will shield themselves, by announcing 
the fact, that their minister does not complain — 
that ho never seems dissatisfied. But has he no 
cause for dissatisfaction? and are you sure that 
he is free from secret anxieties ? The dread of 
being thought greedy of 'filthy lucre,' and thus 
of injuring his usefulness, may tie up his tongue, 
but it cannot fetter his feelings. From motives 
of delicacy, many never make known their diffi- 
culties ; but then these are the very men who 
suffer most keenly under the neglect which they 
experience. Now I would ask every Christian, 
and especially every deacon of a Christian church 
(for many of the77i are verily guilty beiwe God), 
whether it is not their duty to inquire if the sup- 
port of their pastor be sullicient to meet his ex- 
penditure ? The estimate may be easily made, 
and where there is ground for concluding that it 
is not sufficient, then I hesitate not to say, their 
duty is to be just before they are generous ; to 
consider whether they are not, among all their 
boasted deeds of charity, presenting robbery for 
a burnt offering." — The Evangelical Magazine, 
p. 381, August, 1827. 



[Pretended Miraculous Cure by Prince Hohenlohe.] 
" Notice d'une Guerison Extraordinaire, ob- 
tenue par la vertu de lapriere le 3 Juillet 1827, 
a la verrerie de Semsales au canton de Fribourg 
en Suisse. Publiee par permission de Monseign- 
eur I'Eveque diocesan, Fribourg en Sui-sse, chez 
Franfois-Louis Filler, Imprimeur de l'Evech6. 
1827. 

" Le nombre et la qualite des temoins, dont 
nos Commissaires ont refu les depositions et de- 
clarations, ne permettant point de rcvoquer en 
doute les circonstances principales et extraordi- 
naires de la guerison dont il s'agit, nous permet- 
tons d'en imprimer la presente Notice pour Fed- 
ification des fideles, et la plus grande gloire de 
Dieu. 

" Fribourg, le 22 Aout, 1827. 

PiERRE-ToBiE, Evcquc dc Lausannc 
et Genevc.^^ 

Prince Hohenlohe is the operator in this cure. 
Louise, a girl of twelve years old, daughter of 
M. Bremond, Chevalier de FOrdre du Christ, 
Consul General de Portugal en Suisse, proprie- 
taire et adminLstrateur des mines et verreries de 
Semsales, the subject. 

M. le Docteur Ody, medecin traitant, describes 



53 



JACKSON. 



the case thus, " Toute la rceion da ventre se 
trouviiit plus ou moins attointe d'unc eruption 
de furuncles, vulgairemcnt cloiix, avec fievre in- 
Hamuiatoirc, pcrte complettc d'appetit, insom- 
nie, maux de tetc habituels, ct maux de cceur 
tres-frequens. II en est resulte une grande fai- 
blesse. Au bout d'un mois de temps il s'est 
forme, maljire un traitcment com^enable, un 
groupe de furonclcs, sorte de clotix, sur le cote 
droit du bas ventre, qui a dcgenere en abces, 
dont il cut fallu faire I'ouverture avec instru- 
ment. Mais la malade montrant unc repugnance 
insurmontable, Toperation fut differee pendant 
trois jours en attendant son conscfltement. Sur 
ces entrefaites, du soir au lendemain la fluctua- 
tion purulente disparut, et a la suite de sa ras- 
sorption le ventre se gonfla tellement, que la 
fossette meme du cceur etait proeminente. La 
grande tension du ventre et de I'estomac, I'aug- 
mentation des maux de cceur et de tete, la perte 
de Tappetit toujours plus sensible, les douleurs 
continuelles dans le ventre, qui forf aient la mal- 
ade de rester couchee sur les reins, la continua- 
tion et progression de sa fie\Te qui ne cedait a 
aucun remede, reduisirent la malade dans un 
etat dangereux." 

The father then \sn-ote to the bishop, request- 
ing he would applj' to Prince de Hohcnlohc. 
The bishop promised so to do, but " reflechis- 
sant ensuite sur le danger de la maladie de la 
DUe Breraond, sur le temps plus ou moins lontr 
qui s'ecoulerait avant de reccvoir la reponse du 
Prince, et le jour plus ou moins eloigne qu'il fix- 
erait, selon sa pratique, pour la priere sollicitee, 
engagea M. Bremond, par une nouvelle lettre 
du 19 Juin, a recourir, en attendant la reponse 
au moven suivant, savoir : a faire une neuvaine 
dc pricres de maniere a la finir le 3 du mois 
prochain (juillet) vn que le Prince de Hohen- 
lohe, sur les norabreuses demandes qui lui ont 
ete addressees, et par un effet de son ardente 
charite, prie, le 3me de chaque mois, pour les 
personnes de la Suisse, qui s'unissent a lui en 
esprit pour implorer quelque bienfait de la toute 
puissance de Seigneur, celebrant pour elles la 
sainte messe de huit a neuf heures du matin. 
Ces personnes s'y preparent ordinairement par 
une neuvaine en I'honneur et sous I'invocation 
du tres-saint nom dc Jesus." 

Thus then it was arranged, and moreover the 
child was to receive her first communion on the 
3d, " en invoquant le saint nom de Jesus pour 
en obtenir .sa guerison." 

The neuvaine was comraenced on June 25. 
The next day the child discovered an invincible 
repugnance against all medicine, and as strong 
a belief that the course of prayers was to ciu-e 
her. No intreaties could prevail upon her to 
take any thing that was prescribed internally ; 
on the day of her communion it was, she said, 
that she should be cured, — and she promised to 
go on with her medicine the day afterwards. 

The day before, a Protestant physician. Dr. 
Coindet, visited her. He found her better : the 
chances for life or death, he said, were even ; 
before this he had thought that the chances were 



as ninety-five out of a hundred against her re- 
covery. 

After the nine days, and the communion, the 
family were at breakfast : Louise rose, drest 
herself, and was found in the garden gathering 
flowers, perfectly well. " EUe se frappait des 
deux mains sur le ventre, qui precedemment 
etait si sensible et .si douloureux, comrae le siege 
de la maladie, et s'ecriait, vo3'ez, papa, je .suis 
guerie ; comrae c'est drole a-present, d'etre 
guerie." 

And this is the miracle. It is not possible 
from the pamphlet to get at the opinion of the 
Protestant physicians. 



[Parallel of mir Own and of Jewish Sins.'\ 
" But however these latter Jews, almost from 
the time of their return from Babylon, did in- 
crease the measure of their forefathers' grosser 
sins, by too nice and rigid reformation of them, 
and added Pharisaical hypocrisy unto them, as a 
new disease of the soul .scarce heard of before ; 
yet this hypocrisie, though epidemical to this 
nation, had not the strength to bring forth that 
monster of uncharitableness, which did portend 
the ruin of this mighty people, until they were 
invaded by the Romans. For from the time 
that this nation w^as brought into subjection by 
Pompcy the Great, their church-governors did 
allow and appoint daily sacrifices to be oflfered 
for the peace and tranquillity of the Roman 
empire and security of the emperors. But a 
little before the fulfilling of this prophesie in my 
text, there arose a sect which did condemn this 
custom, after an hundred j-ears' continuance, as 
unlawful, as contrary to the law of God, as a 
pollution of the temple. And it is a point ob- 
servable by such as read the History of Josephus, 
that of all the irregularities or prodigious villa- 
nies committed in the temple, during the time 
of the siege, as the tumidtuous disposition of 
their high priests and murder of them, and oth- 
ers of better place, the faction, surnamed (by 
themselves) the Zealous, were the chief authors 
and abettors. The fruit of this their blind and 
misguided zeal, was to misinterpret the murder 
of their brethren, which would not comply with 
them in their furious projects to be the best 
service, the only sacrifice then left to offer unto 
God ; for the daily sacrifice of beasts did cease 
for want of provision, they having plenty, or suf- 
ficiency of nothing but of famine. Now, to par- 
allel the sins of our nation, of this present gen- 
eration, especially with the sins of the latter 
Jews ; as for sins against the second table, no 
man of impartial understanding or experience 
can deny that we far exceed them, unless it be 
for murder only ; disobedience to parents, to 
magistrates, adultery, fornication, theft, false- 
witness-bearing, and coveting their neighbours' 
goods, are far more rife amongst us than they 
were, or could be amongst them, at least in the 
practice. The keen edge of some few give us 
occasion to conjecture what the bloody voicfb of 
misguided zeal would be, could it once get as 



1 



HABINGTON— WARD— SOUTHWELL— NICHOLSON AND BURN, ETC. 59 



strong a back as it had in these Jews, when there 
was no king in Israel, or in that Anarchy where- 
in every one did that which was pleasing in his 
own eyes. Again, no man not surprised with a 
Jewish shimber, but may clearly see how many 
amongst us place a great part of religion in be- 
ing as extremely to the Romish church, as these 
latter Jews were to the idolatry or superstition 
of the heathen or of their forefathers. Now if 
this zeal of contrariety to Romish superstition be 
but equal to the like zeal in the Jeivs, the hypoc- 
risie, which is the resultance of misguided zeal, 
must needs be more malignant. And easy it 
were, if place and time did permit, to demon- 
strate how these men condemn themselves by 
judging the Romish doctrine and discipline in 
her grossest errors and practices. Antarcticks 
they are, and think they can never be far enough 
from the North Pole, until they run from it into 
the South Pole, and pitch their habitation in ter- 
ra incognita, in a world and church unknown to 
the ancients, and, I fear, unto themselves." — 
Jackson's Works, vol. 2, p. 380. 



[" The Righteous hath Hope in his Deaths} 
" What perfumes come 
From the happy vault ? In her sweet martyrdom 
The nard breathes never so; — nor so the rose, 
When the enamour' d Spring by kissing blow 
Soft blushes on her cheek ; nor the early East 
Vying with Paradise, i' the pha3nix nest. 
These gentle perfumes usher in the day. 
Which from the night of his discoloured clay 
Breaks on the sudden ; for a soul so bright 
Of force must to her earth contribute light. 
But if we are so far blind we cannot see 
The wonder of this truth, yet let us be 
Not infidels ; nor like dull atheists give 
Ourselves so long to lust, till we believe 
(To allay the grief of sin) that we shall fall 
To a loath'd nothing in our funeral. 
The bad man's death is horror : but the just 
Keeps something of his glory in his dust." 

Habington, Elegie viii. 



[The Mussulman and Arabic.] 
" Walking out one morning, I heard a Mus- 
.sulman reading aloud. A friend m company 
asked him the meaning of what he was reading. 
The poor devotee said, ' Ah ! sir, who can un- 
derstand Arabic ?' Yet the reading of what he 
did not comprehend was supposed to be very mer- 
itorious. Thousands of Hindoos and Mussulmans 
spend incredible portions of time in audibly read- 
ing what they have no apparent wish to under- 
stand. The writer of the Ug-vada prescribes 
attention to the author, subject, metre, and pur- 
j)ose of each Muntru, but the meaning is of less 
importance."- Waud, vol. 1, p. 313. 



[Growth in Grace.] 
" For though there be great dilTerence be- 
tween the flower of childhood and the ripeness 



of old age, yet is it the same man that was then 
young and is now old. and though the parts of 
children's bodies be neither so big nor strong as 
they be in the full growth, yet are they the very 
same, equal in number and like in pro2Mrtion, 
and if any have altered shape unagreeable to the 
former, or be increased or diminished in number, 
the whole body either waxeth monstrous, or 
weak, or altogether dyeth. So ought it to be in 
Christian doctrine, that though by years the same 
be strengthened, by time enlarged, and advanced 
by age, yet always it remains unaltered and un- 
coiTupted. And though the wheat kernel which 
our forefathers have sown, by the husbandman's 
diligence hath sprung to a more ample form, 
hath more distinction of parts, and is become an 
ear of corn, yet let the propriety of the wheat be 
retained, and no cockle reaped where the wheat 
was sown." — Southwell. 



[The Saint's Bell.] 
"In the old church in Ravenstonedale there 
was a small bell, called the Saint's Bell, which 
was wont to be rung after the Nicene Creed, to 
call in the dissenters to the sermon. And to 
this day the dissenters, besides frequenting the 
meeting-house, oftentimes attend the sermon at 
church." — Nicholson and Burn's West., vol. 1, 
p. 524. 



[Heresy of Origen.] 
" One of Origen's heresies, for every specula- 
tion or conjecture of this extraordinary man was 
held to be a settled heretical opinion, was, that 
the coats of skins with w^hich the Lord clothed 
Adam and Eve when they were ^xpelled from 
Paradise, must be understood to mean their hu- 
man bodies ; and that before their expulsion they 
had neither nerves, flesh, nor bones." — Bernino, 
tom. 1, p. 122. St. Hier., Epist. 61. 



[Monastery of Seelig Michael.] 
" The ruins of the monastery of Seelig Mi- 
chael, much more ancient than those of Ballynas- 
cellig, are mentioned by Geraldus,' and are yet 
visible on a flat in the centre of the island, about 
fifty feet above the level of the sea. This flat 
consists of about three Irish acres, and here sev- 
eral cells of stone, closed and jointed without any 
cement, impervious to the wind, and (covered in 
with circular stone arches. Here also are the 
two clear fountains, where the pilgrims who, on 
the 29th of September, visited the island in great 
numbers, repeated stationary prayers, prepara- 
tory to their higher ascent. 

" The Lsland is, as Keating truly states, an im- 



1 Topogr. Hist. Dist, vol. 2, c. 30, where he mentions 
also the sacred wells of the Seelig Michael. It is impos- 
sible not to feel the force of the observation, that at both 
the Scyllean Promontories of Greece anil Italy, as well as 
at the great Seelif,' of Irelaiul, there were sacred fount- 
ain.'!, which were supposed to be enchanted, and were 
adored, and that they all have reference to the worship of 
Baal. 



60 



COLUMBANUS. 



mense rock, composed of high and ahuost inac- 
cessible precipices, which hang dreadl'ully over 
the sea ; having but one very narrow track lead- 
ing to the top, and of such difficult ascent that few 
are so hardy as to attempt it. The Druidic pil- 
grim, however, having made his votive offering 
at the sacred ivclls, proceeded to adore the sacred 
stone at the summit of the most lofty precipices 
of the island. 

" At the height of about one hundred and fifty 
feet above the sea, he squeezed through a hollow 
chasm, resembling the funnel of a chimney, and 
named the Needle's Eye, an ascent extremely 
difficult even to persons who proceed bare-footed, 
though there are holes cut into the rock for the 
purpose of facilitating the attempt. When this 
obstacle is surmounted, a new one occurs ; for i 
the only track to the smnmit is by an horizontal 
flat, not above a yard wide, which projects over 
the sea, and is named, in Irish, hie an dochra, the , 
stone oi pain. The difficulty of clinging to this 
stone is very great, even when the weather is i 
cahn ; but when there is any wind, as is com- , 
monly the case, the danger of slipping, or of be- | 
ing blown off, united with the dizziness occasion- 1 
ed by the inunense perpendicular height above 
the level of the sea, is such as imagination only 
can picture. When this projecting rock, about 
twelve feet in height, is surmounted, the remain- 
ing way to the highest peak is less difficult. 
But then, two stations of tremendous danger re- 
main to be performed. The first is termed the 
station of the EagWs nest, where a stone cross 
was substituted by the monks for the unhewn 
stone, the object of Druidic worship, which re- 
quired the previous lustrations and ablutions of 
the sacred wells. Here, if the reader will fancy 
a man perchal on the summit of a smooth slip- 
pery pinnacle, and poised in air about four hund- 
red and fifty feet above the level of the sea, be- 
holding a vast expanse of ocean westward, and 
eastward the Kerry mountains, which he over- 
looks, he may form some idea of the supersti- 
tious awe, which such tremendous Druidic rites 
were calculated to inspire ; and yet many pil- 
grims have proceeded from this frightful pinna- 
cle to the second, the most whunsical, as well 
as the most dangei-ous that even Druidic super- 
stition ever suggested. It consists of a narrow 
ledge of rock which projects from the pinnacle 
already mentioned, so as to form with it the fig- 
ure of an inverted letter L, projecting horizon- 
tally from the very apex of the pinnacle several 
feet, itself not being above two feet broad ! This 
ledge projects so far, as to enable him who would 
venture on it, to see the billows at the distance 
of four hundred and sixty feet in perpendicular, 
and the sea here is ninety feet deep, so that the 
largest man of war may ride in safety at anchor 
underneath ; and yet to this extreme end the pil- 
grim proceeded astride upon this ledge, until, 
quite at its utmost verge he kissed a cross which 
some bold adventurer dared cut into it, as an an- 
tidote to the superstitious practices of pagan 
times. ■■ — CoLu.MBANUs' Three Letters, p. 95. 



\Uncertainty of the Oath of Allegiance. \ 
"In the secret sjmods of 1809 and 1810, the 
domineering maxims of an Algerine form of 
church government were unblushingly avowed ! 
If I had not seen the acts of these synods, such 
was the confidence I reposed in some of our bish- 
ops, that they might have with the greatest ease 
succeeded in imposing upon me, as upon all Ire- 
land, any system of Church discipline they pleas- 
ed. But the bishops of TuUow unsheathed the 
sword of spiritual domination against the emi- 
grant clergy and laity of France, in a stj-le which 
plainly indicated, how unreservedly they would 
proceed, in similar circumstances, against the la- 
ity and clergy of their own conrmvmion at home ! 
Not content with laying the most venerable laws 
of the Catholic church prostrate at the mere icill, 
and absolute disposal of the Pope, they declared 
the solemn coronation of Buonaparte a holy act ; 
they concurred in the absolution of the French 
emigrants from thcii- allegiance to the Bomrbons, 
in less than one year after the Pope had acknowl- 
edged Louis XVIII. ! and they thus unequivocal- 
ly betrayed the secret, that our oath of allegiance 
may in the short period of one year, become prob- 
lematical, so that they may absolve us from its 
obligation, according to exigencies of times!"' — 
CoLUMBA^•rs ad Hibernos, No. 6, p. 6. 



[Irish Disobedience.] 

When the celebrated Irish Remonstrance was 
subscribed by seventy of our second order of cler- 
gy, and one himdred and sixty-four of our prin- 
cipal nobility, of whom twenty-one were peers, 
in the years 1661 and 1662, the subscribers were 
traduced as ha\"ing renounced the Pope. The 
nuncio at Brussels, De Vecchi, declared that loy- 
al Remonstrance, which had already disarmed 
persecution, to be sacrilegious and detestable. 
Monitories, citations, depositions, &e., were de- 
noimced against the subscribers for the space of 
twelve years, from 1661 to 1673 ;^ and four arch- 
bishops and nine bishops, who were appointed by 
Rome in the short inten-al from 1666 to 1671, 
contrived to assemble a s3'nod in Dublin, which 
agreed in a counter address, undid all that had 
been done, and rekindled the animosities of for- 
mer times ! 

■■ In justice to these bishops, they never dreamt 
of excluding the second order of olergy from our 
national synods. They knew that nothing could 
be canonicaUy transacted relating to faith or dis- 
cipline without their concurrence.* They there- 
fore took care to ensure a great majority, and 
then they called together a National Synod of 
the Ronton Catholic clergy, secular and regular, 
archbishops, bishops, provincials of orders, vicars- 
general, and other divines of Ireland, who con- 
tinued in synod from the 11th to the 25th of 
June, 1766. 



1 See the Jiibernica of Valerius, part 3. 

2 .?ee Pope Bened. XIV. De Synodo, vol. 1, p. 3. De vo- 
candis ad Syuodum, ordine sedendi, &c., justa proprium 
cujuaque gradum. 



COLUMBANUS— JEREMY TAYLOR. 



61 



" This was the only synod which, with the 
connivance of the civil power, had been hekl in 
any part of the British dominions since the reign 
of Queen Mary ; but such was the power of for- 
eign influence, that when the Duke of Oi'mond, 
then lord lieutenant, requested that they would 
give some assurance of future obedience, in case 
of the King's excommunication by the Pope, they 
absolutely refused to comply." — Columbanus ad 
Hibernos, No. 3, p. 107. 



[ Tale of St. Nicholas, from the Roman Brevia- 
ry — an Illustration.^ 
" It is only when the professors of Catholicity 
arrogate to themselves political command, under 
the mask of religion, that an attempt is made by 
them to extinguish the lamp of learning, to in- 
troduce the servitude of blind, compliance, and 
by the help of bulls, which enjoin obedience to 
vmjust censures, to establish ignorance and jjolit- 
ical Popery, by which the energies of men, shack- 
led through their minds, may never be convinced ! 
Then, whatever reading it recommends, is not 
only mixed up with the fabulous, but it is inter- 
larded with that species of the fabulous, which 
is best calculated to degrade the imderstanding, 
and to substitute the vilest credulity, the most ab- 
ject oriental servitude and subserviency of mind, 
for the manly energies, and the fortitude of relig- 
ion."' — CoLUMBANUs ad Hibernos, No. 6, p. 56. 



Transidjstantiation. 
'■ The error might be some excuse, if it were 
probable, or if there were much temptation to it. 
But when they choose this persuasion, and have 
nothing for it but a tropical expression of scrip- 
ture, which rather than not believe in the nat- 
ural, useless, and impossible sense, they v^nll defy 
all their own reason, and four of the five opera- 
tions of their soul, seeing, smelling, tasting, and 
feeling, and contradict the plain doctrine of the 
ancient church, before they can consent to be- 
lieve thLs error, that bread is changed into God, 
and the priest can make his Maker : we have 
too much cause to fear that the error is too gross 
to admit an excuse ; and it is hard to suppose it 
invincible and involuntary, because it is so hard, 
and so untempting, and so unnatural to admit the 
error, we do desire that God may find an excuse 
for it, and that they would not." — Jeremy Tay- 
i.oit. Dissuasive from Popery, part 1, p. 438. 



Indulgences. 
'•Though the gains which the Church of 
Rome makes of Indulgences, be a heap almost 

> One of the tales of the Roman Breviary, which I have 
read of in the office of this diiy, the fith of November, in- 
forms me, that St. Mrholas was a pious faster, even from 
his birth ; for on Weilncsdays and Fridays, he abstained 
from his mother's milk ; with a spirit of holiness worthy 
the imitation of all the students of Maynoolh, he turned 
his little pious lips from the profane spring of maternal 
nourishment ; and surely how can any pious Maynooth- 
ian complain, if he fares on Wednesdays and Fridays not 
more sumptuously than St. Nicholas ? 



as great as the abuses themselves, j^et the great- 
est patrons of this new doctrine could never give 
any certainty, or reasonable comfort to the con- 
science of any person that could inquire into it. 
They never durst determine whether they were 
Absolutions or Compensations ; whether they 
only take off the penances actually imposed by 
the Confessor, or potentially, and all that which 
might have been imposed ; whether all that may 
be paid in the Court of men, or all that can or 
will be required by the Laws and severity of 
God. - Neither can they speak rationally to the 
Great Question, whether the treasure of the 
church consists of the satisfactions of Christ 
only, or of the saints ? For if of saints, it will 
by all men be acknowledged to be a defeasible 
estate, and being finite and limited, all will be 
spent sooner than the needs of the church can 
be served ; and if therefore it be necessary to 
add the merits and satisfaction of Christ ; since 
they are an ocean of mfinit)', and can supply 
more than all our needs, to what purpose is it 
to add the little minutes and droppings of the 
saints ? They cannot tell whether they may 
be given if the receiver do nothing or give noth- 
ing for them ; and though this last particular 
could better be resolved by the Court of Rome 
than by the Church of Rome, yet all the doc- 
trines which built up the new fabric of Indul- 
gences were so dangerous to determine, .so im- 
probable, so unreasonable, or at best so uncer- 
tain and Invidious, that according to the advice 
of the Bishop of Modena, the Council of Trent 
left all the Doctrines, and all the Cases of Con- 
science quite alone, and slubbered the whole 
matter, both in the question of Indulgences and 
Purgatory, in general and recommendatory terms, 
affirming that the power of giving Indulgences 
is in the church, and that the use is wholesome ; 
and that all hard and subtle questions (viz.) con- 
cerning Purgatory (which although if it be at 
all, it is a fire, yet is the fuel of Indulgences, 
and maintains them wholly), all that is suspected 
to be false, and all that is uncertain, and what- 
soever is curious and superstitious, .scandalous 
or for filthy lucre, be laid aside. And in the 
mean time, they tell us not what is, and what is 
not superstitious ; nor what is scandalous ; nor 
what they mean by the general term of Indul- 
gence ; and they establish no doctrine, neither 
curious nor incurious, nor durst they decree the 
very foundation of the whole matter, the Church'.s 
Treasury ; neither <lurst they meddle with it. but 
left it as they found it, and continued in the abas- 
es, and proceeded in the jiractice, and set their 
doctors as well as they can, to defend all tho 
new and curious and scandalous qucstion.s, and 
to uphold the gainful trade." — .Jeremy Taylor. 
Dissuasive from Popery, p. 21. 

[Sober and sound Preaching — need of] 
"The truth indeed is, that before the Ref- 
ormation, this part of religious worship was 
much corrupted. Nor was it to be wondered at, 
where the service was in an unknown tongue, 



62 



WORDSWORTH— LEWIS. 



that efforts to please or to astonish the ear by 
the tric;ks of p,rt, and by passas^es of a laborious 
and rapid execution, should take the place of 
simple, grave, and solemn melodies. Wicklifle 
expresses himself with great severity on this sub- 
ject. See Lewis's History, p. 132-135. And 
in the same place, says very beautifully, in reply 
to an argument that might be used on the oth- 
er side, ' And if they scyn that angels hearen 
(praise) God by song in heaven; scye that ive 
kunncn {know) not that song ; but they ben in 
full victory of their enemies, and we ben, in per- 
ilous battle, and in the valley of weeping and 
mourning ; and our song Ictteth us fro better oc- 
cupation, and stirreth us to many great sins, and 
to forget ourselves.' Erasmus, in one of his 
Epistles, attributes the ignorance so prevalent in 
his times, partly to the want of sober and sound 
preaching of God's word, and partly to the en- 
croachments made upon Divine sc*'vice by the 
unbounded usage in churches of elaborate and 
artificial music. (Lib. 25, Epist. 64.) And in 
his Annotations on the New Testament, written 
about the year 1512, he gives a description which 
displays the same evil in very striking terms : 
' We have introdaced into the churches, a cer- 
tain elaborate and theatrical species of music, 
accompanied with a tumultuous diversity of 
voices. All is full of trvunpets, cornets, pipes, 
fiddles, and singing. We come to church as to 
a play-house. And for this purpose, ample sal- 
aries are expended on organists and societies of 
boys, whose whole time is wasted in learning to 
sing. These fooleries are become so agreeable, 
that the monks, especially in England, think of 
nothing else. To this end, even in the Bene- 
dictine monasteries of England, many youths, 
boys, and other vocal performers, are sustained, 
who, early every morning, sing to the organ the 
mass of the Virgin Mary, with the most harmo- 
nious modulations of voice. And the bishops 
are obliged to keep choirs of this sort in their 
families.' Annotat. in Epist. 1, ad Corinth, 
(chap. 14, V. 19.)" — Wordsworth's Ecclesias- 
tical Biography, vol. 1, p. 171. 



[WicHf opposed to the Introduction of the Netv 
Song.] 
" WicLiF opposed the introducing the New 
Song, which he says, they ' clepen God's .serv- 
ice,' and which he describes by ' deschaunt, 
countre note, and organ. By these,' says he, 
' the priests are letted fro studying and preach- 
ing of the Gospel.' So again he observes that 
Mattins, and Mass, and Evensong, Placebo and 
Dirige, and Commendation, and Mattins of our 
Lady were ordained of sinful men to be sung 
with high crying to lett men fro the sentence 
and understanding of that that was thus sung, 
and to maken men weary and undisposed to study 
God's law. For a king of beds, and of short 
time then more vain japes founden deschaunt, 
countre note, and organs, and small breking that 
stirreth vain men to daimcing more than mourn- 
ing. And therefore ben niauv urouJ and lech- 



erous losels founden and dowed with temporal 
and worldly lordships and great cost. But these 
fools shulden dread the sharj\ words of Austin, 
that scith. As oft as the song liketh me more 
than doth the sentence that is sung, so oft I con- 
fess that I sin grievously. And if these knack- 
ers e.xcusen them by song in the old law, seye 
that Christ that best kept the olde lawe as it 
shulde be afterwards taught not ne charged us 
with such bodily song, ne any of his apostles but 
with devotion in heart, and holy life and true 
preching, and that is enough and the best. But 
who shuld then charge us with more oure free- 
dom and lightness of Christ's law ? And if they 
seyn that angels hearen God by song in heaven ; 
seye that we kunnen not that song, but they beu 
in full victory of their enemies, and we ben in 
perilous battle ; and in the valley of weeping and 
mourning, and our song letteth us fro better oc- 
cupation, and stirreth us to many great sins, and 
to forget us selves : but our fleshly people hath 
more liking in their bodily ears in such knaek- 
ing and tattering than in hearing of God's law, 
and speaking of the blish of heaven. For they 
wolen hire proud priests and other lecherous lo- 
sels thus to knack notes for many marks and 
pounds : but they wolen not geve their alms to 
priestes and children to lerne and teche God's 
law. And thus by this novelrie of song is God's 
law unstudied, and not kept, and pride and oth- 
er great sins meynten'd, and these fonnyd lords 
and people gessen to have more thank of God, 
and worshipen him more in holding up of their 
own novekies with great cost than in learning 
and teching and meyntening of his law, and his 
servants, and his ordinance. But where is more 
deceit in faith, hope, and charity ? For when 
there ben fourty or fifty in a queer, three or foTir 
proud and lecherous losels .shullen knack the 
most devout service that no man shall hear the 
sentence, and all other shullen be dumb, and 
looken on them as fools. And then strumpets 
and thieves praisen sire Jack, or Hobb and Will- 
iam the proud clerk, how small they knacken 
their notes, and seyn that they serven well God 
and holy church, when they despisen God in his 
face, and letten other Christen men of their de- 
votion and compunction, and stirren them to 
worldly vanity ; and thus true service of God is 
letted, and this vain knacking for our jollity and 
pride is praised above the moon." — Lewis's Life 
of Wiclif p. 162. 



I 



I 
1 



[Petition to Pope Paul V., Src] 
" There is yet extant a petition to Pope Paul 
v., signed by eleven priests who were under sen- 
tence of death in Newgate for refusing James's 
oath in 1612. Two of their companions had 
already suflfered death for this oficnce. They 
died in resistance to legitimate authorit}', and by 
the instigation of a foreign power ! 

" In their petition they entreat of his Holiness, 
by all that is sacred, to attend to their horrible 
situation, and they beg of him to point out to 
them dearly, in what that oath, for which ibey 



COLUMBANUS. 



63 



were condemned to die, is repugnant to Catholic 
faith.' But yet, influenced by the courtly max- 
ims, they declare their belief in his unlimited 
power, and they conclude with a solemn protest 
of blind submission to all his decrees, with an 
obedience as implicit as if Rome were another 
Mecca, or as if the Vatican were the seraglio of 
a Mahomet ! 

" My heart swells with mingled emotions of 
pity on one side, and horror and indignation on 
another, when I contemplate the dilemma in 
which those wretched men were thus placed, by 
the pride and the ambition of their superiors. 
Before them was Tyburn, behind them stood, 
armed with fulminating thunders and terrors, 
that grim disgrace, in the opinion of their flocks, 
by which they would be overwhelmed as apos- 
tates, if they opposed the mandates of Rome. 
On one side conscience stared them in the face, 
with St. Paul f on another, a Vicar Apostolic 
menaced refusal of the sacrament, even on the 
eve of death ! This covered them with ignominy 
as apostates, — that, though frightful to hmnanity, 
was yet attended with posthumous renown ! 

'" Religion indignantly wraps herself up in her 
shroud of deepest mom-ning before the idol of 
ecclesiastical domination, when she observes the 
Roman Court sacrificing to its insatiable ambi- 
tion, the lives of so many heroes, who were wor- 
thy of a better fate ! perverting sacraments which 
were instituted for the sanctification o souls into 
engines of worldly passions, and rendering them 
subservient to the policy of those passions, and 
panders to their intrigues ! 

" I can fancy a haughty PontiflT, on receipt of 
this hmnble petition, agitated by contending dif- 
ficulties ! I can fancy him seated under a crim- 
son canopy, surrounded by his sycophants, debat- 
ing in a secret Consistory, whether these unfor- 
tunate men shall, or shall not, have permission 
not to be hanged! The blood of the innocent 
was now to be shed, or the deposing and absolv- 
ing doctrines, and all the Bulls and Decisions in 
their favour, to receive a deadly wound, which 
no ingenuity could parry, no force could avert, 
and no skill could cure. 

'■ Barrister Theologues of the poddle ! Blush- 
ing beauties of Maynooth ! Do let us hear what 
middle course you would have devised in such 
existing circumstances ! In the dedication of 



1 " In ergastulo, pedore, squalore. arumnis conficimur ; 
banorum sodalUio, amicorum solatia privamur ; in tenebris 
rivimiis. Ex hoc carcere, in quo decern et Ires sacerdotes, oh 
jusjiirandum rcpudiatum compinffimur, ex kdc inquam 
scJiold marlyrum, duo ex nostris, invictissimi martyres, in 
arenam prodcuntts, anno praterUo, spcclaculum czhibucrunt 
Deo, ansdis, hominibus gratissimnm, (^c. Per horum te 
marlyrum sanguinem, per laborcs et tcrumnaf, per vinculo, 
carccrcs, tormcnta, criicialus, per invictam palientiam, si mi- 
nus isla move7it, per viscera miscricordia Dei nostri, partem 
solicitudiiiis tine afflictissimis Anglite rehus impende, fyc. 
Sunt qui inter te et Caaarem fluctuant. Ut Veritas cluces- 
cat, digiietui" Sanctitas tua palani mnnibus j'acere quifiiiam 
ilia siiit in hoc roligionis sacrainonto quai a parte fidei et 
saluti adversantur," &c. — Dodd, vol. IS, p. .524, 

2 "Rom. xiii. Wherefore ye must needs be subject 
(to the civil powers) not only for vprath but also for con- 
science sake." St. Paul preached this doctrine when the 
established powers were pagan and persecuting. Pope 
Paul V. preached the reverse when the established power 
in England was Cliristian and tolerant! Pudet hsBC op- 
probria nobis ! 



one of your liodge-podges to Dr. Troy, j'ou de- 
clare that whatever opinion he dictates, that opin- 
ion is yours ! A fortiori your opinions would 
have been shaped by those of Pope Paul V., who 
deliberately encouraged the unfortunate priests 
in Newgate to suffer death ! to be offered up as 
victims on the altar of his pride, rather than re- 
sign his pretensions to the deposing power, or 
retract his decrees ! The Catholic religion, ca- 
lumniated on account of the ambition of his Court, 
had travelled barefooted over the Alps and the 
Apennines, from the dreary cells of a dark and 
noxious prison, and .stood bareheaded, and trem- 
bling, petitioning for admittance at the haughty 
portals of the Vatican ! Aye, and admittance 
was refused ! Day passed after day, and no an- 
swer was received but that which might be col- 
lected from the sullen silence of impenetrable ob- 
duracy and unbending domination ! Both Sixtus 
and Pius V. had addressed their Bulls with these 
magnificent titles — We, who are placed on the 
supreme throne of justice — enjoying supreme do- 
minion over all the Kings and Princes and States 
of the whole earth, not by human, but by Divine 
authority,' &c., and now how could it be expect- 
ed that in compliance with the petition of eleven 
beggarly priests of the second order, such mag- 
nificent titles should be resigned '? No, said the 
scarlet Cardinal, perish the idea ! — let not an iota 
be yielded, else we shall lose our worldly domin- 
ion, ' Venient Romani et tollent nostram Gentera 
et Regnum.' All the pride, and pomp, and glory 
of the Vatican would then be swept away from 
oflT the face of the earth, and what would then bo 
the fate of the thunders of scarlet Cardinals and 
purple Monsignores. 

'■ In consequence of this hori'ible decision, the 
following innocent English clergymen, alas ! how 
many Irish — suffered as victims to the domina- 
tion of Vicars Apostolic, and the fatal influence 
of the Court of Rome. 

"1. ' Rev. Mr. Cadwallader, refusing to take 
the Oath of Allegiance, with a promise of pardon 
at ^the place of execution, if he would comply, 
refused, and in blind obedience to Rome was exe- 
cuted at Leominster, August 27, 1610.' — Dodd, 
vol. 11. 

" 2. ' Rev. George Gervase, was executed at 
Tyburn, April 11, 1608, but was promised par- 
don a second tune, if he would take the Oath of 
Allegiance, which he refused.' — Ibid., vol. 16. 

"3. ^ Rev. Fr. Latham, executed at Tyburn, 
December 5, 1612, for refusing the Oath of Alle- 
giance.'' — Ibid. 

" 4. ' Rev. George Napier, hanged at Oxford. 
Nov. 9, 1610. The Vicc-Chancellor a.ssuring 
him of pardon if he would take the Oath of 
Allegiance, which he refused.' — Ibid., p. 373. 

" 5. ' Rev. Nicolas Atkinson, hanged at York, 
1610, for receiving orders by authority of the 
See of Rome, and for the additional circumstance 
of refusing the Oath of Allegiance.^ — Ibid., p. 
376. 



1 " Nos in supremo justitia: throne collocatu Suprrma?n 
in omncs lieges et Principcs univcrsu: tvrrai, cunetosque pop- 
ulos, gcntcs, et nationcs, non humand scd Diaind instiluHn- 
ne, nobis traditam potestatcm obtinentes," ifc. 



64 



LATIMER— SHERLOCK. 



" 6. ' Robert Dniry, hanged, London, Feb. 
26, 1607. He was one of the thirteen priests 
who signed the famous Protestation of Allegi- 
ance in the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, 
but refused the Oath of Allegiance, when it was 
offered him at his examination and trial, though 
he seemed inclined to take it before it was pro- 
hibited by the Pope's Briefs, as several others 
were, both Cleriiy and Regulars.' — Ibid., p. 377. 

"7. ^ Rev. Matthew Fluther, was executed at 
Yoi-k, 1608, but was promised his life if he 
would have submitted to the Oath of Allegiance.'' 
—Ibid. 

'• 8. ' Thomas Maxfield, hanged at Tyburn, 
July 11, 1616, had his pardon offered if he would 
submit to the Oath of Allegiance, which he re- 
fused. On the day of execution, some unknown 
persons contrived to hang garlands on the gal- 
lows, and scattered greens and flowers all un- 
derneath, to signify that his death was honour- 
able. — Ibid., p. 378. It was noised about that 
great numbers of Catholics appeared at his exe- 
cution, in order to dip their handkerchiefs in his 
blood and convey away his reliques. To pre- 
vent this, the mob seized his quarters, and threw 
them into a hole near the gallows, from whence 
they had dug the bodies of two malefactors, 
formerly buried there, and tumbling Mr. Max- 
fields quarters into the hole, they covered them 
with the said carcases. However, his friends 
were so industrious as to recover them again 
that night, and, as ray Memoirs inform me, not 
without an accident that was somewhat surpris- 
ing (a miracle!). The night being very dark, 
continued so, till a bright sky appeared to favour 
them while they were digging for the body, and 
then it grew dark again to favour them going 
off'— Ibid. 

"9. ' Rev. Thomas Gurnet had the favour of- 
fered him to be pardoned if he would but take 
the Oath of Allegiance, but refusing it he was 
executed at Tyburn, June 23, 1608.' — Ibid., p. 
413. EcHARD, Hist, of England, p. 385. 

" Let us now consider who, in the eye of un- 
prejudiced reason, was the persecutor and exe- 
cutioner of those unfortunate men, James or the 
Pope ? The evidence of facts is irresistible. 
The question bears not one moment's examina- 
tion. 'Qui facit per alium facit per se.' 

" If it should be alleged that the Pope pitied 
those men, who died for his worldly maxims of 
aggrandizement, that he was not cruel by na- 
ture, but by ptilicy, and that he would have saved 
them if he could by money, or at any expense 
short of the sacrifice of pompous pride, and un- 
controllable dominion, my answer is, that this 
aggravates his guilt." — CoLt;AiB.\.\t;s ad Hiber- 
nos. No. 6, p. 111. 



whensoever they put their loaves of bread into 
the oven, as many as drank of the pardon bowl 
should have pardon for drinking of it." — Lati- 
mer's Sermon on the Plough. 



[The Rosaries and St. Catharine.] 
PiETRo i)ELL.\ Valle took With him to the 
Holy Land many rosaries of ivory, and others 
of gold and silver, that he might touch with 
them the relics of St. Catharine, and make pres- 
ents of them at his return. 



[r/i€ Back-hmise Boicl.] 
" And they have devised to make us believe 
in other vain things by his pardons, as to have 
remission of sins for praying on hallowed beads, 
and for drinking of the back-house bowl ; as a 
Chanon of Waltham Abbey once told me, that 



[ Wickedness in a poor Estate the Cause of more 
Poverty.] 

" The miserable poor are generally the most 
corrupt and profligate part of mankind, the verj' 
reproach of human nature ; and if you make any 
curious observations about it, you will generally 
find, that it is not their poverty which makes 
them wicked, but their wickedness makes them 
poor : you shall very rarely see an honest, in- 
dustrious, sober, pious man, but makes a very 
good shift to live comfortably in the world, un- 
less the times prove very hard, that there is but 
little work, and provisions dear, or that his family 
increases so quick upon him that he has a great 
charge of children, before any of them are ca- 
pable of working for their living ; and in this 
case such industrious men seldom want friends, 
for every one who knows them is ready to help 
them : and therefore poor men ought to think of 
a future judgment not only to save their souls ; 
but to teach them to live in the world, to deliver 
them from the extreme pressures of want. And 
this is a double obligation upon poor men to think 
frequently of a future judgment, that it is neces- 
sary to provide a comfortable subsistence for them 
in this world, and to save their souls in the next. 
But whether this remove their poverty or no, it 
will support them under it, make them patient 
and contented with their portion here, if they 
govern their lives under the sense of a future 
judgment, it will support them under the mean- 
ness and calamities of their present fortune with 
better hopes : they will then contemplate Laz- 
arus in Abraham' s bosom, and comfort them- 
selves with the change of their condition, as soon 
as they remove into the other world : there they 
shall hunger no more, nor thirst any more ; their 
wants and sufferings in this world, if they bear 
them well, shall be greatl)- rewarded; and though 
they grovel in the dust here, and are worms and 
no men, thej^ shall then shine forth like the sun 
in the kingdom of their Father. It is a miserable 
condition indeed to remove from a dunghill to 
hell ; but a dunghill is a palace if it will advance 
us to heaven. Nothing but these things can make 
extreme poverty tolerable, but such hopes as these 
will make the poorest man rich and happy."— 
Sherlock on Future Judgment, p. 288. 



[Improveable Talents.] 
"And good God ! when we «onsider how 



I 
I 



SHERLOCK— EDWARD STEPHENS. 



65 



many talents we are entrusted with, it should 
make us tremble to think what little improve- 
ments we make of them : ever)' thing that is 
improveable to the service and glory of God, is 
a talent; and if we do not improve it to God's 
glory, and to do good in the world, it is a talent 
hid in a napkin, or buried in the earth. As to 
give some short hints and intimations of this ; 
for a just discourse about this matter would be 
too long a digression. 

" Power miLst be allowed to be a talent, and 
a very improveable talent ; for every degree of 
power gives men great opportunities of doing 
good. Some men move in a high sphere, and 
can give laws to those below ; their very exam- 
ples, their smiles or frowns are laws, and can do 
more to the reforming of the world, than the wis- 
est instructions, the most convincing Arguments, 
the most pathetical exhortations of meaner men. 

" But though few men have such a power as 
this, yet most men have some degree of power ; 
to be sure, every father and master of a family 
has ; his authority reaches his children and serv- 
ants, and were this but wisely improved, it would 
soon reform the world. 

" But how few are there who improve this 
talent ; who use their power to make those who 
are under their authority obedient to God, which 
is the true use and improvement of power. 

'■ Riches, I suppose, will be allowed to be an- 
other very improveable talent; for what good 
may not a rich man do, if he have a heart to do 
It ? He may be eyes to the blind, and feet to 
the lame ; a father to the fatherless, and a hus- 
band to the widow ; a tutelar angel, and even a 
god to men. And riches are a trust and a stew- 
ardship, of which we must give an account. To 
spend them upon our lusts, in riding, luxury, and 
wantonness, this is to wa.ste our master's goods : 
and to keep them safe, without doing any good 
with them, is to hide them in the earth as the 
unprofitable servant did his talent ; and if we 
must be judged and condemned for not improv- 
ing our talent, for not putting our Lord^s money 
to the Exchangers^ that when he comes he may 
receive his own with usury, as our Saviour tells 
us ; rich men ought to examine their accounts, 
and see what increase they have made of their 
talent ; not how they have multiplied their gold 
and silver, but what good they have done with 
it. Once more, wi.sdora and knowledge, espe- 
••ially the knowledge of God and of religion is 
a very improveable talent ; for there is nothing 
whereby we can more advance the glory of God, 
or do more good to men. To instruct the igno- 
rant, to confirm the doubtful, to vindicate the be- 
ing and providence of God, to shame and baffle 
atheism and infidelity, to expound the doctrines 
and laws of our Saviour, and rescuie them from 
perverse glosses and comments ; this makes the 
glory of God more visible to the world and serves 
mankind in their greatest and dearest interests ; 
it feeds their souls with knowledge and under- 
standing, directs them in the way to heaven, and 
minds them to take care of their eternal state." 
*■ — SuERLOCK on Future Judgment, p. 316. 
E 



[Edward Stephens — Certain Opinions of. as con- 
cerning the Root of all our Confusions.] 
" I CONSIDERED, that the root of all our confu- 
sions and troubles did proceed from two opposite 
factions, of Papists and Antipapists. That in 
each of these factions were many sincere people. 
who were carried with a stream of opinions, with- 
out sufficient consideration of the intermixture of 
truth and falsehood in them ; among the Papists 
or Roman Catholics, many sincere Catholics, ac- 
cording to the best of their knowledge ; and among 
the Antipapists, many sincere Primitive Chris- 
tians, according to the best of their understand- 
ing ; and that on both sides the doctrine preached 
by the .Apostles, once delivered to the Saints, and 
contended for by the primitive Christians, was so 
retained, that they, who are faithful to what is 
agreed, cannot be denied to be of the rank of the 
best Christians on both sides ; and therefore ought 
not to be troubled with matters of contention and 
doubtful disputations {Acts, xv. 24. Gal., i. 7, v. 
12. Rom. xiv. 1), perverting the gospel of Christ 
{Gal., i. 7), and subverting their souls {Acts, xv. 
24. 2 Tim., ii. 14), but be left quietly standing 
upon the rock {Matt., xvi. 18) till God reveal 
what is farther necessary to them {Phil., iii. 15). 
But that besides these there were many others, 
whose religion was too pharisaical in zeal for 
their own part}', with a dangerous presumption 
upon that, like that of the Jeivs heretofore ; and 
others again, the ivorst of all, men of no religion 
at all, but of design and interest, who, by pre- 
tended zeal for what they have no concern in 
truth, abuse all the rest ; and such have been 
the chief authors and promoters of all our troub- 
les." — Unaccountable Dealings of Roman Cath- 
olic Missionaries, p. 2. 

Edw.\rd Stephens, the author of this pam- 
phlett, was an odd personage, a sort of seceder 
from the Church of England in which he was 
ordained, who at the beginning of the 18th cen- 
tury formed a Church of his own. The princi- 
ples and practice of our little society, he says (p. 
39), are ''so truly catholic and unexceptionable, 
that I verily believe no person ean forsake our 
communion, to communicate either with the 
Church of England, or the Church of Rome it- 
self, witliout incurring the guilt of schism." 
And at the close he says that from which he has 
written, " all men of sense and ingenuity may 
reasonably conclude, that the good hand of (lod 
has by me his unworthy servant, vouchsafed to 
this nation a specimen of the true, genuine, Cath- 
olic Religion, to which all the re.st must conform, 
or incur the just censure of schismatics, secta- 
ries, or agents for a faction amongst men, and 
the judgments of God either here or hereafter." 



[Statesmen''s Attention called to the Chicanery of 

the Roman Court.] 

" The Roman Court is a new theatre for the 

improvement of English diplomacy. There are 

no ladies ; it is a Court composed of the most 



66 



COLUMBANUS. 



profound intriguers, all of whom are looking up 
to the Papacy, and all of wht)in are interested, 
personally interested in the agorandizement of 
the Holy See. There is perhaps no Court in 
the world that better deserves the attention of a 
statesman than the Roman, for this obvious rea- 
son, that there is no Court which has so many 
emissaries under such plausible appearances, 
and no place where the interests of other States 
are better understood. It is a notorious fact, 
and has been so since the days of Petrarch, that 
mcst of the Roman Prelates are better skilled in 
politics, than in divinity : that for one who is 
advanced to the Cardinalato for his skill in the- 
ology, ten are promoted for having, as Nuncios, 
discovered the secrets of foreign States. These 
prelates are usually sent legates, first to the 
three legations of Bologna, Ferrara, and Raven- 
na, to the Marquisates of Aiicona, and Urbino, 
to the lesser courts of Naples, Florence, Brussels, 
Cologne, to Switzerland, and to Venice. Genoa, 
as long as they were independent states. 

" Fi'om these smaller embassies they were 
sent to Vienna, Paris, Madrid, Wat-saw, Lisbon, 
&c., from which Couits they seldom returned 
without the cardinal's cap ; they were, of course, 
appointed members of the congregation for mat- 
ters q/ state ; and I may boldly say, that no 
prince in Europe can boast of a council com- 
posed of more artful counselors, or more refined, 
experienced, and crafty politicians. 

" Every one of the Cardinal Nuncios has been 
an eye-W'itness to the political proceedings of 
kings, emperors, ambassadors, agents, and Char- 
gees des afTaires ; every one of them has partic- 
ular information from his fellow nuncios of the 
transactions of the different Courts where they 
resided ; so that here is a combination of men, 
whose talents are improved by experience, nur- 
tured by observation, and concentrated as into a 
focus, from which they cast their eyes at once 
on all Europe ; these advantages, together with 
the particular accounts they are receiving daily 
from their Vicars and Nuncios in every quarter, 
enable them to calculate on every incident that 
may present itself from day to day, and I will 
venture to assert that the government of England 
is not so well acquainted with the affairs of Ire- j 
land as the Court o( Rome is at this moment, 
through her sworn Vicars, and through those i 
who are looking for preferment or emolument ! 
from her patronage. j 

" In other states when au Envoy is recalled 
from the Court to which he was sent, he is but 
too often thrown by as lumber, and a raw inex- 
perienced person supplies his place, though his 
long residence abroad may have qualified him 
ever so well for being useful to his prince ; but 
in Rome every Nuncio looks for his reward and 
office, even though the death of the Pope should 
cause a change of ministry, and a revolution of 
new families and new interests in the state. 
Every Nuncio therefore employs himself in mak- 
ing particular remarks on the government, cus- 
toms, trade and political relations of the state to 
which he has been sent ; he makes notes which 



he transmits to Rome ; or is the bearer of him- 
self; he describes the genius and character of 
the different ministers, describes the connections 
of the leading families, their fortunes, their pas- 
sions and aircotions, what influence they possess 
in the Councils and deliberations of cabinets, and 
how useful or how adver.se each may be to his 
Court ; and he is sure of preferment in propor- 
tion to his diligence when he returns to Rome. 
When Cardinal Bcntivoglio was Niuicio at Brus- 
sels, though he liad dirctly no concern with the 
British Islands, yet, having obtained from the 
Irish, Scotch and English Vicars all the informa- 
tion that was necessary, did he not send to Rome 
" nna Rclazione,^^ a distinct and masterly ac- 
count of the intei'csts, the political relations and 
the internal affairs of the three kingdoms, which 
was found so deeply and vitally interesting, that 
Rome would never allow it to be published." — ■ 
CoLLMBANUs ad Hibcrnos, No. 7, p. 58. 



[Condemnation of the Catholic Mamutl.l 

" TuE Nuncio of Brussels, Ghilini, condem- 
ned as heretical and impious, a book published in 
Dublin, 1 767, intitled the ' Catholic Manual,^ be- 
cause it asserted in the appendix, that the Pope 
could not dispense in the allegiance due by Cath- 
olics to their Sovereigns ! The condemnation of 
this book, and proposition, is dated Brussels, 29th 
June, 1770, and refers to a previous condemna- 
tion at Rome, dated 26th March, the same year. 
The same Nuncio's letter to the bishops of Ire- 
land, condemning the same proposition as im- 
pious, is too well known to be insisted on here ; 
all that I will urge en jmssant is, that from that 
day to this, not one of the political bulls has been 
condemned by the Nuncios or the Vicars, the 
poyntcrs or the milncrs, the trojo or the prelates 
of the Roman Court ; so that whatever ho.stilities 
they may exercise amongst themselves for per- 
sonal intere.sts, pique, pride, envy, or pre-emi- 
nence, they all agree in supporting the political 
maxims of that Court, placing even the Bull 
Unigenitus and the political discipline of the 
Council of Trent, on a level with articles o{ faith, 
by excommunication. 

■' And yet notwithstanding this flagrant una- 
nimity in supporting the political dominion of 
Rome, as an affair of Religion, I cannot help 
excusing our mini.sters, if after all the calamitie^n 
which these pretensions have caused to Rome 
herself, by the falling off" of Germany, England, 
and other Catholic States, they hoped to experi- 
ence some abatement in favour of the canonical 
restraints, w^hich Catholic England, and our gen- 
eral councils have enacted against the abuse of 
spiritual power. It was their first essay since 
the Reformation ; they were misled by a fancied 
religious ho.stility between the two Vicars, Mil- 
ner and Poynter ; and I question whether any one 
of them ever read Pascals Letters, or Oregorio 
\ Letts''s Life of Sixtus V., wr Tira Paolo's History 
: of the Venetian Interdict, or Vargois Letters from 
the Council of Trent. But perhaps the time 
I approaches, and even now is, when experience 



JEREMY TAYLOR— riERRE DE MARCA— SIR THOMAS MORE. 67 



will teach caulion ; when any concessions made 
by Rome, short of the legal enactment of the 
Canonical Rcstramts^ will be found nugatory." 
— CoLUMBANUS ad Hibernos, No. 7, p. 62. 



[Praying and saying Prayers.] 
" The very prayers of the faithful are, or may 
be, spoiled by doctrines publickly allowed and 
prevailing in the Romish Church. 

" For they teach, that, prayers themselves, ex 
opere operato, or by the natural work itself, do 
prevail : for it is not essential to prayer for a 
man to think particularly of what he says ; it is 
not necessary to think of the things signified by 
the words. So Suarez^ teaches ; nay, it is not 
necessary to the essence of prayer, that he ivho 
prays should think de ipsa locutione, of the 
speaking itself. And indeed it is necessary that 
they should all teach so, or they cannot tolerably 
pretend to justify their prayers in an unknown 
tongue. But this is indeed their pub lick doc- 
trine : for prayers in the mouth of the man that 
says them, are like the words of a charmer, they 
prevail even when they are not understood, says 
Salmeron.^ Or, as Antonius, they are like a pre- 
cious stone, of as much value in the hand of an 
unskilful man as of a jeweller.^ And therefore 
attention to, or devotion in our prayers is not nec- 
essary. For the understanding of which, saitli 
Cardinal Tolet, when it is said that you must say 
your prayers or offices attently, reverently and 
devoutly, you must know that attention or ad- 
vertancy to your prayers is manifold, 1st. that 
you attend to the words, so that you speak them 
not too fast, or to begin the next verse of a Psalm 
before he that recites with you hath done the former 
verse; and this attention is necessary. But 2d. 
there is an attention by i(,ndcr standing the sense, 
and that is not necessary ; for if it ivere, very ex- 
tremely few icould do their duty, when so very few 
do at all understand what they say. 3d. There is 
an attention relating to the end of prayer, that is, 
that he that prays, considers that he is present be- 
fore God and speaks to him, and this indeed is very 
profitable, but it is not necessary : no, not so much, i 
So that by thi.s doctrine no attention is necessary, j 
but to attend that the words be all said, and said 
right. But even this attention is not necessary 
that it should be actual, but it suffices to be virtual, 
that is, that he loho says his office intend to do so, 
and do not change his mind, although he does not 
attend : and he who does not change his mind, that 
is, unless observing himself not to attend, he still 
turn his mind to other things, he attends: mean- 
ing, he attends sufficiently, and as much as is 
necessary, though indeed, speaking naturally and 
truly, he docs not attend." — Jeremy Taylor. 
Dissuasive from Popery, p. 107. 

''■ So that between the Church of England and 
the Church of Rome, the difference in this article 
is plainly thus, they pray with their lips, we with 



the heart ; we pray with the understanding, they 
with the voice ; we p-ray, and they say prayers.'^ 
—Ibid., p. 110. 



[Bishops forbidden to keep Dogs and Birds of 
Prey.] 
" At the Synod of Mascon held by King Goti- 
tran A.D. 583, Bishops were forbidden to keep 
dogs in their house, or birds of prey, lest the poor 
should be bit by these animals instead of being 
fed." — Pierre jxe Marca. Histoire de Bearne, 
1. 1, c. 18, § 2. 



• Be Oral., 1. 5, c. 4. 2 Sum., part 3, tit 23. 

' Vide etiam Jacobum de GrafEis de OraL, 1. 2. In- 
stinict. Sacer., c. i;i, n. 5 and 6. 



[Sir Thomas More and the Question of Sanctu- 
ary.] 
Sir Thomas More in his " History of the pit- 
iful Life and unfortunate Death of Edward V.," 
puts these arguments into the Duke of Bucking- 
ham's mouth, when he is urging the council to 
take the Duke of York out of the sanctuary to 
which his mother had tied with him : 

" Verily sith the privilege of that place, and 
other of that sort, have so long continued, I would 
not go about to break it ; but if they were now 
to begin, I would not be he that should make 
them. Yet will not I say nay, but it is a deed 
of jjity that such men as the chance of the sea, 
or their evil debtors have brought into poverty, 
should have some place of refuge to keep in their 
bodies out of the danger of their cruel creditors. 
And if it fortune the crown to come in question, 
as it hath done before this time, while each part 
taketh other for traitor.s, I think it necessary to 
have a place of refuge for both. But as for 
thieves and murderers, whereof those places be 
full, and which never fall from their craft after 
they once fall thereunto, it is pity that every 
sanctuary .should serve them : and especially wil- 
ful murderers, whom God commandeth to be 
taken from the altar, and to be put to death. 
And where it is otherwi.se than in these cases, 
there is no need of sanctuaries appointed by God 
in the old law. For if necessity of his own de- 
fence, or misfortune drived him to that deed, then 
a pardon serveth him, which either is granted of 
course, or the king of pity and compassion giveth. 
" Now, look how few sanctuary men there be, 
whom necessity or misfortune compelleth to go 
thither : and then see on the other side what a 
sort there be commonly therein of such, whom 
wilful unthriftiness hath brought to naught ; what 
a rabble of thieves, murderer.s, and malicious hein- 
ous traitors, be, and that in two places especial- 
ly ; the one at the elbow of the city, and the oth- 
er in the very bowels. I dare well avow it, if 
you weigh the good that they do, with the hurt 
that Cometh of them, ye shall find it nuich better 
to lose both than to have both. And this I say, 
although they were not abused, as they now be, 
and so long have been, that I fear mo ever they 
will be while men be afraid to set their hands to 
the amendment, as though God and St. Peter 
were the patrons of ungracious living. Now, 
unthrifts riot and run in debt upon boldness of 



68 



BISHOP SANDERSON. 



these places; j'ea, and lic-li men run thither with 
poor men's jjoods, there they build, there they 
spend, and bid their creditors go whistle. Men's 
wives run thither with their husbands' plate, and 
say they dare not abide with their husbands for 
beatinfr. Thieves bring thither stolen goods and 
live thereon : there devise they new robberies 
nightly, and steal out, and rob, rive and kill men, 
and come again into those places ; as though 
those places gave them not only a safeguard lor 
the harm that they have done, but a license also 
to do more mischief: howbeit, much of this great 
abusion, if wise men would set their hands there- 
unto, might be amended, with great thanks of 
God. and no breach of the privilege. The con- 
clusion is. secth it is so long ago, I wot not what 
Pope and what Prince, more piteous than politic, 
hath granted it ; and other men, sensible of a re- 
ligious fear have not broken it ; let us take pains 
with it, and let it stand in God's name in his 
force, as far forth as reason will. — 

" And with that divers of the Clergy that wei'e 
there present, whether they said it for his pleas- 
ure, or as they thought, agreed plainly bj' the 
law of God anil of the Church, that a sanctuary 
man should be delivered in payment of his debts 
and stolen goods to the owner : and only liberty 
reserved to him to get his living by the labour 
of his hands. Verily, quoth the Duke, I think 
ye .say very truth. And what if a man's wile 
take sanctuary, because she list to run from her 
husband ? I would think, if she can alledge no 
other cause, he may lawfull}', without any dis- 
pleasvu'e done to St. Peter, take her out of St. 
Peter's Church by the arm. And if nobody may 
be taken out of sanctuary because he saith he 
will abide there, then if a child will take sanc- 
tuary, because he feareth to go to school, his 
master must let him alone." — P. 68-76. 



[Question of the Support of the Poor. — Tictcs 
of Bishop Sanderson.] 
" All Christian commonwealths should l)e the 
Israel of God : and in his Israel, God, as he prom- 
ised there should be some always poor, on whom 
to exercise charitv, so he ordained there should 
be no beggar to make a trade and j)rofession of 
begging. Plato, than whom never any laid down 
a more exact idea of a happy commonwealth, al- 
loweth not any beggar therein, alledging that 
where such were tolerated, it was impossible 
but the state must abound with pilfering and 
whoring, and all kinds of base villainy. The 
civil laws have flat constitutions against them in 
the titles de mendicantilms nan invalidis. But I 
think never kingdom had more wholesome laws 
in both kinds, I mean both for the competent re- 
lief of the orderly poor, and for the sharp re- 
straint of disorderly vagabonds, than those pro- 
visions which, in many of our memories, have 
been made in this land. But quid leges sine mo- 
ribus ? Those laws are now no laws, for want 
of due execution ; but beggars are beggars still 
for want of due. correction. Et vetabitur semper 
et retinebitur / the saying is truer of rogues and 



gypsies in England, than ever it was of mathe- 
maticians in Rome. You to whose care the pres- 
ervation of the justice, and thereby also of the 
peace of the land is committed, as you tender 
the peace and justice of the land ; as you tender 
your own quiet and the safety of your neigh- 
bours; as you tender the weal of your country 
and the honour of God ; breathe fresh life into 
the languishing laws by severe execution ; bo 
rather cruel to those vipers, than to the state. 
So shall you free us from the plague and your- 
selves from the giiilt, and them from the oppor- 
tunities, of infinite sinful abominations. 

" But we are unreasonable to press you thus 
far, or to seek to you or any others for justice in 
this matter, having power enough in our own 
hands to do ourselves justice upon these men, if 
we would but use it : even by making a strait 
covenant with our cars not to heed them, and 
with our eyes not to pity them, and with our 
hands not to relieve them. Say I this altogeth- 
er of myself, or saith not the apostle even the 
same ? He that will not labour, let him not eat ; 
relieve him not. But hath not Christ required 
us to feed the hungry, and to clothe the naked, 
and to be free and charitable to the poor ? Noth- 
ing surer : God forbid any man should preach 
against charity and alms-deeds. But remember 
that as God approveth not alms, or any other 
woi'k, if without charity, so not charity itself, if 
without discretion. Honour widows saith St. 
Paul, but those that are widows indeed. So re- 
lieve the poor, but those that are poor indeed. 
Not every one that asketh, not every one that 
wanteth : nay more, not every one that is poor, 
is poor indeed : and he that in his indiscreet and 
misguided charity should give to every one that 
a.sketh, or wanteth, or is poor, meat, or clothing, 
or alms, would soon make himself more huno-rv 
and naked and poor, than he that is most huno'ry 
or naked, or poor. The poor whom Christ com- 
mendeth to thee as a fit object for thy charitv, 
the poor indeed, are those that want not onlj' the 
things they ask, but want also means to get with- 
out asking. A man that is blind, or aged, and 
past his work; a man that is sick, or weak, or 
lame, and cannot work ; a man that desires it, 
and seeks it and cannot get work ; a man that 
hath a greater charge upon him than his honest 
pains can maintain ; such a man as one of these, 
he is poor indeed. Le4 thine ears be open, and 
thine eyes open, and thy bowels open, and thy 
hands open to such a one ; it is a charitable deed, 
and a sacrifice of sweet-smelling ; with such sac- 
rifice God is well pleased. Forget not thou to 
offer such sacrifices upon every good opportuni- 
ty ; and be well assured God will not forget, in 
due time, to reward thee. But for a lusty, able, 
upright man (as they stile him in their own dia- 
lect) that had rather beg, or steal, or both, than 
dig, he is no more to be relieved as a poor man, 
than a woman that hath poisoned her husband is 
to be honoured as a widow. Such a woman is a 
widow, for she hath no more a husband than any 
other widow hath, but such a woman is not a 
widow indeed as St. Paul would be understood ' 



1 



FRIENDLY DEBATE. 



69 



not such a widow as he would have honoured : 
it is alms to hang up such a widow, rather than 
to honour her. And I dare imy, he that helpeth 
one of these sturdy beggars to the stocks, and 
the whip, and the house of correction, not only 
deserveth better of the commonwealth, but doth 
a work of greater charity in the sight of God, 
than he that helpeth him with meat, and money, 
and lodging. For lie that doth this, corrupteth 
his charity by a double error : first, he maintain- 
eth, and so encourageth the other in idleness, who 
if none would relieve him, would be glad to do 
any work rather than starve : and secondly, he 
disableth his charity by misplacing it, and una- 
wares robbeth the poor, whilst he thinks he re- 
lieveth them. As he that giveth any honour to 
an idol, robbeth the true God, to whom alone all 
religious honour is due ; so he that giveth any 
alms to an idle beggar, robbeth the truly poor, 
to whom properly all the fruits of our alms are 
due." — Special Remarques of the Life of Dr. 
Sandeuso?;, p. 23—6. 

\^Co7iformist and Non-Confonnist.] 
" Conformist. We do not think you all of a 
kind, though now you flock together. There 
are some (of your ministers for instance) who I 
believe are of an humble spirit, quiet and peace- 
able in the land, desiring unity and accord, griev- 
ing for the breach of it ; and are so far from con- 
demning thase that are satisfied to do what the 
law requires, that they are sorry they cannot 
contribute to the common peace by doing the 
same : upon which account they go as far as 
they can, and conform to public oi^der in all 
things wherein they are satisfied ; and are ten- 
der of breaking any laws : and when they can- 
not obey them, do not rail upon them and their 
makers ; but silently and without any noise, omit 
to do what they enjoin. These we . cannot but 
love, and- are sony that in so great a number we 
can find so few of this good temper. For there 
is a second sort, with which the kingdom swarms, 
who are of an haughty humour, of a furious and 
factious disposition, puft up with a conceit of 
their gifts to such a height, that they will scarce 
allow any man to know any thing of God, who 
is not of their party. Sour and crabbed they are 
above all other men, cross and peevish beyond 
all expression : they never speak well of our 
governors or government ; they are always re- 
viling bishops and common prayer, and talking 
like men inspired ; it is an easy matter for them 
to disparage all our ministry, and beget an ill 
opinion of them in the minds of Ihcir credulous 
followers. Which we conceiving to be their bus- 
iness, no wonder if our men seek to preserve ' 
themselves, not by disgracing, but by rightly rep- : 
resenting them to the world. They ought not 
to betray the church wherein they live by a base 
and unworthy silence. Even the meanest child ' 
of us ought to speak when you are about to kill ! 
our mother. Your long nails wherewith you 
now scratch her face must be shewn the people, ' 
who see them not while they behold your hands [ 



lifted up to Heaven. But besides these two, 
there is a third sort between both, who are dis- 
satisfied only with a few things • allow our min- 
isters to be good men, and wish for peace, but 
yet for private respects hold fair correspondence 
with the furies now named ; keep up the sepa- 
ration ; hold conventicles ; suffer the people, with- 
out reproof, to be fierce and violent against us, 
connive at a great many of their false and ab- 
surd opinions ; let them alone in their rude and 
insolent behaviour ; take not sufiicient care to 
instruct them in the truth, to bring them to a 
modest and peaceable temper ; — in short, to qual- 
ify them for compliance with us. Do not smile 
at the word, for I can demonstrate it might soon 
be brought about, if they pleased. 

'^Non-Conformist. How, I pi'ay ? Can you 
do more than all the men in the kingdom ? 

" C. Let them persuade their people but to 
be of their mind, and the business is done. 

" N. C. Do you think they do not ? 

" C. No, I warrant you. If they did, the peo- 
ple would conform, though they cannot. For 
that which keeps this sort of ministers from con- 
forming is not any thing to which the people are 
bound, but something particularly required of 
them. 

" N. C. You have revealed a secret to me. 
• '' C It is easy for any body to find out that 
hath a mind to it. There being nothing plainer 
than this, that they would have read those pray- 
ers which I would have you hear, if something else 
had not been in the way, which you are not con- 
cerned in ; and that is, renouncing the covenant. 
Let them then but persuade you to do all that 
they can do themselves ; and in order to that, 
give you reasons why it should be done, and then 
I may hope to see you and I go to the same 
church together. And for them that do not stand 
upon the covenant (for there are some such), 
they have the greater reason to exhort you to 
come, nay, to come themselves and bring you 
along with them." — Friendly Debate, p. 155-7. 



[Bad People everywhere, and Good People every- 
where.^ 
" Conformist. If you will have me speak my 
mind plainly, and not be angry, I think I may say 
without any rashness, that your godly people are 
generally of the lowest form in Christ's school. 
A great deal of their religion is of their own mak- 
ing, and they want a great deal of God's relig- 
ion. They arc ever wrangling about little cer- 
emonies. They break the peace of the church 
by this means, and seem to nudcc no scruple 
about it. They arc froward and peevish ; greedy 
of riches, stubborn in their opinions ; and by no 
means can bear with an}^ man diflering from 
them in matters of doctrine. In short, I .see a 
strange ignorance mixt with ])resumption and 
wilfulness, not without a high degree of super- 
stition, in those whom you admire for godliness. 
But then there is a sort of people who enjoy that 
name among you, in whom I can see nothing but 
an humour of despising and railing at all ancient 



fO 



FRIENDLY DEBATE. 



received customs, how good soever ; together 
with a sullen devotion, and such a turbulent na- 
ture, as will give no rest to themselves or others. 
And they have one peeuliar quality, proper to 
themselves alone, which is, to revile our minis- 
ters, even as they go along the streets ; a thing 
which I could never observe our ungodly people 
to be guilty of towards your ministers, who may 
pass peaceably enough ; nay, I think, is not com- 
mitted in any country in the world, where they 
are of dillerent religions. Perhaps you will say 
that om-s would do it, did not the power of the 
Lord overawe them and shut up their mouths, 
that they may not reproach his faithful servants. 
But this is only a cast of your skill in searching 
the hearts of men, and gives us a taste of the 
opinion you have of your dearness to God. 

'''Non-Conformist. I doubt not but that they 
are very dear to God, and that God will re-prove 
even kings for their sakes, saying, touch not mine 
anointed, and do my prophets no harm. 

" C. You have a strong faith. But methinks, 
before you suffer it to grow to such a confidence, 
you should sobei'ly consider -whether some of 

those precious ones may not be anointed , 

that make godliness a pretence for their disobe- 
dience to kings, and sauciness towards their bet- 
ters ; that flatter you into a conceit of your god- 
liness, that you may flatter them with the titl« 
of the prophets of the Lord. To me it is no 
mean argmnent of their want of integrity, that 
they teach you no better, and connive at all this 
wickedness : and never (that I could hear of) lay 
bare and rebuke those sins that reign so much 
among your party. Tell me, whence came all 
the scurrilous pamphlets that are abroad ? Out 
of what shop do the venomous libels fly about 
the town ? Who are they that not only despise 
our clergy, but put open affronts on them as they 
quietly and soberly walk the street ? That have 
the poison of asps under their lips and spit it in 
good men's faces? That in a fearful manner 
scorn and revile their holy calling, and salute 
them everywhere with the ordinary name of 
Baal's priests ? Are they not all bred up in 
your churches '? Do they not all frequent your 
meetings ? And do not by-standers of your per- 
suasion laugh and rejoice when they see this con- 
tempt poured on them? Do they not seem to 
encourage those by their applauses, who are so 
rude and insolent in their behaviour toward good 
men ? And yet these style themselves tlie God- 
ly, and take it ill will if we do not think them so. 
These you are content to wink at, that your con- 
gregations may be full. Your ministry dare not 
preach down these abuses, lest they should be 
thought to be friends to Baal. 

" N. C. There will be some bad people every- 
where. 

" C. I am glad to hear you say so. By and 
by, you will confess that there may be also good 
people everywhere, and that some of our minis- 
ters may be good, though year revilers make no 
difference, but if they see a man in a cassock, 
presently throw dirt in his face and call him a 
limb of antichrist, or some such thing. So brut- 



ish and outrageous are the passions of this heady 
people ! so wonderfully do they profit in your 
school in those new virtues of hatred to ancient 
customs and habits though never so innocent, and 
hatred or anger to all that are not of their way. 
For such is the fire I have sometimes seen in their 
eyes when they meet one of our ministers, that 
one would think they had a mind to burn them 
up ; and I make no doubt they would call upon 
your prophets, if they were but like Elijah, to 
call for fire down from Heaven to consume us. 
You may condemn their folly perhaps ; but what- 
soever you are pleased to say, they are the most 
zealous of your party, and think themselves the 
most godly. And for any thing I can hear, they 
may think so still ; it not bemg the manner of 
your preaching to meddle with such things as 
these ; nor the time, I doubt, to be named, when 
you heard a sermon to reprove the scurrilous and 
railing language of some among you against the 
English clergy. No, the way hath been, and I 
doubt still continues, to declaim only against su- 
perstition and formality, and will-worship, and 
sometimes against morality ; and then to exhort 
the people to prize ordinances, and seek after 
pure ordinances, and admit of no human mixt- 
ures. But whilst the poor people are thus af- 
frighted, and made exceeding timorous lest they 
should be righteous overmuch, by following vain 
traditions of men, they have dittle or no fears 
wTought in them of being wicked overmuch, by 
schism and disobedience, and letting loose their 
furious passions and unruly tongues ; by reviling 
God's ministers : nay by despising governments, 
and speaking evil of dignities." — Friendly De- 
bate, p. 116-19. 



I 



[WTifw Things are indifferent, and tvhcn they are 
not so.] 

" We are agreed that the thing commanded 
by authority is not the less indifferent in its own 
nature after it is commanded, than it was before ; 
but only our use of it is not so indifferent and at 
liberty. We must needs be therefore agreed 
also that this restraint comes not upon us from 
the things themselves, because still perfectly in- 
different, but only from the law which ties us up. 
Now we say, that to this law we are to be sub- 
ject, not regarding our own liberty so much as 
the prince's authority. You say, no ; but as the 
law cannot alter the nature of the things, so it 
ought not to restrain your freedom in the use of 
them, but leave that as indifferent as the things 
themselves : that is, that the king ought to make 
no such law about those matters : if he do, then 
it is unlawful to do what he commands to be al- 
ways done ; because he ought to leave you at 
liberty to let it alone if you please ; and you ought 
to maintain your liberty, and by no means to pait 
with it. 

" Put the ca.se then, that you (being master 
of a family) will have your children and servants 
to come at a certain time and place, &c., to wor- 
ship God. It is indifferent indeed in itself, and 
all one to God, whether it be at ten, eleven, or 



FRIENDLY DEBATE— LANCELOT ADDISON— LATIMER. 



71 



twelve o'clock ; or in what part of your house 
they meet ; or in what eloathes they come ; or 
what postures they use. But you appoint the 
hour of meeting shall be twelve ; and that they 
cdrae into your parlour, or hall, or chapel, if you 
have that conveniency : and beside, you require 
your ser\'ants that they shall not come into your 
parlour (suppose) in those frocks wherein they 
just before rubbed your horses' heels (which you 
think not handsome or decent), but in their liver- 
ies, or some such neater apparel. And when 
they come there, 3'ou bid them stand some part 
of the time, and the rest you bid them sit, if they 
please ; and at prayei-s kneel, as j'ou do yourself. 
Let me ask you now, do you really think that 
this is any such restraint of their liberty, as they 
have just cause to complain of it ? Would you 
think you took too much upon you in making 
these orders for )'our family, of which you are 
governor ? Or would you judge that servant to 
be without fault, and guiltless of any contempt, 
who should say, that he will come at ten of the 
clock, but not at twelve, because it matters not 
which, so that the thing is done ; and he will not 
be tied to any order, but to do the thing ? And 
suppose another should come and say that he will 
pray, if you please to come into the stable ; but 
he will not come into the parlour : for it is indif- 
ferent where it is, and he must not be confined 
to one place more than another. And a third 
.should come and tell you, that he is ready to join 
in prayer, but then it must be in his frock, other- 
wise he will not ; for God may be served as well 
In that, as in any other garment, and he must 
use his Christian liberty, and not be bound to j"Our 
fa.shion. And the next should tell you that he 
will sit in your presence, or else you shall not 
have his company : his reason is, because it is all 
one to God whether he sit or stand ; and he is 
not to let you be master of his freedom in those 
matters. What would you say to these people ? 
Nay, what would you do with them? Would 
you excuse them, and acknowledge your own 
guilt in making such injunctions? Or would 
you not rather treat them as a company of saucy 
clowns and ill-bred fellows, not fit to be kept in 
any orderly family ? If you should not, all the 
world would hold you as ridiculous as they. For 
every master of a family is vested with sufficient 
authoritj' to see such commands as those obsei-ved. 
And when they that will not observe them, yet 
acknowledge them to be indifferent things, truly 
I think nobody will think them harshly used, if 
they be turned out of doors. If they be fools and 
blocks, that cannot understand common sense, 
then, I confess, they are to be pitied ; and his 
good nature may work so far as to bear with 
their simplicity, if they be otherwise good serv- 
ants . but yet those knaves that abused their 
simplicity, and instilled these filthy principles 
into them, deserve to be punished and put out 
of his service, till they acknowledge their fault, 
and learn more manners. Just like this is the 
present case before us. The church is but a 
larger family, a wider society, in which the king 
is the father and supreme governor. If he make 



some laws for the more convenient, orderly and 
decent worship of God there, wliieh in themselves 
are lawful, and declared not to be in their own 
nature necessary, but onl_v pnident constitutions, 
I cannot see but that those who refuse to obey 
them upon pretence of their liberty, and that 
God may as well be worshipped without those 
things, do shew themselves as unmannerly, rude 
and refractory persons, as the children or serv- 
ants in that supposed famil)', of which I bade you 
conceive yourself master. And I leave you to 
apply this case to that, and to make the parallel 
complete in your thoughts at your leisure. I 
hope it will be worth your labour, if you do it 
seriously." — Friendly Debate^ p. 78-81. 



{The Earth's Produce influenced by Man^s Sins.] 
'■ There is a sort of religionists among the 
Barbary Moors," says Lancelot Addison, "who 
measure the products of the earth by the sins of 
its inhabitants, and who divine of the success of 
their tillage from the observation of their Rama- 
dan, or Lent, and the due celebrating of their 
Easter. Hid Segncr, or the little feast that con- 
cludes it." — Pinkerton's Collection, vol. 15, 
p. 405. 



[Absolution of a Mule at PauVs Cross.] 
" The same man that laid sedition to my 
charge, was asked another time whether he 
were at the sermon at Paul's Cross ; he an- 
swered that he was there ; and being asked what 
news there, ' Many,' quoth he, ' wonderful news ; 
we were there clean absolved, my mule and all 
had full absolution.' Ye may see by this that 
he was such a one as rode on a mule, and that 
he was a gentleman. Indeed his mule was wiser 
than he, for I dare say, the mule never slandered 
the preacher. Oh an unhappy chance had this 
mule to cany such an ass on her back ! I was 
there at that sermon myself; in the end of this 
sermon he gave a general absolution, and as far 
as I remember, these, or such other like words 
he spake, but at the least I am sure this was his 
meaning. ' As many as do acknowledge your- 
selves to be sinners, and confess the same, and 
stand not in defence of it, but heartily abhor it. 
and will believe in the death of Christ, and will be 
conformable thereunto, Ego absolvo vos,'' quoth 
he. Now saith this g««tleman his mule wa.s 
absolved. The preacher absolved none but such 
as were sorry and did repent. Belike then she 
did repent her stumbling, — his mule was wiser 
than he a great deal. I speak not of worldly 
wisdom, for therein he is too wise, yea, he is so 
wise, that wise men marvel how he came truly 
by the tenth part of that he hath ; but in wis- 
dom which consisteth in rebus Dei, r»i rebus sa- 
lutis, in godly matters and appertaining to our 
salvation, in this wisdom he is as blind as a bee- 
tle, tanquam equus et mulm, in quibus non est 
intellectus, like horses and mules that have no 
understanding. If it were true that the mule 
repented her of her stumbling, I think she was 



72 



FULLER— USHER— JEREMY TAYLOR. 



better absolved than he." — Latimer's Third 
Sermon before Edward VI. 



{Pastors in this Jge, why in constant Motion.] 
" Most of these men seem born under a trav- 
elling planet ; seldom having their education in 
the place of their nativity ; ofttimes composed 
of Irish inlanc}-, British breeding, and French 
preferment ; taking a coule in one countiy, a 
crosier in another, and a grave in a third ; nei- 
ther bred where born, nor beneficed where bred, 
nor buried where beneficed ; but wandering in 
several kingdoms. Nor is this to be imputed to 
any humour of inconstancy (the running gait of 
the soul), or anj' affected unsettledness in them ; 
but proceeding from other weighty considera- 
tions. First, to procure their safety. For in 
time of persecution, the surest place to shift in, 
Ls constant shifting of places ; not staying any 
where so long as to give men's malice a steady 
aim to level at them. Secondly, to gain ex- 
perience in those things which grew not all in 
the same soil. Lastly, that the gospel thereby 
might be further, and faster propagated. When 
there be many guests and little meat, the same 
dish must go clean through the board ; and di- 
vine providence ordered it, that in the scarcity 
of preachers, one eminent man travelling far, 
should successively feed many countries." — 
Fuller's Church History, cent, vi., book 1, 
p. 42. 



wheate is sometime such, as a farre off man 
would muigine that he did see but a heape of 
challe, and nothing else. Those worthy hus- 
bandmen that in these last six hundred yeeres 
have taken paines in plucking up those per- 
nicious weedes out of the Lord's field, and sev- 
ering the chafle from his graine cannot be right- 
ly said in doing this, eyther to have brought in 
another field or to have changed the ancient 
graine. The field is the same, but weeded now, 
unweeded then : the graine the same, but win- 
nowed, unwinnowed then. Wee preach no new 
faith, but the same catholique faith that ever 
hath been preached ; neyther was it any part of 
our meaning to begin a new church in these lat- 
ter da^-es of the world, but to reforme the old. 
A tree that hath the luxurious branches lopped 
ofl' and the noxious things that cleave unto it 
taken away, is not by this pruning and purging 
of it made another tree than it was before : ney- 
ther is the church reformed in our dayes, an- 
other church than that which was deformed in 
the dayes of our fore-fathers ; though it hath no 
agreement, for all that, with poperie, which is 
the pestilence that walked in those times of dark- 
nesse, and the destruction that now wasteth at 
noon day." — Usher, in his Sermon on the Uni- 
versality of the Church, p. 30. 



[Universality of the Church in spite of .Anti- 
christ.] 

" If you demand, then, where was God's tem- 
ple all this wjiile ? the answer is at hand : there 
where antichrist sate. Where was Christ's peo- 
ple? even under antichrist's priests: and yet 
this is no justification at all, either of antichrist 
or of his priests ; but a manifestation of God's 
great power, who is able to uphold his church 
even there, where Satan's throne is. Babylon 
was an infectious place, and the infection there- 
of was raortall : and yet God had his people 
thei'e whom bee preserved from the niortalitie 
of that infection. Else how should he have said, 
Come out of her, my people ; that yee bee not 
partakers of her sinties, and that yee receive not 
of her plagues. If the place had not been in- 
fectious, he should not have needed to forewarne 
them of the danger wherein they stood of par- 
taking in her sinncs, and if the infection had not 
been mortall, bee would not have put them in 
raind of the plagues that were to follow : and if 
in the place thus mortally infected, God had not 
preserved a people alive unto himselfe, he could 
not have said : Come out of her, my people. 

" The enemie indeed had there sowne his tares, 
but sowne them in the Lord's field, and among 
the Lord's wheate. And a field, we know, may 
so be overgrowne with such cvill weeds as these, 
that at the first sight a man would hariily thinke, 
that any corne were there at all ; even as in the 
barne itself the mixture of the chaffe with the 



[The Day of Miracles gone by ; vain Claim of 
the Romish Church.] 
Jeremy Taylor speaks " of their known arts 
of abusing the people by pretended apparitions, 
and false miracles, for the establishing of strange 
opinions. Non obseurum est qtiot opiniones in- 
vectcB stmt in orbem per omnes ad suum questum 
callidos, confictorum miraculorum preesidio, said 
Erasmus. These doctrines mu.'t needs be things 
that come over the walls, and in at the window ; 
they come not the right way. For besides that, 
as St. Chrysostom says,' It was at first profit- 
able that miracles should be done, and now it is 
profitable that they be not done : for then our 
faith was finished by miracles, but now by the 
Divine Scriptures : miracles are like watering 
of plants to be done when they ai'c newly set, 
and before they have taken root. Hence the 
apostle saith, ' Tongues are for a sign to tliera 
that believe not, and not for them that believe.' 
So St. Gregory," ' our ancestors followed after 
signs ; by which it came to pass that they should 
not be necessary to their posterity ;' and ' he'^ 
that yet looks for miracles that he may believe, 
is himself a miracle.' Nay, to pretend miracles 
now-a-days is the worst sign in the world. And 
here St. Austin,'' in great zeal, gives warning of 
such tilings as these : let not a man say this is 
true, because Donatus Pontius, or another, hath 
done wonderful things ; or because men praying 
at the memories of martyi's are heard, or be- 



> In 1 Cor., ii., torn. vi. Kal yap Koi t6tc xPl^'f^^i iyivs 
TO in'v ■xptjai^iwi ov yii'CTai. 
2 Ilomil. '29, in Evangel. 
'■> gt. August, de vera ReUg.,c. 25. 
* lb. de civit. Dei. lib. xxii., c. 8. 



i 



LIGHTFOOT— WILSON. 



73 



•'ause such, or such things there happen, or be- 
. ause that brother of ours, or that sister of ours 
waking saw such a vision, or sleeping dreamt 
such a dreani : let those fictions of lying men or 
wonders of deceitful spirits, be removed. For 
tither those things which are spoken are not 
true ; or if any miracles of heretics be done, we 
ought to take heed the more, because when our 
Lord said, some ' deceivers should arise, which 
should do signs, and deceive, if it were possible, 
the very elect ;' he, commending this saying, 
vehemently added, Behold, I have told you of it 
before. The same is also taught by the author^ 
of the imperfect work on St. Matthew, imputed 
to St. Chi-ysostom, who calls the power of work- 
ing miracles (after the first vocation of the Gos- 
pel) ' seduclionis adjutoria,^ the helps of seduc- 
tion ; as at first they were by Christ, and Christ's 
servants, as instrument of vocation ; and af- 
firms, these helps of deceit were to be delivered 
to the devil. It was the same in the Gospel, as 
it was in the law of Moses after God had by 
signs and wonders in the hand of Moses, fixed 
and established his law, which only was to be 
their rule; and caution was given (Deut., i. 13) 
that against that rule no man should be believed, 
though he wi^ought miracles. Upon which words 
Theodoret says,^ ' We are instructed that we 
must not mind signs, when he that works them 
teaches any thing contrary to piety.' And there- 
fore these things can be to no purpose, unless it 
be to deceive ; except this only, that where mir- 
acles are pretended, there is a warning also given, 
that there is danger of deception and there Ls the 
seat of antichrist, ' who is foretold should come 
in all signs, and lying wonders.' ' Generatio 
nequam signum qucerit,^ said Christ. But it is 
remarkable liy the doctrines, for which in the 
(-hurch of Rome' miracles are pretended, that 
they are a cover fitted for their dish ; new mii'a- 
'•les to destroy the old truths, and to introduce 
new opinions. For to prove any article of our 
■reed, or the necessity of Divine commandment 
»r the dixanity of the eternal Son of God, there 
IS now no need of miracles, and for this way of 
proving these, and such articles as these, they 
trouble not themselves; but for transubstantia- 
tion, adoration of the consecrated bread and M'ine, 
for purgatory, invocation, and worship of saints, 
of their relics, of the cross, monastical vows, 
fraternities of friars, and monks, the pope's su- 
prem;icy, and double monarchy in the chur(;h of 
Rome, they never give over to make, and boast 
prodigious miracles." — Vol. x., p. 489-91. 



[Doctrine of Purgatory.] 
" The doctrine of which business is this, that 
some dying not so bad as to be damned, yet not 
so absolutely good as to go to heaven, are sent 
to purgatory, and there their sins scoured away 
by fire and torment ; yet some after a hundred, 
some after two hundred years, &c., go to heaven : 

1 Aug. Tract. 13, in Evang. Joh. Horn. 49. 

2 Quaest. in Deuter. 

3 Hie. 11, 19. Vide Stellam, ibid. 



i)ut that the pope by his power, and the priests, 
by their singing masses, and dirges, can brinjr 
them out sooner, than otherwise their time should 
be. And hence so vast revenues have been be- 
stowed upon their monasteries, chapels, and 
chantries, upon this reason, that the priests there 
sjiould say masses, and use dirges and prayers 
for the souls of the founders, to deliver tlicm out 
of purgatory. 

" And thus, they make this article of Christ's 
descent a matter, rather of profit, than of faith ; 
of money, rather than of edification. And were 
not profit or worldly advantage in the wind, 
there would never be such struggling with thetn 
to maintain points against reason, and I'eligion, 
as there is. 

" They conclude hell to be under the earth, or 
within it ; which is a fancy of the heathen poets 
and others, that concluded both the place of tor- 
ment, and of happiness, to be down in the earth. 
These men have learned from Scripture, that the 
place of the blessed is above in heaven, and so 
they refuse that part of the heathen's opinion ; 
but retain the other, that hell is under ground. 
Upon what ground, who can show ? it is neither 
agreeable to rea.son, nor at all to Scripture. Not 
to reason, to imagine a place under ground to 
be a place for souls and spirits, whieh are so far 
from an earthly substance. Not to Scripture 
which tells us,' that 'the devil is the prince of 
the air,' and not dwelling under ground : that 
tells us that ' the damned are tormented before 
the angels, and before the throne of the Lamb ;' 
not in the bottom of the earth, or under ground. 
And time will be, when there will be no earth 
at all ; and where will hell be found then ? May 
we never know where the place of hell is ! but, 
certainly, it is a most senseless and irrational 
thing to hold it to be within this earth.'" — Liuu r- 
FooT, vol. 6, p. 4, 5. 



[Retributive Justice — cxemiilificd in the Executioii 
of the Murderers of Captain Glas.] 

" He was using his utmost endeavours to open 
a new channel for the trade of Great Britain to 
the interior of Africa, and aimed (if the Govern- 
ment approved of it) to erect an establishment 
on that coast, near some large navigable river, 
which he had discovered as suitable, on the west 
of Senegal. He first went out in the employ of 
some London merchants, in pursuit of a plant 
used in dyeing. 

" On his return to London, he laid his plan 
before the JNIinistiy. who furnished him with a 
ship of some force, and powers to fix a settle- 
ment. He arrived safe at the place, but, want- 
ing some corn for his little colony, he set out 
with wife and daughter, and some men, in a 
small vessel, to the Canary Islands, where they 
were all seized, and put in separate prisons. 
The cause was this : the S])anish Minister in 
London, hearing of a new settlement on the 
coast of Africa, and not knowing the nature of it, 



1 Eph., ii. 2. Rev., xiv. 10. 



74 



EVANGELICAL MAGAZINE. 



sent information to his Court, and particularly 
described ("aptain Gias as the great promoter cii' 
the scheme, which he suspected would interfere 
with their fishing trade. In consequence of this, 
the court of Madrid sent orders to the Govern- 
ors of those Islands to confine the Captain if he 
came there. In the mean time the men whom 
he had left in Africa were murdered by some 
Arabs, and the ship pillaged. After some years 
of confinement, the Captain found means, by en- 
closing a bit of paper (written with his pencil) 
in a loaf of bread, to inform the British Consul 
of his situation ; and after several letters had 
passed between the British and Spanish Minis- 
ters, he was, with his family, liberated. They 
took their passage in a trading vessel bound to 
London, and their friends in Scotland were in- 
formed of it. At length the newspapers an- 
nounced the arrival of the ship in the Irish chan- 
nel ; and at the very time when their aged father 
and many friends were looking daily for their 
personal appearance, another newspaper brought 
the melancholy tidings that they were all mur- 
dered ! some villains in the ship, knowing that 
there was much treasure in her, combined to- 
gether to secure it, and resolved to kill the Cap- 
tain and crew. Captain Glas hearing a noise on 
deck, went up with his sword ; but one of the 
fellows, fearful of his bravery, lurked below', and 
on his going up thrust him through his body from 
his back. Poor Mrs. Glas with her sweet daugh- 
ter, clung together begging for mercy, but the 
cruel wretches heaved them overboard, fast lock- 
ed in each other's arms ! The murderers got to 
land, secreted the chests of money in the sand, 
and went to an alehouse to enjoy themselves. 
They were soon taken up on suspicion, confess- 
ed all, and were hanged in Ireland. When this 
sad news reached Perth, the friends of Mr. Glas 
were shocked exceedingly, and knew not how 
to communicate this unexpected event to his 
poor father. One of them took the paper, and 
pointing to the paragraph, with solemn silence 
waited the perusal. Mr. Glas bore the shock 
with great composure and resignation, and in a 
few hours attended the church assembly that 
evening, where all were astonished to see him. 
He took his part as if nothing had happened. 
On hearing afterward that those murderers 
were executed, he made the following uncom- 
mon remark, 'It would be a glorious instance of 
Divine mercy, if George Glas and his murderers 
should meet together in heaven.' " — Wilson's 
History and Antiquities of Dissenting Churches. 



[Jtn Insight into the Human Heart.'\ 
The Princess Henrietta Caroline Louisa, 
daughter of Ferdinand Count of Lippc-Biester- 
feld and wife of Prince Albert of Anhalt-Dessau, 
writes thus in a short memoir of herself : 

"In the year 1776 an entirely new period in 
my views of Christianity commenced. I became 
acquainted with a newly formed society which 
was to consist of none but sentimental, virtuous, 
noble souls. They talked much of the Father 



of all, and of Jesus Christ, who was held forth 
as the great pattern of virtue. We strenuously 
endeavoured to attain to the height of moral ex- 
cellence. We had a certain sign by which we 
knew one another, assumed the name of brothers 
and sisters, and as much as possible, observed a 
uniformity of dress. We also affected an inde- 
pendence on the rest of mankind, whom we did 
not consider as noble, excellent, and of superior 
worth ; and had conceived a very exalted idea of 
the dignity of man when his powers are in prop- 
er exercise. We fancied to have attained to an 
uncommon degree of sanctity and purity of mor- 
als, but in the very heart, we were exactly what 
our Saviour pronounces the Pharisees to be, ' like 
unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear 
beautiful outwardly, but are within full of dead 
men's bones, and of all uncleanliness.' But this 
depth of wickedness we w"ere utterly averse to 
dive into. Mere pride lorded it over us, though 
we conceived quite otherwise ; corLsidering our- 
selves as valiant champions for the truth, on ac- 
count of which we had indeed to suffer much 
reproach ; but we sustained it courageously, per- 
suaded that this was the very stamp we were to 
bear. — God, what a wretched society were 
we!" — Evangelical Magazine, March, 1812. 



[God^s Judgments on a Land for its Wickedness.] 
" See ye not the vyllayne beggars and valiant 
vagaboundes whom God plageth with poverte, 
and myserye for the3T abomynable lyvyng, dys- 
posed to no goodnes, how hartely they wyshe for 
a ruffelynge daye ? Beholde every state all most 
in every Christen realme, as husbandmen, artyfy- 
cers, marchaunts, courtyers, with all other de- 
grees as well spyritual and temporal, and I fere 
me that ye shall saye, but if God of his goodnes 
amende us not the sooner, there shall come to 
passe amonge us the ferefuU jugement of God 
spoken by the prophet Osee to the people of Is- 
rahell and inhabyters of the lande ; ' There is no 
truthe, no mercye, nor scjence of God in the 
yerth. Curs3-nge and lyenge, manslaughter, theft, 
and advowtrye bathe overflowen, and bloode hath 
towehed bloode : for the which the yerth shall 
wayle and every inhabyter in it shall be feebled.' 
And this as I have sa3-de not one eontrey fawty, 
and another fawtlos, one estate fowle and de- 
formed and another pure and clene, the spyrytu- 
altie synful, and the temporaltie set all on vertue, 
the heades and rulers culpable, and the peoj)le 
oute of blame, nor that any estate maye laye the 
hole weight of Goddes wrath unto the other, and 
thereof discharge themsclfe, but eehe of theym is 
cause both of theyr own harme and other folkes 
to. And the people are nothinge lesse fawtye. 
provokynge the wrathe of God, than theyr heades 
or governours, nor one state partyeulerlye cause 
of anothers calamytie. But all we together have 
synned, and have deser\-ed the vengeaunce of 
God, which hangeth before our eyes, redy to fall 
ere wc be aware." — Quare. 



TAYLOR— UICOLI -GREGORY NAZIANZEN— VIE YRA— LESLIE. 75 



[Romatiist Unity.] 
"It is strange," says Jeeemt Taylor, "that 
the Dominicans should be of one opinion in the 
matter of predetermination and immaeulate con- 
ception, and all the Franciscans of the quite con- 
trary, as if their understandings were formed in 
a different mold, and furnished with various prin- 
ciples by their very rule."' — Liberty of Prophe- 
sying, p, 511. 



[The Devil's Dislike to Interference^ 
"The Devil," says F. Picolo, "whom we 
were going to disturb in that peaceable posses- 
sion which he had enjoyed during so many ages, 
njade all his efforts to impede our enterprize and 
prevent our success." — Lett. EdiJ"., torn. 8, p. 53. 
Edit. 1781. 



Gregory Nazianzen. Carmen de Vita Sua. 

" Est namqoe hominibus istis hoc in more po- 
situra, ut male a se aetorum causas in cos ipsos 
regiciant quos Iscscrunt ; atque ita majorera nox- 
am per conficta nequiter mendacia sibi adversan- 
tibus inferant, se vero ipsos scelcris veluti omnis 
puros exhibeant." — Jt the end of the Prologue. 

" Est enim metus magister longe optimus 
linximeque opportunas ; " — spoken of men in a 
s'.iipwreck brought by danger to conversion. — 
Mout the middle of the first chapter. 

" SiCARii dcinde adinstar, judicibus me sistunt, 
hominibus torvo clatoque supercilio metuendis, et 
unam dumtaxat legem, populi gratiam et favo- 
rem, sibi propositara habentibus." — Chap. 3. 

" NoN hie recensebo lapides quibus me impe- 
tierunt, et quorum tempestatc non aliter ae in- 
«truetissimo convivio me praebui. De quibus 
unum tamen est quod querar ; non enim recta 
satis in me involarunt, ac in ea solummodo suum 
fregerunt impctum, quEe mortis recipiendse capa- 
cia non stmt." — Ibid. 



[Saint Bernard'' s Device.] 
" S. Bernard took for his device a harp with 
this motto. Quid erit in Patria? — alluding to 
those which the Israelites in Babylon hung upon 
the willows, and to the state of his own unmortal 
here in this world, campared with what it was 
to be in its heavenly country." — Vieyra, Serm., 
t. 4, p. 203. 



[Plain Preaching.] 

"SuFFiCERE quippe nobis debet simplicissimus 
etiam de fidci nostra; rebus scrmn, sufficere de- 
bet nuda fides, cum qua, absque ullo sermonis 
ornatu, raajorem fidelium partem ad desideratam 
beatitatem Dcus perducit. Etenim, si apud solos 
erudites sedena sibi fides deligcret, nescio sane 
an Deo pauperius aliquid rcperiri facile posset. 

" Si tamen tanta dicendi cupiditate flagras, si 
tanto zelo accenderis, si grave aileo ac molestum 
tibi sit nihil a te proferri in publicum (humani 
certe quiddam hac in parte pateris ; nee est cur 
voto isti tuo non faveam) ; loquere sane et adhor- 
tare ; verum non sine adjuncto nietu, nee semper 
ac jugiter, nee omnia, nee quavis occasione, nee 
apud omnes, nee sine locorum dclectn, sed quan- 
do, et quantum, et quo looo, et apud quos potis- 
simum deeet, loquendmn scias." — Ibid., Chap. 5. 



[ Want of Clergy.] 

" The number of our clergy is too few. They 
are not able to attend such vast charges as they 
ought, especially in London and other great to\vns, 
where it is impossible for some ministers, if they 
should do nothing else, to visit all the families, 
much less every particular person who is under 
their cure : and the like in many country par- 
ishes. This is one great cause of the increase 
of dissenters amongst us, of all sorts. 

" There were in the small kingdom of Israel 
at one time 38,000 Lcvites above the age of 
thirty. England would require many more to 
perform their function as they ought, to the profit 
of the people. And all the patrimony that ever 
the church had in England would not overdo it, 
to be divided among so many as would be need- 
ful of the clergy, and for maintaining the poor 
besides, together with the building and repairs 
of churches, schools, colleges, libraries, and many 
other charges profitable to the nation. 

" And another consideration ; if there were 
such a number of the clergy, there would be 
more provision for many of our sons, whom we 
cannot now dispose of, at least not so well." — 
Leslie {Divine Right of Tithes), 2, 876. 



[Mixture of the Sacramental Wine with Water.] 

Pope Alexander I. first mixed the sacra- 
mental wine, and left the receipt for holy water. 
A tolerable epigram upon the subject by some 
Mariano, is quoted b}^ Bernino. 

Vino miscet aquam : mixto sale temperat undam, 
Regnat Alexander sobrius et sapidus. 



[Povei-ty of the Clergy.] 

The income of the clergy was so very low 
that in some places they were allowed a whittle- 
gate, — that is, the minister was privileged to go 
from house to house in the parish, and for a cer- 
tain number of days enter his u-hittlc (knife) with 
the rest of the household, and live witii them ; 
this has been abolished within the memory of 
man.' 



1 " An harden, sark, a ^Ufe ^rassinj?. and n wh ktle fnait," 
were all the salary of a clergyman, not many yoar.s ago, 
in Cumberland : in other words, his entire stipend con- 
sisted of a shirt of coarse linen, the riijht of comraoning 
peese, and the privilege of using a knife (A. ir^.whytd) and 
fork at the table of his parishioners." — Biiochett's Gloss, 
inv. J. VV.W. 



"6 DUVERNET— SOUTH— SOBER INSPECTIONS— DR. WALTER POPE. 



[jln everyday Advertisement in 1849.] 
Ad Cleros. 

'■ Sexaginta Condones ad Fidem et usum 
ChristianiE religionis spectantes, novis typis ac- 
curate Maniiseripta in iraitantibus mandatae, a 
Presbytero Ecclesia; Anorlk-anae compositse : ve- 
neiint apud Ostell. Ave-niaria-lane, Londini, Pre- 
tium £3. 

" HiE Condones aptantur ad omnes Dies Do- 
minicas totius Anni, et ad Occasiones tarn spe- 
ciales, quam consuetas. Prostant venales, simul 
sub involucro sigillato cui mseribitur Sexaginta 
Conciones, &c." — Courier, Satuida)', May 9, 
1807. 



[Les Discernans et les Melangistes.] 
Ix the strange exhibitions which were made 
by the Deacon Pai'is, " On voulut savoir quel 
etoit le pruicipe dominant qui operait le merveil- 
leux de la convulsion. Cette question trcs-itn- 
portante, fut long-temps agitee dans les di verses 
synagogues des seeouristes. Les uns voulaient 
que ce fut I'wuvre du demon; les autres soute- 
naient qui c'etait uniquement I'auvre de Dieu. 
Au milieu de ce conflit d'opinions parurent les 
discernans, qui pretendirent que toute convulsion 
accompagnce de secours etait une ceuvre melee, 
d'ou lis conclurent que dans le merveilleux de la 
convulsion, il y avail le diable dominant, et le di- 
able domine. Ceux qui embrasserent ce senti- 
ment se nomtnerent les melangistes." — Duver- 
.NET, Hist, du Sorbonne, torn. 2, p. 310. 



the dniggist and apothecaiy might have mingled 
her as they pleased ; the haberdasher might 
have put upon her what blocii he pleased ; the 
armourer and cutler might have furbished her 
as the)' pleased ; the dyer might have put what 
colour, the painter what face they pleased upon 
her; the di-uper and mercer might have meas- 
ured her as they pleased ; the weaver might 
have cast her upon whai; loom he pleased ; the 
boatswain and mariner might have brought her 
to what deck they pleased ; the barber might 
have trimmed her as he pleased ; the gardener 
might have lopped her as he pleased ; the black- 
smith might have forged what religion he pleased. 
And so ever)' one according to his profession and 
fancy was tolerated to form what religion he 
pleased." — Sober Inspections, S^c, p. 105. 



[Triutnph of Vice?\^ 
"Vice," says South (vol. 4, p. 135), "has 
clearly got the victory, and canied it against all 
opposition. It rides on successfully and glori- 
ously, lives magnificently, and fares deliciously 
every day ; and all this in the face of God and 
man, without either fear of one or shame of the 
other. Nay, so far are our modern sinners from 
sneaking under their guilt, that they scorn to 
hide, or so much as hold down their head for less 
crimes than many others have lost theirs. Such 
a rampancy of vice has this age of abused mer- 
cies, or rather miracles, brought England to. 
While on the other hand, the widows and or- 
phans of many brave and worthy persons, who 
had both done and sufTered honourably for their 
prince, their church, and their country, as a re- 
ward for all this, live in want and misery, and a 
dismal lack of all things, because they had rather 
work or beg, do or suffer any thing, than sin for 
their bread." 



[Conformist and Nonconformist on Obedience and 
Disobcdie7ice.] 

" Conformist. Was not there a time when this 
was a principle among your ministers, that they 
should obey the orders of the magistrate under 
whom they lived, if they were not sinful ? 

" Non Conformist. I am not much acquainted 
with their opinions in those matters. 

" C. You may know them then by their prac- 
tises, which I suppose you will by all means 
have to be consistent with their principles. 

" N. C. What practises ? 

" C. I think there were orders in the late 
times that no man should pray publicly for King 
Charles, and they obeyed them. They were re- 
quired also to keep a thanksgiving for the victo- 
ries at Dunbar and Worcester, with which I be- 
lieve the most, if not all, complied. Nay, that 
thanksgiving was repeated everj' year at White- 
hall, and I believe Cromwell found some among 
you that would not deny to carrj' on the work 
of that day. 

" N. C. What do you infer from hence? 

" C. That thej- have forsaken their princi- 
ples : for now they will not obey the king's or- 
ders. Mark what I say. They would obey 
usurpers, because they had a power for the time 
being ; and now they disobey their sovereign, 
whose power they acknowledge to be just, and 
who commands things that are not unlawful." — 
Friendly Conference, p. 53. 



[Divers Religions the S/>a!fn of Faction.] 
" The Hierarchy and English Liturgy being 
voted down, there was a general liberty given 
to all consciences in point of religion. The tay- 
lor and shoemaker might have cut out what re- 
ligion they pleased ; the vintner and tapster 
might have broached what religion they pleased ; 



[Hospitality of Bishop Seth Ward.] 
" Bishops are commanded by St. Paul to be 
hopitable : never did any yield more punctual 
obedience to that apostolical injunction than this 
Bishop of Salisbury (Seth Ward) ; for, be it spok- 
en without any reflection, no person in that 
county, or the diocese, that ever I heard of. kept 
constantly so good a table as he did, which also 
as occasion required was augmented. He used 
to sa}', that he expected all his brethren of the 
clergy who upon any business came to Salisbury 
should make use of his table, and that he took it 
kindly of all the gentry who did so. Scarce any 
person of quaUty passed betwixt London and 



DR. JOHN MOORE— SOUTH— FULLER— CREYGHTON. 



Exeter but, if their occasions permitted, dined 
with him. The meanest curates were welcome 
to his table ; and he never failed to drink to 
them, and treat them with all alilibility and kind- 
ness imaginable. He often told his guests, they 
were welcome to their own, for he accounted 
himself but their steward." — Dr. Walter Pope's 
Life of Bishop Ward, p. 70. 



[Monstrous Proposition that God is the Author 
of Sin.] 
Dr. John Mooee (Sermon preached before 
the Lord Mayor at Guildhall Chapel, May 28, 
1682) quotes this monstrous proposition from 
Archer's Comfort for Believers, "that God is the 
author not of those actions alone, in and with 
which sin is, but of the very pravit^^ ataxy, ano- 
my, irregularity and sinfulness itself, which is in 
them; yea, that God hath more hand in men's 
sinfulness than they themselves." And from 
Dr. T^^nss's Vindic. Gratice, he quotes these 
words, fatcmur Dcum nan modo ipsius operis 
peccatninosi, scd intcntionis malm authorem esse. 



[Interpreting Gifts of Fanatical Preachers.] 
" Above all for their interpreting gift,'''' says 
South, "you must take them upon Ezekiel, 
Daniel, and Revelation ; and from thence, as it 
were, out of a dark prophetical cloud, thunder- 
ing against the old cavaliers and the church of 
England, and (as I may but too appositely ex- 
press it) breaking them upon the wheels in Eze- 
kiel, casting them to the beasts in Daniel, and 
pouring upon them all the vials in the Revela- 
tion." — Sermons, vol. 3, p. 446. 



[Extempo7-ary Prayer.] 
" In extemporary prayer," says Fuller, 
" what men most admire, God least regardeth ; 
namely, the volubility of the tongue. Oh, it Ls 
the heart keeping time and tune with the voice 
which God listeneth unto. Otherwise the nim- 
blest tongue tire.s, and loudest voice grows dumb 
before it comes half way to heaven." — Good 
Thoughts. 



[Infallibility of Dissent.] 
" To them Scotus and Aquinas are sots, car- 
dinals veil your caps : a conventicle can furnish 
you with doctors more seraphick, more irrefra- 
gable. The phanatick that they say wont to 
convert the pope doubtless outfaced the old chair 
at Rome with much more infallibility than ever 
pretends to sit there. For most of those that 
dissent from us are infallibly sure they are in the 
right. These are the men whose uncontroulable 
conscience is above all law : or but for one law, 
and that is, that it should be passed into a law 
that their consciences .shall be bound up by no 
law. Shall Mahomet go to the mountain, or the 
mountain come to Mahomet ? Shall these men's 
consciences come to the law, or the law to these 



men's consciences ? A gaiTuent ma}' as soon be 
fitted to the moon as such a system of laws framed 
as shall fit every man's conscience. It pinches 
here, — widen the law : now it pinches as much 
there, widen that too : till at last the law grow.s 
so much too wide, as that the man's conscience 
having got room enough to turn itself with free- 
dom, wholly shakes off all law, and that which 
at first pretended only to liberty, shall very fairly 
end in. licentiousness." — Creyghton's Sermon. 
1682. 



[Proposal that the Archbishops and Bishops should 
be of Noble Blood.] 
This odd, and not very wise proposal occurs 
in England's wants. " That as among the Jews, 
where, by immediate Divine appointment, the 
chief clergyman, Aaron, was brother to the su- 
preme magistrate, Moses, and the priests and the 
Levites were all of noble stock ; and as amongst 
Christians even here in England antiently, and 
at this day in foreign Christian states, the chief 
clergy have been oft of noble, and sometime of 
royal blood, and the ordinary priests usually sons 
of the gentry, whereby they come to be more 
highly honoured, and their just authority better 
obej'cd, so now in England, that the two arch- 
bishops may be (if possible) of the highest noble 
(if not royal) blood of England, and all the bish- 
ops of noble blood, and the inferior priests sons 
of the gentry, and not after the example of that 
wicked rebel Jeroboam, and our late republicans, 
to make priests of the lowest of the people, whilst 
physic and law, professions ever acknowledged 
in all nations to be iitferior to divinity, are gener- 
ally embraced by gentlemen, and sometimes by 
persons nobly descended, and preferred much 
above the divine's profession." 



[Wanderers from Church to Church.] 
" What a devout company of saints are Re- 
becca, her book, her pattens, and her slool! for 
all must together ; nor would you think her go- 
ing to church, but removing house. I wonder 
she is never apprehended for carrying burthens 
upon the Sabbath-day. Well, this coif and cro.ss- 
cloth, this blue-aproned saint is as much in the 
church as the parson's hour-glass, the hassocks, 
or the people that are buried there. Nor will 
she tire with a single hearing, but trudge from 
Tantlins to Tellins, and hold out killing of a brace 
or two, and all long courses. Thus arc they 
carried from ordinance to ordinance, like beggars 
from one church to another, that they may ply 
at both places." — Hudibras in Prose. 



[Taking Nulcs at Chunh.] 
In a squib upon the expenditure of the Com- 
mittee of Safety during the Commonwealth, 
among the items charged to the Lord Fleet- 
wood's use is one " for a silver inkhorn, and ten 
gilt-paper books, covered with green plush and 
Turkey leather, for his lady to write in at church, 



78 



SOUTH— WESLEY— CREYGUTON—BASNAGE— ADDISON. 



— seven pounds, three shillings, aiul three pence." 
— Ilarlcian Miscellany^ 8yo edition, vol. 7, p. 149. 



[Men's Hearts must be in Heaven before their 
Bodies can be.] 
" Let men rest as.sured of this, that God has 
so ordered the s^reat business of their eternal 
happiness, that their affeetions must .still be the 
forerunners of their person, the constant harbin- 
gers appointed by God to go and take possession 
of those glorious mansions for them ; and conse- 
quently that no man shall ever come to heaven 
himself, who has not sent his heart thither before 
him. For where this leads the way the other 
will be sure to follow." — Souts's Sermons, vol. 
4, p. 541. 



[Worldly Wisdom of the Romish Church.] 
" I WISH," says South, " that while we speak 
loud against those of the Romish Church, we 
could at the same time inwardly abhor and de- 
test their impieties, and yet imitate their discre- 
tion ; and be ashamed that those sons of darkness 
should be so much wiser in their generation than 
we, that account ourselves such children of light. 
For be they what they will, it is evident that 
they manage things at an higher rate of prudence 
than to fear a change in their church government 
every six months, or to be persuaded by any ar- 
guments to cut their throats with their own hands, 
or amongst all their indulgences, to afford any to 
their implacable enemies." — Vol. 5, p. 341. 



[Oiic Day as a Thousand Years.] 
"With the Lord one day is as a thousand 
years, and a thousand years as one day. And 
from this very expression some of the ancient 
fathers drew that inference, that what is com- 
monly called the Day of Judgement, would be 
indeed a thousand years. And it seems they did 
not go beyond the truth ; nay, probably they did 
not come up to it. For if we consider the num- 
ber of persons who arc to be judged, and of ac- 
tions which are to be inquired into, it docs not 
appear that a thousand years will suffice for the 
transactions of that day. So that it may not 
improbably comprise several thousand years. 

But God shall reveal this also in its season." 

Wesley, vol. 7, p. 208. 



ncss will not be covered which resolves to break 
out into rebellion the next opportunity. None 
can more wish to be undeceived, than we to be 
deceived in what we say of those whose hands 
were they as strong as their heads weak, would 
quickly satisfy the world what principles they 
are of : then you should see that same weak con- 
science all ill armour, strong enough to manage 
a sword against their king in an army of rebels." 
— Creyghton's Sermon. 1682. 



[Idea of some early Christians that Nero vns 
jlntichrist.] 
" Theee were some early Christians who im- 
agined that Nero was Antichrist : and for that 
reason maintained either that he must rise again, 
or that he was not dead ; but that he was con- 
cealed in some secret place, to appear once again 
in the flower of his age." — Basxage's History 
of the Jews, book 3, chap. 7. 



[" Fas est et ab hoste doceri.^^ 

Ovid, Met.] 
A PROFESSOR asks of the Editor of the Gospel 
Magazine whether he shall attend upon an Ar- 
minian Methodist, or a carnal minister in the Es- 
tablished Church, having no other choice. The 
Editor's reply, "here is an Arminian Methodist 
Di.ssenter on one hand ; and on the other a blind 
Episcopalian, who no doubt is as much drenched 
in the abominable lake as the other. We say, 
and maturely say, adhere to the establishment 
in this case. You ai-e sure to hear the Scrip- 
tures repeatedly read, and a sound liturgy and 
prayers, wherein thousands and tens of thousands 
have joined with heart and lips, who are now 
around the throne of God and the Lamb." 



[Baxter^ writings and a Christmas Pye.] 
"I ONCE met vnt\x a page of Mr. Baxter." 
says Addiso.v, " under a Christmas Pye. Wheth- 
er or no the pastry-cook had made use of it 
through chance or waggery, for the defence of 
that superstitious viande I know not ; but upon 
the perusal of it I conceived so good an idea of 
the author's piety, that I bought the whole 
book." 



[Misuse of the Term " Tenderness nf Con- 
science.'^] 
" There is a tenderness of cqnscience which 
is caused by a certain sour, fretting, goating hu- 
mour, that corrodes, that sours like the Icvcn of 
the Pharisee. — I mean perfect ill-nature, which, 
mixed with a few unlucky grains of intemperate 
zeal, frets and galls the very heart of the man, 
and so he easily mistakes in trurh his sore for 
the tenderness of his conscience. May not this 
weakness descry some pity too ? Yes : Charity 
may cover my brother's failings : but that weak- 



[The Itch in the Ear.] 

"In our days," says South, "sad experien(;e 
shows that hearing sermons has with rao.st swal- 
lowed up and devoured the practice of them, and 
manifestly serves instead of it ; rendering many 
zealots amongst us as really guilty of the super- 
stition of resting in the bare opus operatum of 
this duty, as the papists are, or can be, charged 
to be in any of their religious performances what- 
.soever. The apostle justly reproaches such with 
itching ears (2 Tim., iv., 3). And I caimot see 
but that the itch in the ear is as bad a distemper 
as in any other part of the body, and perhaps a 
worse." — Sermons, vol. 3, p. 427. 



MEDJIREDDEN— GONZALO DE BERCEO— ADAMS— WESLEY, ETC. 79 



[Gate of Penitence.] 
"When an Israelite committed a sin, on the 
morrow it was found written either on his fore- 
head or the door of his house. He then went 
to a place which is now included in the Great 
Mosque, and called the Gate of Penitence, — 
there he performed penance, and when that pen- 
ance was accepted, the miraculous writing dis- 
appeared." — Medjiredden, Fundgrubcn des 
Orients. 



The mode of making a Recluse was very sum- 
m,ary. 
Entendio el Confessor que era aspirada, 
Fizo con su mano soror toca negrada 
Fo end a pocos dias fecha emparedada ; 
Ovo grand alegria quando fo encerrada. 

GoNZALo DE Berceo, S. Dom., 325. 



west of England. The pamphlet in which this 
assertion is made is dated in the year 1743. — 
Wesley's Works, vol. 12, p. 351. 



[The Baptized and the Unbaptized.] 
One of the Missionaries whom Virgilius, the 
Bishop of Salzburg (vir sapiens et bene doctus de 
Hibernia insula) sent among the Slavonic peo- 
ple, made the converted serfs sit with him at ta- 
ble where wine was served to them in gilt beak- 
ers, while he ordered their unbaptized lords to 
sit on the ground, out of doors, where the food 
and wine was thrown before them and they w^ere 
left to serve themselves. When the lords de- 
manded why they were treated in this manner, 
he replied, "You, with your unbaptized bodies 
are not worthy to sit with those who have been 
regenerated in the sacred font, — but rather to 
take j'our food out of doors like dogs." — De con- 
versione Baioariorum et Carinthanorum ad Fi- 
dem Christianam, — apud Scriptores Rerum Bo- 
hemicarum, p. 18. 



[Rash Judgment reproved.\ 
"There is a generation of men that teach it 
is unlawful to .salute men with. Good day, God 
be with you, or Leave be to you. They will 
salute none with a good wish unless they know 
his business : as if every man's bu.siness required 
so little haste as to tarry the leisure of their ac- 
quaintance. If Jill men .should pledge them in 
their own cup, they might pass their whole life 
without a God speed. They say, wo cannot tell 
whither he goes, or about what ; it may be he's 
going to the tavern to be drunk. It's but a per- 
adventure that he is going to be drunk ; but with- 
out all pcradventure thou art not sober that dar- 
est so rashly judge thy brother." — T. Adams's 
Exposition upon the Second Epistle of St. Peter. 
1633. 



[WJiole Service read by the Parish Clerk.] 

Wesley says that the whole service of the 

church was read in some churches by the Parish 

Clerk, perhaps every Lord's Day. He seems to 

say that this was particularly tho case in the 



[^^ Loqui variis Unguis nolite prohibere.^^] 
The Romanists of a later age were at no loss 
for an invention which should invalidate the per- 
mission given to the Moravians. The following 
curious passage occurs in the lives of St. Cyril 
and St. Methodius, published by the Bollandists 
in their great collection, ex MS. Blanburano. 
" The apostolic Father and the other rulers of the 
Church reproved the blessed Cyril because he 
had dared to set forth the canonical hours in the 
Slavonic tongue, and thus to alter the institu- 
tions of the Holy Fathers. But he hunibly an- 
swering, said. Brethren and Lords, observe ye 
the words of the Apostle, saying, loqiii variis Un- 
guis nolite prohibere, forbid not to speak with va- 
rious tongues. Following the apostolic precept, 
I did that which ye reprove. But they said. Al- 
though the Apostle may have advised to speak 
in various tongues, yet hath he not willed that 
the divine solemnities should be chaunted in thi.« 
tongue wherein thou hast set them forth. But 
when the altercation between them concerning 
this thing waxed more and more, the blessed 
Cyril brought before them the words of David, 
saying, it is written, Ornnis Spiritus laudet Dom- 
inum, let every thing that hath breath praise the 
Lord. Now if every thing that hath breath 
should magnify the Lord by praising him, where- 
fore do ye forliid me to have the solemnities of 
mass and of the hours modulated in the Slavonic 
tongue." Siquidcm si quivessimus illi populo 
alitcr aliquando cum ceteris nationibus subvcnire 
in lingua Graca vel Latina, omnino quce rcprc- 
henditis non sanxissem. — Acta Sanctorum. Mar- 
tii, t. 2, p. 23. 



[^ Tub-thumper.] 
FoTiLEs says of the " tub-thumpers" in his 
days, that they are " a .sort of people more antic 
in their devotions than Don Busco's fencing-mas- 
ter ; and can so M^rinkle their faces with a relig- 
ious (as they think it) wry look, that you may 
read there all the Persian or the Arabic alphabet, 
and have a more lively view of the Egyptian hi- 
eroglyphics than either Kircherus or Picriu.s will 
aflbni you." — History of the Plots of our prr- 
tcndcd Saints, p. 80. 



[Popular Preacher.] 
When F. Thomas Conecte, who was after- 
wards burnt at Rome (the Carmelites .say, wrong- 
fully), pn;nchcd in the great towns of Flanders 
and Artois, the churches were so filled that he 
used to be hoisted in the middle of the church by 
a cord, in order to be heard, — on fut oblige de 
la suspendre au milieu de VegUse avcc une corde, 

afin quHl put etre cntendu de tout le mondcn. 

Helyot, vol. 1, p. 327. 



80 



HERBERT— JOHNSON— WESLEY— MACARIUS. 



[Reading of Sermons.] 

'' The Lesser Council of Lausanne, in Switz- 
erland, h;is addressed a circular letter to all the 
pastors of the Canton, purporting that they have 
learned that many of them have adopted a too 
convenient method of reading their sermons in 
the pulpit, contrary to the ecclesiastical ordi- 
nances, instead of delivering them from memorj^ 
The Council have therefore made knowm that 
no pastor must read his sermons without special 
permission." 

I copy this from a Magazine of 1806. 



\jin Hour — the Sermon's length informer days 
— not more.] 
George Herbert says, "the Parson exceeds 
not an hour in preaching ; because all ages have 
thought that a competency ; and he that profits 
not in that time, will less afterwards, the same 
affection which made him not profit before, mak- 
ing him then weary, and so he grows from not 
rclisliing to loathing.'' — A Priest to the Temple, 
p. 28. 



[St. Catherine of Sienna.] 
St. Catherine of Sienna had a cmious mode 
cf proving that she was the cause of all the sins 
that were committed. She prayed, she said, for 
the conversion of sinners : and they were not 
converted; now the cause of this failure could 
not be any defect in the Creator, in whom there 
is no defect : therefore it must be in her want 
of faith and divme love sufficient to make her 
prayers efficacious ; — so that all the sins which 
were committed were in this manner attributa- 
ble to her. and were indeed so many convincing 
proofs of her own unworthiness. Her crafty con- 
fessor admired this new mode of hmnility. and 
though some objections to the logic occurred to 
him, he was too humble to advance them. But 
I transcribe the words of the arch-rogue who for 
the audacity of his blasphemous impostures well 
deserved the rank which he afterwards attained, 
— that of General of the Dominicans. 
" — Aliquando ego," &c. 



si.st from publicly praying and exhorting. John- 
son. Sir. that expulsion was extrcnily Just and 
proper. What have they to do at an university, 
who are not willing to be taught, but will pre- 
sume to teach ? Where is religion to be learnt 
but at an university? Sir, they were exam- 
ined, and found to be mighty ignorant fellows. 
BoswELL. But was it not hard. Sir, to expel 
them, for I am told they were good beings? 
John-son. I believe they might be good beings ; 
but they were not fit to be in the University of 
Oxford. A cow is a very good animal in a field ; 
but we turn her out of a garden. — Lord Elibank 
used to repeat this as an illustration uncommon- 
ly happy." 



[Dr. Johnson's Remark on Weslei/s inco7itinent 
Haste.] 
" John Wesley's conversation is good," said 
Dr. Johnson, "but he is never at leisure. He 
is always obliged to go at a certain hour. This 
is ver}- disagreeable to a man who loves to fold 
his legs andliave out his talk, as I do." 



[Manh Unreadiness to Godwards.] 
" I AM often grieved to obsers^e, that although 
on His part the gifts and callings of God are 
without repentance ; although He never repents 
of any thing he has given us, but is v^nlling to 
give it always, yet so very few retain the same 
ardour of affection which they received, either 
when they were justified, or when they were 
(more fully) sanctified." — Wesley's Works, vol. 
16, p. 261. 



[Whitcfield's Oratory lightly esteemed by Dr. 
Johnson.] 
Dr. Johnson would not allow much merit to 
Whitcfield's oratory. "His popularity, Sir, said 
he, is chiefly owing to the peculiarity of his 
manner. He would be followed by crowds were 
he to wear a night-cap in the pulpit, or were 
he to preach from a tree." — Boswell, vol. 2, 
p. 59. 



[Justification and Sanctification.] 
" Although it usually pleases God to inter- 
pose some time between Justification and Sanc- 
tification, yet we must not fancy this to be an in- 
variable rule. All who think this must think w'e 
are sanctified by woi-ks, or (which comes to the 
same) by sufferings. For otherwise, what is 
time necessaiT for ? It must be either to do or 
to sufi'er. Whereas if nothing be required but 
simple faith, a moment is as good as an age." — 
Wesley's Works, vol. 16. p. 63. 



[Johnson on the Expulsion of Methodists from 

Oxford.] 

" I talked," says Boswell, " of the recent 

expulsion of six students from the University of 

Oxford, who were Methodists, and would not de- 



[Marvellous Present of a Relic] 
When Macarius, the Patriarch of Antioch, 
was at Yassy, he made the Bey of Moldavia "a 
present of immense value : it was the lower jaw 
of St. Basil the Great, of a yellow colour, very 
hard and heavy, and shining like gold. Its 
smell was more delightful than amber, and the 
small and large teeth were remaining in it un- 
moved. It came into our hands at Constantino- 
ple, says Paul the Archdeacon (Historiographer 
to the Patriarch on his travels), where it had been 
treasured up by the relatives of Kyr Gregorius, 
Metropolitan of the ancient CiEsarea, and was 
bought for its price in gold." — Travels of Maca- 
rius. p. 55. 



WESLEY— DONNE. 



81 



[Why the Young are more Zealous than the Mid- 
dle-aged.] 

" I HAVE been often musing upon this, why the 
generality of Christians, even those that really are 
sach, are less zealous and less active for God, 
when they are middle-aged, than they were when 
they were young ? May we not draw an an- 
swer to this question, from that declaration of 
our Lord (no less than eight times repeated by 
the Evangelists) . To him that hath (uses what 
he hath) shall be given; but from him that hath 
not, shall be taken away that he hath. A meas- 
ure of zeal and activity is given to every one, 
when he finds pe^ce with God. If he earnestly 
and diligently uses this talent, it will surely be 
increased. But if he ceases (yea, or intermits) 
to do good, he insensibly loses both the will and 
the power. So there is no possible way to re- 
tain those talents, but to use them to the utter- 
most." — Wesley's Works, vol. 16, p. 253. 



[Bnxterh extreme Notions on the Efficacy of 
Prayer.] 
Baxter believed that the woman whom he 
afterwards married was healed by means of 
prayer, when far gone in consumption, and after 
medicine, change of air, and breast-milk had 
been tried without effect. " My praying neigh- 
bours," he says, "had often prayed for me in 
dangerous illness, and I had speedy help. I had 
lately swallowed a gold bullet for a medicine, 
which lodged in me too long, and no means 
would bring it away, till they met to fast and 
pray, and it came away that morning." 



{^Passive Prayer.] 
" At some times," says Wesley, " it is need- 
ful to say, ' I will pray with the Spirit, and with 
the understanding also.' At other times the 
understanding has little to do, while the soul is 
poured forth in passive prayer.^'' 



. [Nearness of our Departed Ones.] 
" I HAVE heard my mother say (says Mr. 
Wesley, in a letter to Lady Maxwell). 'I have 
frequently been as fully assured that my father's 
spirit was with me, as if I had seen him with 
my eyes.' But she did not explain herself any 
further. I have myself many times found on a 
.sudden so lively an apprehension of a deceased 
friend, that I have sanctimes turned about to 
leok ; at the same time I have felt an uncommon 
affection for fhem. But I never had any thing 
of this kind with regard to any but those that died 
in faith. In dreams I have had exceeding lively 
conversations with them : and I doubt not but 
then they were very near." 



[ Wesley and the Statute of Mortmain.] 
"To oblige a friendly gentlewoman," says 
'Wesley (Journal, 10, p. 21), "I was a witness 



to her will, wherein she bcqncalhed part of her 
estate to charitable uses ; and part during hi.s 
natural life, to her dog Toby. I suppose though 
she should die within the 3'ear, her legacy to 
Toby may stand good. But that to the poor in 
null and void, by the statute of Mortmain.^'' 



[Vade ad Apem.] 
" Pliny names one Aristomachum Solensem, 
that spent threescore years in the contemplation 
of bees : our whole time for this exercise is but 
threescore minutes, and therefore we say no 
more of this but Vade ad jlpem, practise the se- 
dulity of the Bee, labour in thy calling." — 
Donne, Sermon 70, p. 713. 



[St. Antholins.] 

" I do nope 
We shall grow famous, have all sorts repair 
As duly to us, as the barren wives 
Of aged citizens do to St. Antholins." 

Cartwright's Ordinary. 



[Wesley and the Cockfightcr .] 
"I MET a gentleman in the streets (at New- 
castle) cursing and swearing in so dreadful a 
manner, that I could not but stop him. He soon 
grew calmer, told me he must treat me with a 
glass of wine, and that he would come and hear 
me, — only he was afraid I should say some- 
thing against fighting of cocks.'''' — Journal, 5, 
p. 94. 



[Wesley and Lincoln College.] 
Mr. Wesi.ey in defending himself against the 
charge of irregularity for gathering congrega- 
tions everywhere, and exercising his ministerial 
office anywhere, contrary to the design of that 
parochial distribution of duty settled throughout 
this nation, makes this curious remark, "it is re- 
markable that Lincoln College was founded ' Ad 
propagandatn Christianam fidcm, et extirpandas 
Hcercses.' " 



Experience. 
" You will encourage J. T. (says Mr. Wes- 
ley) to .send me a circumstantial account of 
God's dealings with her soul. Mr. Norris ob- 
serves, that no part of history is so profitable as 
that which relates to the great changes in states 
and kingdoms ; and it is certain no part of Chris- 
tian history is so profitable as that which relates 
to great changes wrought in our souls : these 
therefore should bo carefully noticed and treas- 
ured up for the encouragement of our brethren." 
— Wesley's Works, vol. 16, p. 123. 



[Perseverance in dry Duty.] 
" The most desirable prayer is that where we 
can quite pour out our soul, and freely talk with 



82 WESLEY— TCPLADY— DR. CALAMY—BENTHAM— BINGHAM, ETC. 



God. But it is not this alone which is accept- 
able to him. ' I love one (said a holy man) that 
perseveres in dry duty. Beware of thinking even 
this is labour lost. God does much work in the 
heart even at those seasons. 

And when the soul, sighing to be approved, 
Says could I love ! and stops ; God writeth 
loved.''' 

Wesley's Works., vol. 16, p. 127. 



[Wesley an Exactcr of Discipline. \ 
He was careful to enforce the discipline of 
3Iethodism. In a letter to Mr. Benson he says, 
" We must threaten no longer, but perform. In 
November last, I told the London Society ' Our 
rule is, to meet a class once a week ; not once in 
two or three. I now give you warning : I will 
give tickets to none in Februarj', but those that 
have done this.' I have stood to my word. Go 
you and do likewise, wherever you visit the 
classes. — Promises to meet, are now out of date. 
Those that have not met seven times in the quar- 
ter, exclude. Read their names in the Society ; 
and inform them all, you will the next quarter 
excUide all that have not met twelve times ; that 
is, unless they were hindered by distance, sick- 
ness, or by some unavoidable business. And I 
pray, without fear or favour remove the leaders, 
whether of classes or bands, who do not watch 
over the souls committed to their care ' as those 
that must give account.' " — Wesley's Works, 
vol. 16, p. "286. 



issue his word, and great is the company of 
preachers, greater and greater every year." 



[Wesley and Quakerism.] 
'• Finding no other way," says Wesley 
(Journal, vol. 6, p. 66). " to convince some who 
were hugely in love with that solemn trifle, my 
brother and I were at the pains of reading over 
Robert Barclay''s Apology, with them being will- 
ing to receive the light, their eyes were opened. 
They saw his nakedness and were ashamed." 



[Baxter on Infants'' Guilt and Corruption.] 
The " ignorant rout" at Kidderminster, as 
Calaray calls them, were once raging mad 
against Baxter for preaching "that infants be- 
fore regeneration had so much guilt and corrup- 
tion as made them loathsome in the eyes of God. 
Whereupon they vented it abroad in the country 
that he preached that God hated and loathed in- 
fants. So that they railed at him as he pa-ssed 
through the streets." Dr. Calamy adds, that 
when on the next '"Lord's Daj" he cleared and 
confirmed this doctrine, the people were ashamed 
and silent. But Baxter himself had more cause 
to be ashamed for having used language so in- 
discreet and unwarrantable. 



[Supinencss of the Clergy previous to "White 
field's Appearance.] 
Mr. Toplauy, in one of his sermons, speaks 
thus of the Establishment to which he belonged. 
" I believe no denomination of professing Chris- 
tians (the Church of Rome excepted) were so 
generally void of the light and life of godliness, 
so generally destitute of the doctrine and of the 
grace of the Gospel, as was the Church of En- 
gland, considered as a body, about fifty 3'ears 
ago. At that period a converted minister in the 
Establishment was as great a wonder a.s a com- 
et ; but now, blessed be God, since that precious, 
that great apostle of the English empire, the 
late dear Mr. Whitefiold was raised up in the 
spirit and power of Elias, the word of God has 
run and been glorified ; many have believed and 
been added to the Lord all over the three king- 
doms ; and still, blessed be his name, the great 
Shepherd and Bishop of souls continues still to 



[The Culimites. Who?] 
" The Culimites were so called from their 
founder, one David Culey, who lived about the 
time of the Revolution, and was, as I have been 
informed, a native of Guyherne (a hamlet of 
Wisbech St. Peter's), most of the inhabitants of 
which place became his followers, and many also 
of Whittlesea, Wisbech St. Mary's Ontwell, and 
Upwell ; till at length his flock, from very small 
beginnings, was increased to seven or eight hund- 
red ; but since his death, which happened about 
the year 1718, it has been continually on the de- 
cline, and is now so much reduced, that accord- 
ing to the account returned in by the church- 
wardens, there are not above fifteen families of 
this sect remaining in the diocese of Ely, who all 
dwell at Wisbech St. Mary's and Guyherne. Da- 
vid Culey resided generally at Guyherne. where 
he had a meeting-house, and was in such esteem 
among his followers as to be styled the Bishop 
of Guyherne. As to his doctrine it differed very 
little, I believe, from that of the Anabaptists, to 
which sect I have been told he himself originally 
belonged. I once saw a book written by David 
Culey, w'herein his notions were particularly de- 
scribed , the title-page of it was as follows, ' The 
Glory of the Two Crowned Heads, Adam ami 
Christ unveiled ; or the Mystery of the New Te.«t- 
ament oj.9.ned.' " — Bentuam's History of Ely. 



Sories Bihlicce. 
This was an early superstition. " It appears, 
says Bingham (b. 16, c. 5, § 3), "that some of 
the inferior clergy, out of a base spirit and love 
of filthy lucre, encouraged this practice, and 
made a trade of it in the French church : whence 
the Gallician Councils are very frequent in \\v» 
condemnation of it." 



[On Reciting Sermons by Rote.] 
" The reciting or repeating part of memory," 
says South, " is so necessary, that Cicero him- 
self observes of oratory (which indeed upon a 



SAMUEL WESLEY— JOHN WESLEY— NICHOLS. 



83 



sacred subject is preaching), that upon the want 
of memory alone ^ omnia etiamsi prcedanssima 
fueritit, in oratore perilura.^ And we know 
that to a popular auditory it is, upon the matter, 
all. There being, in the esteem of many, but 
little difference between sermons read and hom- 
ilies, save only tliis, that homilies are much bet- 
ter." — Sermons, vol. 4, p. 18. 



[Medal struck by the Methodists expelled the Uni- 
versity.] 
Samuel Wesley, the elder, speaks of a medal 
"struck by those ReliqvAcB Danaum who were 
scattered round the world, after they were forced 
from the University : on the one side of which 
was a tomb with this inscription, Pia memorice 
Academice Oxoniensis : on the reverse, Deo, Ec- 
clesice, Principi, Victima." 



[Unhappy Transformation.] 
" Oh that a man should think that to be trans- 
formed into a brute for an hour or more should 
be the way to become a prophet ! I was of- 
fended, and God (I think) is offended, that when 
his gracious and good Spirit descended down 
on Christ as a dove, these men should be for 
bringing him down as a vultm-e to tear and 
shake them in pieces in the communication of it 
to them." — A Warning concerning the French 
Prophets. Single sheet. 



[ Wesley and Rochester's Divine Poems .'] 
"He is very pleeisant with me for knowing so 
, little of the world as to be bantered by ladies, 
and sent in my go\^Ti through St. Paul's church- 
yard, to ask for Rochester's Divine Poems. But 
he is mistaken in a main circumstance of the 
story, for 'twas not a gown, but a cloak verily, 
with which I was accoutred, as were then most 
of our Academics, when I was sent on that wise 
errand, not long after I came from the Grammar 
school, while I was a member of their private 
Academy, and before I learnt among them to 
know the world better than I wish I had ever 
known it. And where's the miracle, that three 
arch lasses in concert should bo too hard for a 
raw scholar ?" — Samuel Wesley's Reply to Pal- 
mer, p. 139. 



[Profane Swearing.] 
" Mr. B. went to the mayor and said, ' Sir, I 
come to inform against a common swearer. I 
believe he swore a hundred oaths last night ; but 
I marked down only twenty.' ' Sir,' said the 
mayor, ' you do very right in bringing him to 
justice. What is his name ?' He replied, ' R — 
D — .' 'R — D !' an.swered the mayor; 'why 
that is my son !' ' Yes, sir,' said Mr. B., 'so I 
understand.' ' Nay, sir,' said he, ' I have noth- 
ing to say in his defence. If he breaks the law, 
he must take what follows.' " — Wesley's Jour- 
nal, vol. 6, p. 155. 



[The Profane Swearer rebuked.] 
"As I was walking up Pilgrim Street, hear- 
ing a man call after me, I stood still. He came 
up and used much abusive language, intermixed 
with many oaths and curses. Several people 
came out to see what was the matter : on which 
he pushed mo once or twice and went away. 

" Upon inquiry, I found this man had signal- 
ized himself of a long season, by abusing and 
throwing stones at any of our family who went 
that way. Therefore I would not lose the op- 
portunity, but on Monday, 4, sent him the fol- 
lowing note : — 

' Robert Young, — 
' I expect to see you between this and Fri- 
day, and to hear from you that you are sensible 
of your fault. Otherwise, in pity to your soul, I 
shall be obliged to inform the magistrates of your 
assaulting me yesterday in the street. I am 
' Your real friend, 

' John Wesley.' 

" Within two or three hours, Robert Young 
came and promised a quite different behaviour. 
So did this gentle reproof, if not save a soul from 
death, yet prevented a multitude of sins." 



[Profane Swearers silenced.] 
" At Darlington, it b^ng the fair-day, we 
could scarce find a place to hide our head. At 
length we got into a little inn, but were obliged 
to be in a room where there was another set of 
company, some of whom were cursing and swear- 
ing much. Before we went away, I stepped to 
them, and asked, ' Do you think yourselves that 
this kind of talking is right ? ' One of thcra 
warmly replied, ' Sir, we have said nothing which 
wc have need to be ashamed of.' I said, ' Have 
you not need to be ashamed of disobliging your 
best friend '? And is not God the best friend you 
have ? ' They .stared first at me, and then at 
one another. But no man answered a word." 



[Warburton'' s Suggestion for exposing idle Fa- 
natics.] 
" Warburton says, in one of his letters to 
Birch, ' I tell you what I think would be the best 
way of exposing these idle fanatics — the print- 
ing passages out of George Fox's Journal, and 
Ignatius Loyola, and Whitcfield's Journals, in 
parallel columns. Their conformity in folly is 
amazing.' " — Nicuols's Illustrations, vol. 2, p. 
109. 



[Wesley''s Daily Labour.] 
"At the close of the year 1786," Mr. Wes- 
ley says, "all the time I could save till the end 
of the week, I spent in transcribing the Society, 
a dull, but necessary work, wliicli I have taken 
upon myself once a year for near these fifty 
years." — Journal, vol. 21, p. 25. 



84 



WESLEY— BOS WELL. 



[Wcskij on the Expediency of Field Preaehing.] 
" A VAST majority of the immense congrega- 
tion in INIoorficlds were deeply serious. One 
such hour might convince any impartial man of 
the expediency of field preaching. What build- 
ing, except St' Paul's church, would contain such 
a congregation ? And if it would, what human 
voice could have reached them there ? By re- 
peated observations I find I can command thrice 
the number in the open air that I can under a 
roof." — Wesley's Journal, vol. 11, p. 83. 



[Power of the Chspel in Hospitals.] 
Mr. Wesley himself perceived with what ef- 
fect religious labourers might be employed in a 
hospital. Writing in 174i, he says. "I visited 
a young man in St. Thomas's hospital, who in 
strong pain was praising God continually. At 
the desire of many of the patients, I spent a short 
time with them, in exhortation and prayer. O 
what a harves* Taight there be, if any lover of 
souls who ha' ^me upon his hands, would con- 
stantly attend these places of distress, and with 
tenderness and meekness of wisdom, instruct and 
exhort those on whom God has laid his hands, to 
know and improve the day of their visitation." 
— Journal, vol. 5, p. 3. 



[Wickedness of tite Marshalsea Prison.] 
" I VISITED one in the Marshalsea Prison, a 
nursery of all manner of wickedness. shame 
to man, that there should be such a place, such a 
picture of hell upon earth ! And shame to those 
■who bear the name of Christ, that there should 
reed any prison at all in Christendom!" — 
Journal, vol. 9, p. 41. 



[Eating of Blood.] 
" A YorxG gentleman called upon me," says 
'Wesley {Journal, vol. 6, p. 103), "whose father 
is an eminent minister in Scotland, and was in 
union with Mr. Glas, till Mr. Glas renounced 
him, because they did not agree as to the eating 
of blood. Although I wonder any should disa- 
gree about this, who have read the 1 5th chapter 
of the Acts, and considered that no Christian in 
the universe did eat it. till the Pope repealed the 
law which had remained ever since Noah's flood." 



refers to his providential deliverance. " Friday, 
February 9th, we had a comfortable watch-night 
at the chapel. About eleven o'clock it came 
into my mind, that this was the very day and 
hour in which, forty years ago, T was taken out 
of the flames. I stopped and gave a short ac- 
count of that wonderful providence. The voice 
of praise and thanksgiving went up on high, and 
great was our rejoicing before the Lord." 



[Microscopic Animals — Wonders of.] 

" I MET with a tract," says Wesley (Journal, 
vol. 10, p. 7), "which utterly confounded all my 
philosophy. I had long believed that microscopic 
animals were generated, like all other animals, 
by parents of the same species. But Mr. Need- 
ham makes it highly probable that they consti- 
tute a peculiar class of animals, diff'ering from all 
others in this : that they neither are generated, 
or generate, nor subsist by food in the ordinary 
way." 



[Wesley's Doubts on Astronomy.] 
" At the request of the author, I took some 
pains in correcting an ingenious book shortly to 
be pvtblished. But the more I consider them, 
the more I doubt of all systems of astronomy. 
I doubt whether we can certainly know the dis- 
tance or magnitude of any star La the firmament. 
Else why do astronomers so immensely diff"er, 
even with regard to the distance of the sun from 
the earth? Some affiiming it to be only twelve, 
others ninety millions of miles !" — Journal, vol. 
10, p. 92. 

" I riNisHED Dr. Roger's Essay on the Learn- 
ing of the Ancients. I think he has clearly proved 
that they had microscopes and telescopes, and 
knew all that is valuable in the modem a.stron- 
oray. But indeed he has fully shown the whole 
frame of this to be quite uncertain, if not self- 
contradictory."' — Ibid., p. 109. 



[Newtonian and Hutchinsonian Principles.] 
" I read Mr. Jones's ingenious Essay on the 
Principles of Natural Philosophy. He seems to 
have totally overthrown the Newtonian princi- 
ples. But whether he can establish the Hutch- 
insonian is another question." — Journal, vol. 14, 
p. 24. 



[Wesley'' s Thanksgiving for his wonderful Deliv- 
erance.\ 
Ln his Journal for 1750, Mr. Wesley thus 



[Question, if those in Paradise know what is pass- 
ing on Earth.] 
"We had as usual most of the inhabitants (of 
Epworth) at the Cross in the afternoon. I called 
afterwards on Mr. and his wife, a venera- 
ble pair, calmly hastening into eternity. If those 
in Paradise know what passes on earth, I doubt 
not but my father is rejoicing and praising God, 
who has in his own manner and time accom- 
plished what he had so often attempted in vain." 
— Journal, vol. 9, p. 54. 



[Johnson never treated, Whitefield's Ministry xeith 
Contempt.] 
" Whitefield," said Johnson, "never dreXv 
as much attention as a mountetank does : he 
did not draw attention by doing better than oth- 
ers, but by doing what was strange. Were Ast- 
ley to preach a sermon standing upon his head 



BISHOP HALL— WORDSWaRTH— WESLEY— MICHAELIS. 



85 



on a horse's back, he would collect a multitude 
to hear him ; but no wise man would say he 
had made a better sermon for that. I never 
treated Whitefield's ministry with contempt : I 
believe he did good. He had devoted himself 
to the lower classes of mankind, and among 
them he was of use. But when familiarity and 
noise claim the praise due to knowledge, art, 
and elegance, we must beat down such preten- 
sions." — BoswELL, vol. 3, p. 328. 



[Four Popes destitute of Common Sense.] 
Queen Christina told Burnett " it was cer- 
tain that the church was governed by the imme- 
diate care and providence of God ; for none of 
the four Popes that she had known since she 
came to Rome had common sense." She add- 
ed, " they were the first and the last of men." 



[Bishop HalVs Care on the drawing up of his 
Discourses.] 
Bishop Hall composed his discourses with 
great care; "Never," he says, "durst I climb 
into the pulpit to preach any sermon, whereof I 
had not before in my poor and plain fashion, 
penned every word in the same order wherein I 
hoped to deliver it, although in the expression I 
listed not to be a slave to syllables." 



[Wliitgift^s Care in drawing up his Notes for 
Preaching.] 
" Archbishop Whitgift never preached but 
he first wrote his notes in Latin, and afterwards 
kept them during his life. For he would say, 
that whosoever took that pains before his preach- 
ing, the older he waxed, the better he should 
discharge that duty ; but if he trusted only to 
his memory, his preaching in time would become 
prattling." — Dr. Wordsworth's Eccl. Biog., 
vol. 4, p. 377. 



[On the breaking off of Habits — exemplified in 
Weslcy^s leaving off Tea] 
" After talking largely with both the men 
and woman leader, we agreed it would prevent 
great expense, as well of health as of time, and 
of money, if the poorer people of our society 
oould bo persuaded to leave off drinking of tea. 
We resolved ourselves to begin and set the ex- 
ample. I expected some diificulty, in breaking 
off a custom of six-and-twenty years' standing. 
And accordingly the three tirst days my head 
aked, more or less, all day long, and I was half 
asleep from morning to night. The third day, 
on Wednesday in the afternoon, my memory 
fail'd, almost intirely. In the evening I sought 
my remedy in prayer. On Thursday morning 
ray headache was gone. My memory was as 
strong as ever. And I have found no inconven- 
ience, but a sensible benefit in several respects, 
from that very day to this." — Wesley's Jour- 
nal, vi., p. 135. 



[On Blasphemous Thoughts.] 
" Many persons about fifty or a hundred years 
ago," says Michaelis, " found themselves griev- 
ously oppressed with spiritual trials as they 
were called, and were filled with anguish on ac- 
count of blasphemous thoughts which Satan was 
said to suggest. Books were written about this 
time, which still sometimes appear in auctions, 
under the title of Tela ignita Satance. Divines 
too treated of these high trials, and gave advices 
as to the best plan for encountering Satan, which 
if collected together might with the greatest pro- 
priety be intituled, Advices how to have Blasphe- 
mous Thoughts hourly and momentarily in the 
mind : for the more pains a man takes to guard 
against any idea which he regards with peculiar 
horror, the more apt will it be to intrude." — 
Commentaries on the Law of Moses, translated by 
Dr. Smith, vol. 2, p. 270. 



[Increase of Ungodliness admitted by the Assem- 
bly.] 

" Conformist. You make an outcry through 
the nation and tell the people that all ungodliness 
hath overflown it only since Bishops and Com- 
mon Prayer came home again. Which is an 
arrant lie, as will be made good if need be 
against the best of you. For it began to break 
in upon us when the Bishops and all good order 
w^ere thrown down, and the kingdom put into 
arms. Then men ran into excess of riot when 
there was no restraint upon them. I will not 
say into so much drunkenness, but into whoring 
(I may add atheism and irreligion) and such like 
wickedness, which are said now to be the reign- 
ing sins. And though men were not presently 
openly lascivious and profane (for the older wick- 
edness grows the bolder it is), yet then they got 
loose from their chains, and these works of dark- 
ness secretly lurked and were privately prac- 
tised. 

" Non-Conformist. I do not believe you. 

" C. You will believe the Assembly I am 
sure, and they say so. 

" N. C. Where ? 

" C. In their petition to the Parliament of 
July 19, 1644, where they desire in the seventh 
branch of it, that some severe course may be 
taken against fornication, adultery and incest ; 
which do greatly abound, say they, especially of 
late, by reason of impunity.^' — Friendly Confer- 
ence, p. 114. 



[Punishments enforced against Catholics.] 
" The law made by Protestants prohibiting 
the practise of other religions beside their own, 
allottcth out the same punishment to all them 
that do any way vary from the public connnun- 
ion book, or otherwise say service than is ap- 
pointed there, as it doth to the Catholiques for 
hearing or saying of a mass. And although the 
world knowcth, that tlic order set down in that 
book be conimonly broken by every minister at 



86 DUGDALE—DAMIANUS— FRIENDLY CONFERENCE, ETC. 



his pleasure, and observed almost no where ; yet 
small punishment hath ever ensued thereof. But 
for hearin<r of a mass, were it never so seeret, 
or uttered by never so weak means, what im- 
prisoning, what arrayning, what condemning 
hath there been !" — Brief Discourse why Catho- 
iiques refuse to go to Church, 1580. 



A soKT of inferior royalty was attached to a 
Chief who had a Cathedral within his territories : 

" Regnante Kimvino regc West-Saxonum, crat 
quidani nobilis vir, Cyssa nomine, et hie crat reg- 
ulus in cujus dominie erat Wiltcsi7-c ct pars max- 
ima de Berksire. Et quia hahebat in dominio 
suo episcopalem scdcm in Mahneshiria, regulus 
appcllabalur. Metropolis vero urbs regni ipsius 
erat Bcdewinde.^^ — Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. 
1, p. 97. 



[Qiicstion of false Principles.] 

" You may have some good done you by false 
principles,"' says the Conformist in the Dialogue, 
" nay, those very principles may make you do 
some things well, which shall make you do other 
things ill. 

" iV^. C. That's strange. 

" C. Not so strange as true. For what prin- 
ciple was it that led the Quakers to be yawt m 
their dealing '? 

" N. C. That they ought to follow the light 
within them. 

'• C. This led them also to be rude and clown- 
ish, and disrespectful to governments. For all 
is not reason that is in us : there is a world of 
fancy also, and the flashes of this now and then 
are very sudden and amazing, just like lightning 
out of a cloud." — Friendly Conference, p. 131. 



[False Miracles.'] 
B. Petrus Damianus in his Life of St. Romu- 
aldo complains of the false miracles with which 
hagiology abounded in his days. He says, " Non- 
nulli etiim Deo se defer re existiniant, si in extol- 
landis Sanctorum virtutibus mendacium fngant. 
Hi nimirum ignorantes Deum nostro non egere 
mcndacio, relicta veritate, qua ipse est, falsitatis 
ti pulant se placere posse commento. Quos bene 
Jercmias rcdarguit, dicens — docuerunt linguas 
$uas loqui, mendacium ; ut inique agerant labo- 
raverimty — Acta SS. Feb., torn. 2, p. 104 



[Appropriation of the Title of Saint.] 
" They will by no means give the title of 
Saint to one of the Apostles or Evangelists of the 
Lord (though I think they will call them holy, 
which is the same), no, not when they read a text 
out of their wTitings ; for which I can conceive 
no other reason but that their good dames and 
masters do not like it ; they are afraid that it is 
popish. And rather than these men servers will 
be at the pains of convincing them of their error, 
or, to speak more properly, rather than venture 



the danger of losing them (for many might in a 
passion fly off, if they heard the name of saint 
given to any but themselves) they will not offend 
their tender cars by naming that abominable 
word." — Friendly Conference, p. 48. 



[The Disputant and the Devil.] 
" One that used often to preach for Mr. Hun- 
tington, was talking one Lords-day morning at 
Providence Chapel, about a trial he underwent 
in his own parlour wherein the Devil had ' set in' 
with his unbelief to dispute him out of some 
truth that was essential to salvation. He said 
he was determined that the Devil should not 
have his way : and he therefore ' drew a chair 
for him, and desired him to sit down that they 
might have it out together.' According to his 
own account he gained a great victory over the 
empty chair." — The Voice of Tears concerning 
the late Mr. Huntington, p. 12. 



[Encouragement given to the German Peasants 
by Thomas Monetarius.] 
P. RiCHEOME, the Jesuit, says that Thomas 
Monetarius in his epistle to the German peasants 
during their insurrection, encouraged them thus : 
" Battez sur Venclume de Nembrot, et renversez la 
tour ; il m' est possible de vous delivrer de la erain- 
te des hommes, tandcs que ceux-ci (les magistrats, 
Empereurs and Roys) vivent ; on ne vous si^au- 
roit rien dire de Dieu, tandis quails vous comman- 
dent. Cest la signification de Venclume martelce 
par trois mareschaux, qu'ilsfaisoient mettre a la 
premiere page de leurs livres." — Plaints Apolo- 
getique, p. 170. 



[Forced Abolition of Superstition.] 
P. RiCHEOME quotes this from Calvin's Com- 
mentary on Daniel C. 6, " Les Princes terriens s' 
eslevent contre Dieu, se privent dc leur puissance, 
ains sent indigncs d^estre mis au nombre des 
hommes. Ilfaut done plutost leur cracher au visage 
que leur obcir, sHls n'abolissent toute superstition.^^ 
— Plainte Apologetique, p. 171. 



[Instance of Profound Humility.] 
"Barcena, the Jesuit, told another of his or- 
der that when the Devil appeared to him one 
night, out of his profound humility he rose up to 
meet him, and prayed hhn to sit down in his 
chair, for he was more worthy to sit there than 
he." — Thomas Adam-s's Divine Herbal. 



[Princes of the Nations in Heaven.] 
" The seventy nations which people the earth 
have their princes in heaven, who surround the 
throne of God, as officers ready to execute the 
orders of their King. They encompass the in- 
effable name, and every fir.st day of the year pe- 
tition for their new years' gifts — that is, for a 
certain portion of blessings which they are tc 



JOHN WALSH— MATHER— DUB RARIUS— BISHOP CROFT, ETC. 87 



shed upon the people committed to their charge. 
To this measure which is then granted, nothing 
can be added or diminished : the princes may 
beg and pray all the days of the year, and the 
people petition their princes, but all to no pur- 
pose. And this makes the peculiar difference 
between the people of Israel and other nations ; 
for as the name of Jehovah is peculiar to the 
Jews, they may every day obtain new graces." 
— Basnage, book 3, oh. 13. 



[Jordan and the Demoniac] 
"The blessed Jordan, second general of the 
Dominicans, is said to have pacified a raging 
madman by acceding to his wishes in a venturous 
experiment. The Demoniac who had violent 
and mischievous fits, being one day fast bound, 
and lying upon a bed, grinned at him and ex- 
claimed. Oh if I could but get at thee, I would 
break every bone in thy body. Jordan immedi- 
ately ordered him to be loosed, and the man lay 
still as if he could not move. He uttered how- 
ever another pleasant wish ; — Oh if I could but 
have thy nose between my teeth, and Jordan 
bent down and put his nose close to the mad- 
man's mouth. The story says that the Demoniac 
having no power to bite, licked it like a dog." — 
^cta S S. Feb., torn. 2, p. 729. 



[John Walsh and the Earthquake at Lisbon.] 
" One thing I shall mention to you for its odd- 
ness. I was very well acquainted with Lisbon, 
and sometimes expressed a doubt of Divine Provi- 
dence, because it was not swallowed up by an 
earthquake : thus, notwithstanding the Divine 
question. Who art thou, O man .' that judgest ? 
I sometimes puzzled those that were better than 
myself, with this. Why then is not such a ' cruel 
place destroyed by earthquakes ?' Hence you 
may imagine that its fall affected me greatly ; 
not so much with compassion alone for the suf- 
ferers, but as it was a means of convincing me 
of my error, and of making me more earnest in 
the work of faith." — John Walsh. Arminian 
Magazine, vol. 2, p. 432. 



[Cotton Mather of the venerable Eliot.] 

Cotton Mather says of the venerable Eliot, 
" his whole breath seemed in a sort made up of 
ejaculatory prayers, many scores of which winged 
messengers he dispatched away to heaven upon 
pious errands every day. By them he bespoke 
blessings upon ahtiost every person or affair that 
he was concerned with ; and he carried every 
tiling to God with some pertinent hosannahs or 
hallelujahs over it. He was a mighty and a 
happy man that had his quiver full of these heav- 
enly arrows ! and when he was never so straitly 
besieged by human occurrences, yet he fastened 
the wishes of his devout soul unto them, and very 
dexterously shot them up to heaven over the head 
of all." — Magnalia Christi Americana, book 3, 
p, 176. 



[Bible translated into the Sclavonic Tongue by 
Jerome.] 

St. Jerome is said to have translated the Old 
and New Testament into the Illyrian (or Slavonic) 
language, his native tongue. And this version 
was still used in the church service when Dubra- 
rius wrote. — Dubrarius, p. 4. 



[Bishop Croft and the Surplice Question.] 
" Perchance," says the Humble Moderator, 
Bishop Croft, " I appear a great enemy to the 
surplice, so often naming it; I confess I am, 
would you know why ? Not that I dislike, but, 
in my own judgement, much approve a pure white 
robe on the minister's shoulders, to put him in 
mind that purity becomes a minister of the gos- 
pel : but such dirty, nasty surplices as most of 
them wear, and especially the singers in cathe- 
drals (where they should be most decent), is rath- 
er an imitation of their dirty lives, and have giv- 
en my stomach such a surfeit of them, as I have 
almost an averseness to all : and I am confident 
had not this decent habit been so undccently 
abused, it had never been so generally loathed." 



[South' s Description of True Wit.] 
" True wit," says South, " is a severe and 
manly thing. Wit in divinity is nothing else but 
sacred truths suitably expressed. It is not shreds 
of Latin or Greek, nor a Deus dixit and a Deus 
bcnedixit, nor those little quirks or divisions into 
the OTi, the 6i6tl and the KaOori, or the egress, 
regress and progress, and other such stufl' (much 
like the style of a lease), that can properly be 
called wit. For that is not wit which consists 
not with wisdom. For can you think that it had 
not been an easy matter for any one in the text' 
here pitched upon by me, to have run out into a 
long fulsome allegory, comparing the scribe and 
the householder together, and now and then to 
have cast in a rhyme, with a quiil, a quo and a 
quomodo, and the like ? But certainly it would 
then have been much more difficult for the judi- 
cious to hear such things, than for any, if so in- 
clined, to have composed them. The practice 
therefore of such persons is upon no terms to be 
endured." — Sermons, vol. 4, p. 48. 



[ William Edmundson the Quaker — his Goodness.] 
Speaking of the Journal of William Edmund- 
son, a Quaker preacher in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, he says, " If the original equalled the pic- 
ture (which I see no reason to doubt) what an 
amiable man was this ! His opinions I leave : 
but what a spirit was here ! What faith, love, 
gentleness, long-suffering ! Could mistakes .send 
such a man as this to hell ? Not so. I am so 
far from believing this, that I scruple not to say, 
' Let my soul be with the soul of William Ed- 
mundson !' " — Wesley's Journal, xiv., p. 14. 



I Matthew, xiii., 53. 



88 



BISHOP HALL— WESLEY— BINGFIAM. 



[Death of the Good.] 
"I WAS desired by Lady F. to visit her daugh- 
ter ill of a consuiTiption. I found much pity, both 
for the parent and the child, pining away in the 
bloom of youth : and yet not without joy, as she 
was already much convinced of sin, and seemed 
to be on the very brink of deliverance. I saw 
her once more, on Sat. 29, and left her patient- 
ly waiting for God. Not long after my brother 
spent some time with her in prayer, and was con- 
strained, to the surprise of all that were present, 
to ask of God again and again, that he would per- 
fect his %vork in her soul, and take her to him- 
self. Almost as soon as he had done, she stretch- 
ed out her hands, said, ' Come, Lord Jesus,' and 
died." — Journal, vol. 9, p. 70. 



[Question of Evidence concerning 
Miracle.] 



a remarkable 



reprobate must inevitably have been saved, but 
the love of justice prevented this, and made him 
add to his prayer the words, " nevertheless, not 
my will, but thine be done." — " Ipsa in quadam 
abstractione didicit, qiiod Salvator tristiam et sti- 
dorem sanguineum passus est, orationemquc illam 
fecit propter illos, quos prcevidebat fructum sua 
passionis non debcre participare ; sed quia dill- 
gebat justitiarn apposuit conditionem, verumtamen 
non mea, sed tua voliMilas fiat ; quam si non ap- 
posuisset, dicebat ipsa, quod omnes salvati fuis- 
sent. Impossibile namque erat, orationem filii 
Dei frustrari suo effectu.''' — Acta Sanctorum, 
Ap. 30, p. 905. 



[Saint Furseus. " De minimis non curat Lex.'^'''\ 
"In one of the ecstasies of St. Furseus, the 
devil accused him of speaking idle words, and it 
appeared that the good axiom, de minimis non 
curat lex, was current law in heaven : cumque 
victus Satanas sicut contritus coluber, caput rele- 
vasset venenosum, dixit, ' otiosos sermones scepe 
protulit, et ideo non debet illcesus vita perfrui 6c- 
ata ;' Sanctus Angelus dixit, ' Nisi principalia 
produceris crimina, propter minima nonperibit.'^ 



Bishop Hall, speaking of the good offices 
which angels do to God's servants, says, " Of 
this kind was that manellous cure which was 
wi-ought upon a poor cripple at St. Maderus, in 
Cornwall, whereof, besides the attestation of 

many hundreds of the neighbours, I took a strict ' — Acta Sanctorum, 16 Jan., p. 38 
examination in my last visitation. This man, 
for sixteen years together, was obliged to walk 
upon his hands, by reason the sinevis of his legs 
were so contracted. L^pon an admonition in his 
dream to wash in a certain well, he was sudden- 
ly so restored to his limbs, that I saw him able 
to walk and get his own maintenance 
name of this cripple was John Trebble." 



Extempore Preaching. 

According to Bingham, "Origen was the 

first that began this way of preaching in the 

church. But Eusebius says, he did it not till 

The ' he was above sixty years old, at which age, hav- 

And iig got a confimied habit of preaching by con- 



were," says John Wesley, "many hundreds of tinual use and exercise, he suffered the raxvypa- 
the neighbors, together "with Bishop Hall, de- \ ^"h or notaries, to take down his sermons which 
reived in so notorious a matter of fact, or did he made to the people, which he would never 
they all join together to pahn such a falsehood allow before. Pamphilus, in his Apology for Or- 
on the world ? ° incredulity, what ridiculous igen, speaks the matter a little more plainly : foi 
shifts art thou driven to, what absurdities wilt • he makes it an instance of his sedulity in study- 
thou not believe, rather than own any extraor- ing and preaching the word of God, that he not 
dinary work of God !" only composed a great number of laborious treat- 
ises upon it, but preached almost every day ex- 
tempore sermons in the church, which were tak 
[4m Impostor Prophet.] en from his mouth by the notaries, and so con- 
" I RODE with Mr. Piers to see one vrlio called | veyed to posterity by that means only.", 
himself a prophet. We were with him about an " Gregory Nazianzen, St. Basil, St. Augustine, 
hour : but I could not at all think that he was and, above all, he of the golden mouth, were in 
sent of God : 1 . because he appeared to be full the habit of extempore preaching ; and both he 
of himself, vain, heady and opinionated : 2. be- and Augustine use expressions concerning ' il- 
cause he spoke with extreme bitterness both of lapses and assistances of the Spirit' in such 
the king and of all the bishops and all the cler- preaching, which give more sanction to fanatics 
gy : 3. because he aimed at talking Latin, but than Bingham is willing to allow. ' If a man,' 
could not ; plainly shewing, he understood not he says, ' would disingenuously interpret these 
his own calling." — Wesley's Journal, vol. 6, and the like expressions of the ancients, he might 



128. 



[Catharine of Sienna— one of her lying Revela- 
tions.] 



make them seem to countenance that preaching 
by the Spirit, which some so vainly boast of, as 
if they spake nothing but what the Spirit imme- 
diately dictated to them, as it did to the apostles 
by extraordinary inspiration. Which were to set 
every extempore, as well as composed discourse, 



It is one of the lying revelations of St Catha- 
rine of Sienna, that the Agony in the Garden was ' upon the same level of infallibility v,-ith the Gos- 
oecasioned in our Saviour by the thought of those pel. Which sort of enthusiasm the ancients 
who would derive no salvation from his death, never dreamed of. All they pretended to from 
And that if he had prayed for them, even the , the assistance of the Spirit, was only that ordina- 



COTGRAVE—COLUMBANUS— WALTER POPE— TOPLADY, ETC. 89 



ry assistance which men may expect from the 
concurrence of the Spirit with their honest en- 
deavours, as a blessing upon their studies and 
labours ; that whilst they were piously engaged 
iR his service, God would not be wanting to them 
in such assistance as was proper for their work, 
especially if they humbly asked it with sincerity 
by fervent supplication and prayer." — Book 14, 
ch. 4, § 11, 12. 



[Qtiaker's Grass — a Name in existence previous 
to the Sect.] 
In Cotgrave's Dictionary of the French and 
English Tongues, one of the significations of the 
word Amourettes is thus given, " also the grass 
termed Quakers and Shakers, or quaking grass." 
The date of the Dictionary is 1632. I believe 
it has generally been supposed that the grass ob- 
tained this common name in allusion to the sect 
which is so called ; here, however, it occurs be- 
fore the sect existed, — for at the time when Cot- 
grave's work was printed George Fox was only 
eight years old. 



[Humanizing Power of Literature, Religious es- 
pecially.] 
" Letters accompanied their progress ; the 
perusal of the Holy Scriptures, the transcribing 
of manuscripts, the decoration of churches, the 
illumination of books, the invention of various 
colours for painting, those amusements which 
might best contribute to wean the minds of bar- 
barians from the din of anus, and the ferocious 
manners of savage life, all were cultivated ^with 
diligence, and rendered fashioimble and endear- 
ing by religion." — Columb.4.>;us ad Hibernos, 
No. 6, p. 55. 



[Bishop Seth Ward's College of Matrons.] 
" Btjt the greatest and most seasonable act of 
charity and public benefaction, was building and 
endowing that noble pile, I mean the college of 
matrons, for the entertainment and maintenance 
of ten windows of orthodox clergymen. I have 
often heard him express his dislike if any one 
railed it an hospital ; ' for,' .said he, ' many of 
these are well descended, and have lived in good 
reputation ; I would not have it said of them, that 
they were reduced to an hospital, but retired to 
acoUege, which has a more honourable sound.' " 
— W.\LTF.R Pope's Lifcof Bishop Ward, p. 79. 



[ Work of Conversion. I 
ToPLADY sjieaks of a man who, not under- 
standing a word of Welsh, was converted by a 
Welsh sermon. " Can there bo a stronger 
proof," he says, "that the work of conversion is 
the work of God only !" 



{Fanatical Persicasion.] 
"That fanatic," says South, "spoke home 



and fully to the point, who said, ' that he had in- 
deed read the Scripture, and frequented ordi- 
nances for a long tune, but could never gain any 
true comfort, or quiet of mind, till he had brought 
himself to this persuasion, that whatsoever he had 
a mind to do, was the will of God that he should 
do.' " 



[Thomas a Kempis.] 
BoswELL says "there are sixty-three editions 
of Thomas a Kempis in the king's library, — 
and copies in eight languages. Latin, German, 
French, Italian, Spanish, English, Arabic, and 
Armenian." 



[Warning against R. C. Confession.] 
In his sermon of confession the Catholic Bishop 
Watson warns his hearers against the practice. 
" A sinner," he says, " ought not to accuse him- 
self wrongfully in general, as saying that he hath 
been the most shamefullest lived, and the greatest 
sinner that ever was, or that can be, or any other 
little saying, for they be nought and false. Wliat 
knoweth he how great sinners hath been, or may 
be ? and therefore men must put away such in- 
discreet sayings, and speak soberly, wisely, and 
faithfully to Almighty God in their confessions, 
and then let them not doubt, but steadfastly trust 
of absolution and pardon for all their sins." — 11. 
125. 



[Warning against Wo77tcn Professors.] 
" St. Francisco de Paula warned his disciples 
to avoid the society of women in general, but of 
women who professed a greater love of devotion 
than others, he bade them beware especially — 
as if they were vipers. Faminarum, prcescrtim 
religiosarum, et qwE devotionis majoris studium 
projitcntur, vitabat consortia, et Religiosis suis 
specialiter fugienda commcndabat, tamquam ni 
vipera csscnt." — Acta Sanctorum. April., torn. 
1, p. 108. 



[James II.'s Directions to Preachers.] 
In the directions concerning prcai.-hers wliicli 
Ja.mes II. set forth, 1 685, it is said " Since preach- 
ing was not anciently the wt)rk of every priest, 
but was restrained to the choicest persons for 
gravity, prudence, and learning, the archbisho])s 
and bishops of his kingdom are to take care whom 
they license to preach, and that all grants and 
licenses of this kind heretofore made by any 
chancellor, official conmiissionary, or other secu- 
lai- person (who are presumed not to bo so com- 
petent judges in matters of tliis nature) be ac- 
counted void and null, unless the .same shall like- 
wise be allowed by the archbishop, or the bishop 
of tiie diocese, and that all licenses of preachers 
hereafter to be made or grunted by any arch- 
bishop or bishop, shall be only during pleasure ; 
otherwise to be void to all intents and purposes, 
as if the same had never been made nor granted." 



90 



JOCELINE— PAWSON— STRYPE— HUNTINGTOi\. 



[St. Patrick — a wonderful Preacher.] 
"Of all preachers St. Patrick was the most 
tremendous. He went throii<rh the four Gospels 
in one exposition to the Irish at a place called 
Finnahlair, and he was three days and nights 
about it, without intermission, to the great de- 
light of the hearers, who thought that only one 
day had passed. St. Bridget was present, and 
she took a comfortable nap. and had a vision." 
— Joceline's Life of St. Patrick, p. 81-2. Jlcta 
Sanctorum. Martii, tom. 2, p. 560. 



[Paul Greenwood the Preacher.] 
"When Paul Greenwood (a well-known 
preacher in his day) became delirious in his last 
ilbiess, it was first perceived by the gentleman at 
whose house he lodged, for upon asking him how 
he did, he answered, 'They tell me that the heavens 
and the earth are fled away, and there is no more 
place found for them.' His host replied, ' Well, 
if they are, we shall have new heavens and a new 
earth, you know.' 'That is true,' said Green- 
wood, and was out of bed in a moment to see 
what sort of appearance the world made. When 
he got to the window, he observed, — ' The Lord 
hath spared this corner where we live : what a 
mercy that is !' " — Pawson. 



[Variety of Men's Understandings, S^c] 
One of the most moderate writers that ever 
wrote upon the subject of the Church Establish- 
nient, says, " JNIen's understandings are as vari- 
ous as their speech or their countenance ; other- 
wise it were impossible there should be so many 
understanding and moderate, yea, and conscien- 
tious men also, Papists, Lutherans, Cahnnists, all 
in such opposition one against another, all believ- 
ing Scripture, yet so differing in the deductions 
from Scripture." 

The Naked Truth, by an humble Moderator, 
Herbert Croft, Bishop of Hereford, as verily 
supposed. — Scott's Somers' Tracts, vol. 7. 



[Sailors Swearing and Praying.] 
" A MAN who went to sea in a state of much 
religious distress, before he became a Methodist, 
asked the sailors if they ever prayed. ' Pray ?' 
replied one of them. ' Our prayers and swearing 
are just the same : for when we pray, we think 
of no good ; and when we swear, we think of no 
harm.' " 



[Cranmer on Unholy Alliances in Germany.] 
" Cranmer says in a letter to Osiander, — Nam 
nt interim de Usuris taceam, a vobis aut vcstrum 
eerie nonnullis, ut apparet, approhatis, deque eo 
quod Magnatum Jiliis concubinas habcndas per- 
mittilis (videlicit ne per nuptias legitimas heredi- 
tates dkpergantur) qui ccmcubinatum in Sacerdo- 
tibus tantopere aversati estis : quid poterit a vo- 
bis in excusationem allegari pro eo, quod permit- 



titis, a divortio, utroque conjuge vivo, novas nup- 
tias coire et quod adhuc deterius est, etiam absque 
divortio uni plures permittitis uxores. Id quod 
et tute, si rede memini, in quibusdam tuis ad me 
Uteris apud vos factum diserte expressisti, addeng 
Philippum ipsum sponsalibus poster ioribus, ut 
paranymphum credo atque auspicem, interfuisse.^^ 
— Steype's Cranmer, App., No. 29. 



[The Holy Spirit.] 
" The Holy Spirit," says Huntington in ona ^ 
of his letters, "is the Spirit of all grace, the plant- 
er of all grace, and the life of every fruit which 
he produces. And hence he is called a wind to 
move his o-wti plants, and to make them emit 
their scent, their savour, and their odours. He 
is called dew, to refresh and enliven ; water also 
to moisten and give rooting. But upon love and 
joy he operates as the Spirit of burning ; warm- 
ing, enflaming, and enlarging ; and these to me 
are the most sweet. These are a few scraps to 
exercise, amuse, ponder over, and make out. But 
after all it is but little ii-c know of u-hat we have 
got icithin.'' — Gleanings of the Vintaae, Part 4, 
p. 40. 



" MiLAGRos de Nuestra Seiiora la Vulnerata, 
venerada en el Colegio Ingles desta Ciudad de 
Valladolid. Compuesta por el P. Gregorio de 
Mendiola."— FaKado/irf, 1667. 

" With a relation of the miracles of this our 
Lady so venerated by the English College in 
Valladolid, is an account of what the Holy Image 
suffered by Heretics, and particularly by that 
'monstrous infernal Queen Elizabeth,' which in- 
duced the forming of English Colleges in this 
and other places as Houses of Refuge ; a list of 
Englishmen belonging to the College of Valla- 
dolid is given at page 89, the resorting to which 
seems to have produced great sensation in Spain, 
and perhaps was the immediate cause of the at- 
tempt at Invasion by the Spanish Armada to re- 
duce the English by force to the Catholic Relig- 
ion — ' entrando en un santo corage y zelo contra 
la heregia que a tanta desdicha, y miseria tenia 
reducida su patria : ^^stiendose de nuevo ferbor 
para hazer guerra y reducir a Inglaterra a la 
sinfera 3' pura Rehgion Catholica.' " — Book Cat- 
alogue. 



[Doctrine of Universal Grace.] 
" The doctrine of universal grace, says the 
editor of Thomas Letchworth's Discourses, of 
which a manifestation or portion is given to ev- 
ery man, and by obedience to which he is ena- 
bled to fulfil his duty, and to walk acceptably 
with his Creator, is the leading principle of the 
Societv, — and they hold as the necessary result 
of it, that true worship consists in a humble pros- 
tration of heart and communion of spirit with the 
Father of mercies, and is therefore perfectly con- 
sistent with a state of silence." 



JOHNSON— COTTON MATHER— SOBER INSPECTIONS. 



91 



[Johnson on Women''s Preaching.] 

" When Boswell told Johnson one day that he 
had heard a woman preach that morning at a 
Quakers' meeting, Johnson rephed, ' Sir, a wom- 
an preaching is like a dog's walking on his hind 
legs. It is not done well ; but you are surpriz- 
ed to find it done at all.' " 



[Fervency of Prayer. 
I J is related df Edward Hopkins, one of the 
early Governors of Connecticut, that " his pray- 
ers were so fervent that he frequently fell a bleed- 
ing at the nose through the agony of spirit with 
which he laboured in them." — Cotton Mather, 
B. 2, p. 23. 



[ Women'' s Offerings preceding the Covenant.] 
"The Seamstress brought in her silver thim- 
ble, the chamber maid her bodkin, the cook his 
silver spoon, the vintner his bowl into the com- 
mon treasur}' of war ; and they who contributed 
to so pious a work were invited more than oth- 
ers in some churches to come to the Holy Com- 
munion in the very time of administration. And 
observed it was that some sorts of females were 



freest in those contributions, so as to part with 
their rings and ear-rings, as if some golden calf 
were to be molten and set up to be idolized, — 
which proved true, for the Covenant a little after 
was set up." — Sober Inspections, ^c, p. 128. 



[Sin against the Holy Ghost.] 
" Some do sin of human frailty, as did Peter ; 
and this is called a sin against the Father, who 
is called Power. Some do sin of ignorance, as 
did Paul ; and this is called a sin against the Son, 
who is called Wisdom. Some do sin of mere 
M'ill and malice, choosing to sin, although they 
know it to be sin ; and this is the sin against the 
Holy Ghost, to whom is appropriated particular- 
ly grace and goodness, the •which a man most 
wickedly contemneth and rejecteth when he sin- 
neth wilfully against his own conscience ; and 
therefore Christ saith, that a man shall be for- 
given a sin against the Father and the Son, as 
we do see it was iia Peter and Paul ; but he that 
sinneth against the Holy Ghost, shall never be 
forgiven, neither in this world, neither in the 
world to come." 

^ brief Discourse contayning certayne reasons 

why Catholiqucs refuse to go to Church, ff. 

4. — Doway, 1580. 



COLLECTIONS 

CONCERNING CROMWELL'S AGE. 



Letters of Cromwell. 

The Letters annexed were forwarded to the 
lamented Southey by the Rev. J. Neville White, 
the brother of Kirke White, who states : — 

" These three Letters of Oliver Cromwell 
were foimd among the Comt Rolls belonging to 
the Manor of Wymondham Cromwell, in the 
County of Norfolk, and were given by the Stew- 
ard of that Manor to the Rev. J. Neville White, 
who has presented them to his friend the Rev. 
Samuel Tilbrook, of St. Peter's College, Cam- 
bridge, in conformity to a ■wish expressed on his 
part, that through him these interesting relies of 
the Protector Cromwell, might be deposited in 
the Fitz- William Museum a^ Cambridge. 

'"N.B. — The Manor of Cromwell is situated 
in the parish of Wymondham, and was formerly 
in the possession of a branch of the Cromwell 
family, — from whom, it in the early part of the 
17th Century passed by purchase 1p John, Lord 
Hobart, — in whose family it now continues." — 
Fi</e'PLUMFiELD's History of Norfolk, vol. 1, p. 
120; and Noble's Memoirs of the Cromwells, 
vol. 2, p. 132, &c. 

The Editor has had them collated by his broth- 
er, the Rev. Edward Warter, M.A., President 
of Magdalen College, Cambridge, but he is not 
sure that all the words are correct even now. 
Those who wish for further information will tind 
it in the remarks of the late Samuel Tilbrooke, 
of Peter House, aflixed to the originals in the 
Fitz-Wilham Museum. They have been before 
printed. 

Southey's excellent Life of Cromwell, drawn 
more or less from the present collections, was 
lii'st printed in No. 50 of the Quarterly Review, 
vol. 25, p. 279-347. 



CROMWELLI 

Tres Epistol^ Autogeaph^ 

queis " tempus edux rerum" 

pepercit.^ 

" To the Right Noble the Lord Wharton, Theise. 

" My deare friende my Lord, 

"If I knowe my hart, I love you in tiiith, and 

therefore if from the jealosi of unfaynned love I 

playe the foole a little, and say a word or two 

att guesse I know you will pardon itt. It wear 

a blithe thinge by letter to dispute over your 

1 Copy of the Inscription on the cover of the book 
whica contains the Cromwell MSS. 



doubts or to undertake answare your objectioHs. 
— I have heard them all, and I have rest from 
the trouble of them, and what has risen in my 
owne hart, for which I desire to bee humblie 
thankefull. 

" I doe not condemne your reasoninges, I 
doubt them, it's easie to object to the glorious 
actinges of God- — if we look too much upon in- 
struments. I have heard computations made of 
the members in par.'"' ' — good kept out, the most 
bad remayning ; it has beene soe this 9 yeears^ 
yett what has God wrought, the greatest workes 
last, and still is at worke — therefore take heede 
of this scandall. — Bee not offended att the man- 
ner, perhaps noe other way was left, what if God 
accepted the zeale ? as he did that of Phineas, 
whoose reason might have called for a furye. (?) 
What if the Lord have witnessed his approba- 
tion and acceptance to this alsoe ? not only by 
signall outward acts, but to the hart alsoe. What 
if I feare my friend should withdrawe his shoul- 
der from the Lord's worke (0 it's greivous to 
doe soe), through scandalls, through mistaken 
reasoninges, there's ditHculty — there's trouble — 
in the other way, there's sal'tye — ease — wisdom. 

" In the one noe cleerness (tliis is an objection 
indeed), in the other satisfaction. It is well il' 
wee thought of that first and severed from the 
other considerations which doe often byace if not 
bribe the minde, whereby mists are often raised 
in the way wee should walke in, and wee call it 
darknesse or dissatisfaction. otir deceiptfuU 
harts, O this fleeting world ! How great is it 
to bee the Lord's senant in any drudgerie? (I 
thought not to have written neere the other side 
— love will not lett me alone. I have been often 
provoked) — in all hazards his work is fare above 
the worlds best. He makes us able in trouble 
to say soe, wee cannot of ourselves. How hard 
a thing it is to reason ourselves up to the Lord's 
service — though it bee soe honourable, how easie 
to putt ourselves out of itt, where the Flesh has 
soe many advantages. 

" You was desired to goe alonge with us, I 
wish it still, yet wee are not trj'umphinge — we 
may (for ought flesh knowes) suffer after all this, 
the Lord prepare us for his good pleasure. You 
were with us, in the forme of things — why not 
in the power ? I am perswaded your hart hank- 
ers after the hearts of your poore friendes — and 
will untill you can find others to close with — 
which I trust (though wee in ourselves bee con- 
temptible) God will not lett yon doe. 

■■ My service to the deare little lady, I wish 



CROMWELL— LAUD. 



93 



VCHi make her not a greater temptation than she 
is — take heede of all relations — mereyes should 
not bee soe, yet wee too ofte make them soe. 

" The Lord direct yom- thoughtes into the 
obedience of his will, and give you rest and peace 
in the truth, pray for 

" Your most true and affectionate 
" Servant in the Lord, 

" 0. Cromwell. 
" Cork, 1st of Sept., 1649. 

" I received a letter from Rob. Hammond 
whome trulye I love in the Lord with most en- 
tvre affection, it much grieved mee, not because 
I judged but feared the whole spirit of itt — was 
from — tentation, indeed I thought I perceived a 
proceedinge in it at which the Lord will (I trust) 
cause him to vnlearne. I would fayne have writ- 
ten to him, but am straightened in t3'me, would 
hee would bee with us a little, perhaps it would 
doe noe hurt to him. 

'' For the Right Honourable 
the Lord Wharton.'" 



" Lord hyde not thy mereyes from our eyes— 

my servise to the deare Ladye, 

" I rest your most humble Servant, 

" O. Cromwell."^ 



'■ For the Right Noble the Lord Wharton, 
Theise. 

"DunbaiT, Sept. 4th, 1650. 
" My deare Lord, 
" I PROVE I love you — love you the Lord — 
take heede of disputinge, I was vntoward when 
I spake last with you in St. Jeames parke, 1 spake 
crosse in stateinge groundes, I spake to my 
iudginges of you which was that you — shall I 
name others ? H. Laurence — Rob. Hammond, 
&c., had ensnared your selves with disputes — I 
believe you desired to bee sati.sfied and weyed 
and doubted your sinceritye, 'twas well — but vp- 
rightnesse (if itt bee not puerlye of God) may 
bee nay is comonlye deceaued, (?) the Lord per- 
swade you, and all my deare friendes — the re- 
.sults of your thoughts concerning late transac- 
tions, I knowe all your mistakes by a better ar- 
gument than successe, let not your ingaginge 
too fi» ^q)on your own iudgments bee your ten- 
tation or snare — much lesse successes — least you 
should bee thought to rcturne \'pon lesse noble 
argument — it is in my hart to write the same 
fliingesto Norton, Mountagu, and others — I pray 
you reade or comunicate theise foolish lines to 
others. I have knowne my folly do good — when 
affection has overcome my reason — I pray you 
iudge mee sineeere least a preiudice or coil bee 
putt \-pon after advantages. How gracious has 
the Lord beene in this fjreat businesse. 



I Note. For the Lord Whnrton, that is, Philip Lord Whar- 
ton, whom (Clarendon describes ns a " fa.«t man" to tlie 
I'ariiamcntnriinis. See notices in Whitelock and Thur- 
I.OE and in .XohU Memoirs. 

TTiis first letter, as Mr. Tilbrook remarks, "was evident- 
ly inteiiderl to remove certain Bcruplps entertained by 
Lord Wliartiin as to the justice ot brinij'ini; King Charles 
to a criminal trial without the benefit ol a jury." Robert 
Hammond, mentioned in the postserijit, was Cromwell's 
cousin, and had married a daughter of Hampden. He 
commanded as a general officer at the battle of Naseby, 
and was governor of the Isle of Wieht, and "the humane 
gaoler of Charles \. during his coutinement there." — J. 
"\V. W. 



" For the Right Honble. the Lord Wharton. 
" My Lord, 

" I KNOW I \\Tite to my friend therefore give 
leave to one bould word, in my very hart, your 
Lordship Dick Norton, Tom Westrowe, Robt. 
Hammond (though not intentionalK') have helped 
one an other to stmnble att the dispensations of 
God, and to rea.son your selves out of his service 
— which (?) now you have an oportunitye to as- 
sociate with his people in his worke — and to 
manifest your willingnesse, and desire, to serve 
the Lord, against his and his people's enemies. 
Would you bee blessed out of Zion — and see the 
good of his people — and reioyce with his inherit- 
ance — I advise you all, in the bowells of love, 
let it apeare you offer your selves willingly to his 
work — wherein to bee accepted is more honor 
from the Lord — then the world — can give or hath. 

" I am perswaded it needes you not save — as 
our Lord and Master needed the beast — to shew 
his humilitye, raeeknesse, and condescention — 
but you neede it to declare your submission to 
and owninge yourself the Lord's, and his people, 
— if )-ou can breake through ould disputes I shall 
reioyce, if you help others to doe soe — alsoe doe 
not say you are now satisfied, because it is the 
ould quarrell as if it had not beene soe all this 
while, I have noe leisure, but a great deale of 
entyer affection to you and yours — and those 
names, which I thus plainly expresse — thankes 
to you and the dear Lady for all love and for poor 
foolish in all. (?) I am in good earnest, and soe 
alsoe, Yr Lordps faythfuU Friend, 

" and most humble Servant, 

" 0. Cromwell.* 

" Stratford on Avon, 

Augt 27th, 1651." 



Archbishop Abbot, in his Narrative (Rush- 
worth, vol. 1), speaks of him thus malignantly. 

" This man is the only inward counsellor with 
Buckingham, sitting with him sometimes private- 
ly whole hours, and feeding his humours with 
malice and spight. His life in Oxford was to 
pick quarrels in the lectures of the public read- 



' Ifute. 'I'his letter was written the day alter the battle 
of Dunbar, — on which day Cromwell appears to have 
written two other letters at least, one to Mr. f^penker Len- 
thall, and another to his relation. Richard Major, Esq., 
Harsley, Hants. .See Hawk's Life of Oiiecr Cromtoell, 
vol. 3, p. 2:!B, and Appendir, p. 5i;i. 

The persons alluded to in it are Colonel Robert Ham- 
mond, abovementioned ; H. Lawrence, afterwards Lord 
H. Lawrence; Colonel Norton; an<l Montatr>"e, afterwards 
Earl of Sandwich. Sec Tii.brookf.'s MSS.— J. W. W. 

8 I^otc. This letter was written during Cromwell's pur- 
suit of Kins Cliarles II., and ju..<t a week previous to tho 
memoraljle battle of Worcester, which was fought on the 
anniversary of that of Punljar. 

Mr. Tilbrook says, ' of the third person mentioned in 
this letter, ' Turn iv,.slrnrrc..' I can find no mention ■what- 
ever. Had it lieen • Vcaliroire' no dithculty would have 
occurred. — MSS. yotcs. J. W. W. 



94 



RUSHWORTH. 



ers, and to advertise tbem to the then Bishop of 
Durham, that he minrht fill the ears of King 
James with discontents against the honest men 
that took pains in their places, and settled the 
truth (which he called Puritanism) in their audi- 
tors. He made it his work to see what books 
were in the press, and to look over epistles dedi- 
catory and prefaces to the reader, to see what 
faults might be found. It was an observation 
what a sweet man this was like to be, that the 
first observable act that he did was the marrying 
of the Earl of D. to the Lady R., when it was 
notorious to the world that she had another hus- 
band, and the same a nobleman who had divers 
children then living by her. King James did for 
many years take this so ill, that he would never 
hear of any great prefemient of him ; insomuch 
that the Bishop of Lincoln, Dr. Williams, who 
taketh upon him to be the first promoter of him, 
hath raanj^ times said, that when he made men- 
tion of Laud to the King his Majesty was so 
averse from it, that he was constrained often- 
times to say, that he would never desire to serve 
that ma.ster which could not remit one fault unto 
his servant. Well, in the end he did conquer it, 
to get him to the Bishopric of St. Davids, which 
he had not long enjoyed but he began to under- 
mine his benefactor, as at this day it appcareth. 
The Countess of Buckingham told Lincoln, that 
St. David's was the man that undermined him 
with her son. And verily such is his aspiring 
nature, that he will underwork any man in the 
world, .so that he may gain by it. 

" This man who believeth so well of himself, 
framed an answer to my exceptions. But to give 
some countenance to it, he must call in three 
other bishops, that is to say, Durham, Rochester, 
and Oxford, tried men for such a purpose ; and 
the whole style of the speech runneth We and 
We.''—F. 440. 



and Warruigton. Cannon is an old man, welJ 
affected to the cause, but meddleth not with any 
factions or seditions, as far as I can learn. They 
complain their books were taken from them, and 
a crucifix of gold, \\"ith some other things, which 
I hope are not carried out of the house, but may 
be restored again unto them ; for it is in vain to 
think that the Priests will be without their beads 
or pictures and models of their saints ; and it is 
not improbable that before a crucifix they do 
often say their prayers." — Rtjshworth, vol. 1, 
p. 243. 



Account of his Letters to Vossius, Nichols's 
Calvinism, p. cxxxi. 



1637. The information against Alex. Leigh- 
ton, a Scotsman and D. D., charged him with af- 
firming in his plea against Prelacy " that we do 
not read of greater persecution and higher in- 
dignity done upon God's people in any nation 
professing the Gospel, than in this our Island, 
especially since the death of Queen Eliz." Our 
prelacy he termed Anti-Christian and Satanical ; 
the Bishops, men of blood, enemies to God and 
the State, — ravens and magpies that prey upon 
the state ; and he said that the maintaining and 
establishing them in this realm is a main and 
master sin established by law. Kneeling at 
the Sacrament was " the received spawn of the 
Beast." The Queen he called the "daughter of 
Heth," and seemed most impiously to commend 
him " that murdered Buckingham, and to encour- 
age others to second him in such like attempts."" 
— RusiiwoRTH, vol. 2, p. 55. 



1626. Lal-d wrote a kind letter in behalf of 
some Catholic Priests in the Clink prison whose 
rooms had been searched, and complaint made 
to the H. Commons of the superstitious matters 
found there. "Good Mr. Attorney (General),"' 
he says, " I thank you for acquainting me what 
■was done yesterday at the Clink. But I am of 
opinion that if j'ou had curiously enquired upon 
the gentleman who gave the inibrmation, you 
should have found him to be a disciple of the 
Jesuits, for they do nothing but put tricks on 
the.se poor men, who do live more miserable lives 
than if they were in the Inquisition in many parts 
beyond the seas. By taking the oath of allegi- 
ance, and writing in defence of it, and opening 
gome points of high consequence, the)' have so 
displeased the Pope, that if by any cunning they 
could catch them, they are sure to be burnt or 
strangled for it. And once there was a plot to 
have taken Preston, as he past the Thames, and 
to have shipt him into a bigger vessel, and so to 
have transported him into Flanders, there to have 
made a martvr of him. In respect of these things. 
King J. always gave his protection to Preston 



" When the sentence was given against Prynn, 
Bastwick and Burton, Laud in his speech said. 
' My care of this church, the reducing of it into 
order, the upholding of the external worship of 
God in it, and the settling of it to the rules of its 
first Reformation, are the causes (and the sole 
causes, whatever are pretended) of all this ma- 
licious storm which hath lowred so black upon 
me and some of my brethren. And in the mean 
time, they which are the only, or the chief in- 
novators of the Christian w^orld, having nothing 
to say, accuse us of innovation ; they themselves 
and their complices, in the mean tune, being the 
greatest innovators that the Christian world hath 
almost ever known. I deny not but others have 
spread more dangerous errors in the Church of 
Christ ; but no men, in any age of it, have been 
more guilty of innovation than they, while them- 
selves cry out against it. Quis tulerit Grac- 
chos.' '■ — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 383. 



Letter to Lord Traquaire. 7th Aug., 1637, 
after the explosion at Edinburgh. 

" I think vou know my opinion, how I would 
have church business carried, were I as great a 
master of men, as (I thank God) I am of things. 



RUSHWORTII— DODD— KENNETT. 



95 



'Tis true, the church there as well as elsewhere 
hath been overborne by violence, both in matter 
of maintenance and jurisdiction. But if the 
church will recover in either of these, she and 
her governors must proceed, not as she was pro- 
ceeded against, but by a constant temper she 
must make the world see she had the wrong, but 
offer none. And since law hath followed in that 
kingdom, perhaps to make good that which was 
ill done ; yet since a law it is, such a reforma- 
tion or restitution would be sought for, as might 
stand with the law, and some expedient be found 
out how the law be by some just exposition help- 
ed, till the state .shall see cause to abolish it." — 
Ibid., vol. 2, p. 389. 



Some of Laud's libellers complained " that the 
prayer for seasonable weather was purged out of 
the last Fast-book, which was," said they, " one 
cause of shipwrecks and tempestuous weather." 

After pleading the undoubted right to put in 
or leave out whatever should be thought fit on 
such occasions, he observes that "for the partic- 
ulai", when this last book was set out, the weather 
was very seasonable. And it is not the custom 
of the church, nor tit in itself, to pray for season- 
able weather when we have it, but when we 
want it. When the former book was set out, 
the weather was extreme ill, and the harvest in 
danger : now, the harvest was in, and the weather 
good. 

" Thirdly, 'tis most inconsequent to say that 
the lea\ing that prayer out of the book of devo- 
tions caused the shipwrecks and the tempests 
which followed ; and as bold they are with God 
Ahnighty in saying it was the cause. For sure 
I am, God never told them that was the cause. 
And if God never revealed it, they cannot come 
to know it." — 1637, Speech at the Censure of 
Prynnc, Bastwick and Barton, Rushworth, vol 
2, p. 2, App. 120. 



20 Nov., 1640. " A resolution of the House 
of Commons that none should sit in that House 
after the commimion-day, but those that had first 
received the sacrament. And a committee was 
appointed to go to the Lord Bishop Williams, 
Dean of Westminster, to desire that the elements 
might be consecrated upon a communion table 
standing in the middle of the church, according 
to the Kubrick, and to have the table removed 
from the altar thither. The Dean replied, Ht; 
would readily do it at their request, and would 
do the like for any parishioner in his diocese " 
— Ibid., p. 3, vol. 1, p. 53. 



The London Petition, 1 640, complains of " the 
suppressing of that godly design set on foot by 
certain saints, and sugared with many great gifts 
by sundry well-affected persons, for the buying 
of impropriations and placing of able ministers 
in them, maintaining of lectures, and founding of 
free-schools, which the prelates could not en- 



dure, lest it .should darken their glories, and draw 
the ministers from their dependence upon them." 
—Ibid., p. 94. 



Also of " the great conformity and likeness, 
both continued and increased, of our Church to 
the Church of Rome, in vestures, postm-es, cer- 
emonies, and administrations; namely, as the 
bishop's rotchets and the lawn sleeves, the four- 
cornered cap, the cope and surplice, the tippet, 
the hood and the canonical coat ; the pulpit«! 
cloathed (especially now of late) with the Jes- 
uits' badge (I. H. S.) upon them every way." 



Sir Harbottle Grimston. 1640. 

" Thei'e is scarce any grievance or complaint 
come before us in this place, wherein we do not 
find him intermentioned, and as it were, twisted 
into it ; like a busy angry wasp, his sting is in 
the tail of every thing. This man is the corrupt 
fountain that hath corrupted all the streams, and 
till the fountain be purged, we can never expect 
nor hope to have clear cliaimels." — Ibid., part 
3, vol. 1, p. 122. 



"At the beginning of Charles's reign, the 
monks and .secular clergy disputed in print con- 
cerning their respective rights to the abbey 
lands ! The latter relied upon the dispensation 
granted by Cardinal Pool in the second year of 
Queen Mary, and therefore, they argued, this 
dispensation having been given in public parliii- 
ment, and parliament having enacted that it 
should stand of form in law to be pleaded, &c., 
it may now be questioned whether, by the an- 
cient laws of this land, his holiness can now re- 
store the lands of those deaneries and chapters 
challenged by the monks, to any religious order 
without express consent of the king, and tbit 
this act of parliament be first repealed. 

" 'And therefore,' says Mr. Button, a mission- 
cr, writing in 1628, 'we may see what folly it 
was in these monks, that published their chal- 
lenge in print, to make both us and themselves 
laughing-stocks to such as hold the possession 
from us both ; and may, for ought we know, hold 
it longer than the youngest child now breathing 
may live." — Dodd's Church Hislory, vol. 1, p. 
565. 



The Feoffment. " Had the managers been 
honest, much good and glory might have been 
expected from it. But they are represented to 
have been parlies of the Puritan faction, and so 
to have restored no impropriations to the parish 
church, nor settled them on the incumbent, Init 
only to have set up stipendiary lecturers, ami 
maintained silenced ministers, &c. From a sens* 
of which abuses, and a jealou.sy of greater, this 
method was first reflected on by Mr. Peter Hey- 
lin, in an Act sermon at St. Mary's in Oxon, July 
11,1630. After which, by the vigilance of Bish- 



96 



KENNETT—NALSON— WARWICK— WHITELOCKE. 



op Laud, anti the prosecution of Mr. No}-, tliis 
looHhient was judifially su])presscd in the Court 
ol'Exc'lieiiuer by a sentence given Feb. 13, 1633. 
To take this power out of the hands of those par- 
ticular men, nii<iht possibly be a good and neces- 
san' service : but to annul the design in general 
seems to have been a great miscarriage. For 
the abuse not Iving in the thing, but in the par- 
ties concerned, they should not have subverted 
the whole project, but have committed the trust 
to more faithful stewards. And no doubt, had 
there been a new legal corporation of honest, 
able men, of good interest and standing authority, 
to prosecute the purchase of impropriate tithes, 
OS successive opportunities should offer, and re- 
unite thera to the endowment of one fixed in- 
cumbent, it would by insensible degrees have 
had a »lorious effect in recovering and settling 
the patrimon}' of the Church. And had the in- 
i({uity of those times allowed it, this was the real 
design of that great and good Archbishop." — 
Kennett's Parochial Antiquities, SfC, vol. 2, 
p. 58. 



them in the late confusions, they are now discon- 
tinued in many counties, especially in the east, 
and some western parts of England ; but are 
commonly observed in the north, and in these 
midland parts." — Kesnett's Par. jlntiq., vol. 
2, p. 309. 



"This laudable custom of wakes prevailed 
for many ages, till the nice Puritans began to 
exclaim against it as a remnant of poper\-. And 
bv degrees the precise humour grew so popular 
that at the summer assizes held at Exeter, 1627, 
the Lord Chief Baron Walter and Baron Den- 
liam made an order for suppression of all wakes. 
And a like order was made by Judge Richard- 
son for the county of Somerset, an. 1631. But 
on Bishop Laud's complaint of this innovating 
humour, the king commanded the last order to 
be reversed ; which Judge Richardson refusing 
to do, an account was required from the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, how the said feast days, 
clmrch ales, wakes and revels, were for the most 
part celebrated and observed in his diocese. On 
the receipt of these instructions the Bishop sent 
for and advised with seventy-two of the most or- 
thodox and able of his clergy, who certified un- 
der their hands that on these feast days (which 
generally fell on Sundays) the service of God 
was more solemnly performed, and the church 
much better frequented both in the forenoon and 
afternoon than on any other Sunday in the year : 
that the people very much desired the continu- 
ance of them ; that the ministers did in most 
j)laccs do the like for these reasons, viz., for pre- 
scr\nng the memorial of the dedication of their 
several churches; for civilizing the people, for 
composing differences by the mediation and meet- 
ing of friends ; for increase of love and unity by 
these feasts of charity ; for relief and comfort of 
the poor, &c. On the return of this certificate. 
Judge Richardson was again cited to the coun- 
cil table, and peremptorily commanded to reverse 
his former order. After which it was thought 
fit to reinforce the declaration of King James, 
when perhaps this was the only good reason as- 
signed for that unnecessary and unhai)py license 
of sports, &c. However, by such a popular prej- 
udice against wakes, and by the intermission of 



"When Laud's hou.se was attacked, 1640, 
the rabble were raised by a seditious paper which 
Lilburne posted on the Royal Exchange." — 
Nalson, vol. 1, p. 343. 



In a sermon preached February 6, 1625, at 
the opening of the parliament by Laud, this 
memorable passage occurs, " One thing more 
I'll be bold to speak out of a like duty to the 
church of England and the house of David. 
They whoever they be, that would overturn sc- 
des ecclcsicE, the seats of ecclesiastical judgement, 
will not spare, if ever they get power, to have a 
pluck at the throne of David. And there is not 
a man that is for parity, all fellows in the church, 
but he is against monarchy in the state. And 
certainly either he is but half-headed to his ow^i 
principles, or he can be but half-hearted to the 
house of David." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 5. 



His book against Fisher the J. "was so well 
digested by his great master's royal heart and 
hand (for Bishops Andrews, Laud and Hooker 
were this prince's three great authors), that if 
that epitome which his majest)' made thereof, 
and I have seen under his own hand, might be 
commimicated, it might be looked on as another 
'EiKuv Baai?uiiii-'' — Sir P. Warwick, p. 82. 



Grotius, through Pocock, intreatcd him to 
escape if he could, but he refused. — See Po- 
cock's Life, p. 83. 



Of Laud and Juxon Sir P. Warwick says, 
" Had Nature mingled their tempers, and allay- 
ed the one by the pnulence and foresight of the 
other, or inspirited the other by the zeal and ac- 
tivity of his friend. Nature had framed a better 
paist than usually she doth when she is most ex- 
act in her work about mankind ; sincerity and in- 
tegrity being eminent in them both." — P. 94. 



His patience in confinement. — Sir P. Wak- 
wicK, p. 167. 



H. Peters and Clotworthy annoy him at his 
death. — Ibid., p. 171. 



Whitelocke refused to be one of the com- 
mittee for managing the evidence against hiin. 
— Memorials, p. 75. 



SOUTH— STRAFFORD— GARRARD. 



97 



Some very spirited remarks upon his trial and 
murder in Parker's Reproof to the Rehearsal 
Transposed^ p. 352—7. 



" The papists abroad frequently tell the En- 
glish, that if we could but once be united amongst 
ourselves, we should be a formidable church in- 
deed. And for this reason there was none whom 
tlicy so mortally hated (I speak upon certain in- 
formation ) as that late renowned Archbishop 
and Martyr, whose whole endeavour was to es- 
tablish a settled uniformity in all the British 
churches : for his zeal and activity in which glo- 
rious attempt, the Presbyterians cut him off, ac- 
cording to the Papists' hearts' desire." — South, 
vol. 4, p. 189. 



same way for restoring their temporalities, with- 
out which reward no man will take pains ; and 
there are not many men which deserve better or 
worse of a state than schoohnasters." — Ibid., 
vol. 1, p. 213. 



Laud's anxiety for the Irish church, 1633. — 
Strafford's Letters, vol. 1, p. 82. 

His want of power to effect the good he wish- 
es. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 111. 

A PLEASANT passage of familiar kindness on 
l)is promotion to the primacy. — Ibid., vol. 1, p.' 
HI. 



'' I AM glad you will so soon take order that 
divine service may be read throughout in the 
churches, be the company that vouchsafe to come 
never so few. Let God have his whole service 
with reverence, and he will quickly send in more 
to help to perform it. — For the holding of tw-o 
livings, and but two with cure, since you approve 
me in the substance, I will yield to you in the 
circumstance of time. Indeed, my lord, I knew 
it was bad, very bad, in Ireland, but that it was 
so stark naught I did not believe. Six benefits 
not able to lind the minister clothes ; in six par- 
ishes scarce six to come to church ! Good God ! 
Stay the time you must, till there be more means, 
and some more conformable people." — Ibid., vol. 
1, p. 254. 



Writing to Bedell, Laud says he never knew 
him but by a little tract of his against Wads- 
worth, " and were it but for that alone, I should 
be very sorry you should do any thing in your 
place unlike it, for that is very full of judgement 
and temper." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 134. 



" In the care for the schools it was passing 
well thought on that they might be taught En- 
glish, not only to soften the malignity and stub- 
bornness of the nation, as you w^ite, but also 
because they will with the more ease, and soon- 
er, be acquainted with English fashions, which 
yet can do no harm in that country." — Ibid., 
vol. 1, p. 254. 



" — If there be either in yourself, or any of 
your brethren, a misdeeming fear for matter of 
religion, take this from me, and be assured that 
there is no man, nay, no bishop, in that kingdom 
or this, more truly, conscientiously and constant- : 
ly set forth for the belief and maintenance of re- ; 
ligion, as it is now established, than his majesty 
(God be blessed for it!) is." — Ibid. 



His refusal to recommend any person peremp- 
torily for preferment. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 268. A 
very conscientious letter. 



1634. Garrard says "Mr. Seldon is remitted 
of those fetters that lay upon him : I takt; it to 
be my Lord's Grace of Canterbury's favour to 
him that hath wrought his peace with the King." 
— Ibid., vol. I, p. 373. 



" I VERY well know that in places when less 
action is necessary tiian in Ireland, a man may 
l)C as well too old as too 3'oung lor a bishoprick. 
I would have no man a bishop any where under 
forty. And if your lordship understood clergy- 
men, as well as I do, I know you would in this 
be wholly of my judgement." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 
132. 



Bedei.i,. " I make no doubt but that you will 
lind him very ready and constant in the king's 
service ; and then I know his other worth will 
merit your love." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 214. 



" For the schools, if your lordship (Went- 
worth) will remedy anything, you must lake the 
G 



1635. "Some exception hath been taken by 
my Lord's Grace of Canterbury, which he pre- 
sented first to the King, and by his Majesty's 
command to the council table, to the great, I 
may say the over great recourse of his Majesty's 
subjects to the Queen's chapel at Somerset House, 
and to ambassadors' houses in the town, which 
must needs be the cause of the growth of Popery 
in this kingdom. They have taken into consid- 
eration, and I hope will give a speedy remedy 
to this growing evil. It plea.sed his Grace to 
say, ' that the Papists were the most dangerous 
subjects of the kingdom, and that betwixt them 
and the Puritans, the good Protestants would be 
ground to powder." — Garrard, Ibid., vol. 1, p. 
426. 



Straffoed says, that " without the diligence 



98 



STR:VFFORD— CLARENDON— NICHOLS— HEYLYN. 



and instruction of Laud, I shouH neither have 
had the power nor yet the understanding how to 
have served the church to so good a purpose, 
and in so right a way a.s I now trust is done." 
—Ibid., vol. 2, p. 20. 



please here. For though Dives dwell in this 
Abraham's bosom, yet I know where Lazarus 
dwells too."— Ibid., vol. 2, p. 263. 



In a dispute about Dublin College, between 
the primate and visitors on one part, and the 
provost and some senior fellows on the other, 
which was referred to Laud, he says, " one thing 
there is remaining which I think very necessary 
to be done in point of common and indifferent 
justice, before I give my determination, which 
is, that a narration of the fact be agreed upon 
by all parties, that none of them may say that 
that upon which I ground my sentence is mis- 
taken."— Ibid., vol.'2, p. 37. 



To Wentworth. " As for some others which 
you speak of, certainly they do not only sing the 
psalms after the Geneva tune, but expound the 
text too in the Geneva sense, at least so far as 
they can possibly venture upon it ; and your 
lordship knows I ever said so much, and have 



Clarendon on his death. — State Papers, vol. 
p. 328. 



Charles, before his death, recommended the 
book against Fisher to his children, with Bishop 
Andrews's Sermons and Hooker, as what would 
ground them against Popery. — J. Nichols, p. 
375. 



Peter Heyhjn's Second Journey, containing a Sur- 
vey nf the Estate of the two Islands, Guernsey 
and Jersey. 1656. 

P. 282. The French meant to retaliate upon 
these islands for the provocation given unto them 
at the isle of Rhe. Heylyn went as chaplain with 
the Earl of Danby, who was appointed governor 
on that oecasian. 1628. 

331. Lay elders in the Calvinislie churches. 
" To them the charge is specially committed of 
inquiring into the lives of those within their di- 



had too good cause to know it. But those things 

and many other must be past over, or there will I vision, by which device is not only a kind of sat 



be no peace." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 100 
Probably he alludes to Usher 



isfaction given to the multitude, but a great deal 
of envy is declined by the ministry, which that 
curious and unneighbourly inquisition W'Ould oth- 
erwise derive upon them." 

332. Their power extended unreasonably " to 
the weightiest causes of the church, censure and 
ordination." 

333. Beza more anti-episcopal than Calvin. 

334—5. Elizabeth unwarily allows the disci- 
pline to be introduced to these islands, 1563—7, 
and this raised the hopes of the faction in En- 
gland, and made them set to work for imposing it 
on the English church. They stirred not in En- 

gland till this breach was made. 336, 417. 

336. At a time when a Spanish invasion was 
Garrard acknowledging Laud's aid in ob- expected, the Puritans threatened to petition the 
taining the mastership of the Charter House for Queen with one hundred thousand hands. 
him, says, " many doubted him, because a divine 343. Ministers to visit every hou-sehold once 
stood for it ; I never did. Ho took his own way, in the year at least. 
doin"' always more for his friends than he makes I What to be done when any one was offended 



Strafford says to him, " Lord, in what sev- 
eral moulds are we cast. Your grace can be 
plea,sed to welcome a denial when it is fortified 
with reason. If others were so, friendship would 
be longer preserved among men, but some, I 
find, that if all be not done as they desire or fan- 
cy; how unfit, how unequal soever it be for oth- 
ers, instantly Exchange their merited respects 
for deadly hatreds."— Ibid., vol. 2, p. 119. 



show of."— Ibid., vol. 2, p. 153. 



Books and MSS. sent to Oxford. — Laud's 
Diary, p. 56. 



To Strafford. — " I can say nothing of the book 
of rates till it come out, and then I believe I 
shall be able to say as little ; for I think it will I sistory, to visit all the households before every 



with the preaching of the minister. 

344. Doctors next to pastors. His charge to 
expound the Scripture in his lectures, without 
applying it by way of exhortation. 

345. Schoolmasters to be visited twice a year 
by the ministers, and the scholars to be brought 
to sermons and catechisn^s, there to answer to 
the minister. 

346. Elders to certify all scandals to the con- 



be referred to the great ofTicers of the exchequer 
to consider of. But if any thing do come in 
public to the board, I must needs be of opinion, 
that vou there understand the trading of that 
kingdom, and consequently the rates which it 
may boar, better than Sir Abraham. And yet, 
let me tell you beforehand, that if you have sunk 
the rates which he set, overmuch, it will hardly 



communion : and once yearly, with the minister, 
to know the better how they behave themselves 
in their several families. 

349. Ministers every Sunday after dinner shall 
catechise. The church looked immediately after 
sermon and the public prayers, to avoid super- 
stition,' and the benches shall be orderly dispos- 
I See 370. ' ' 



LAUD— GIFFORD— CLARENDON. 



99 



ed, that every one may hear the voice of the 
preacher. 

The churches being dedicated to God's serv- 
ice, shall not be employed to profane uses, and 
therefore entreaty shall be made to the magis- 
trate that no civil courts be there holden. 

350. Baptism. The minister shall not admit 
of such names as were used in the time of pa- 
ganism, tlie names of idols, the names attributed 
to God in scripture, or names of office, as angel, 
baptist, apostle. 

The holy supper four times a year, to be re- 
ceived sitting or standing, and by the men first. 

353- Persons not to marry a second time with- 
out leave of their parents, in default whereof they 
shall incur the censures of the church. 

354. No marriage on Sundays, but on week 
lecture-days. 

Those two families before marriage, not per- 
mitted to marry before they have made confes- 
sion of their fault before the whole congrega- 
tion : if the fault is not notoriously public, the 
consistory shall determine it. 

354. Wido^vs not permitted to contract them- 
selves till six months after the husband's death. 
As for men, they also shall be admonished to at- 
tend some certain time, but without constraint. 

355. No burial in the church, and neither ser- 
mon, nor prayers, nor sound of bell, nor any other 
ceremonv whatsoever. 

356. Mode of excommunication. The first 
Sunday the people shall be exhorted to pray for 
the oHender, without naming the person or the 
crime. The second Sunday the person shall bo 
named, but not the crime. The third, the per- 
son shall be named, his offence published, and 
himself be excommunicated. 

360. The elders shall not make report unto 
the consistory of any secret faults, but shall ob- 
serve the order commanded by our Saviour, re- 
proving in secret such faults as are secret. 

363. Those articles which concern the disci- 
pline, are so established, that forasmuch as they 
are founded upon the word of God, they are ad- 
judged immutaVjle. 

366. Parity in the church, " that which all 
their projects did so mainly drive at, and by 
those of this party so earnestly affected in the 
church, the belter to introduce it also into the 
state." 

369. " Dangerous and saucy " diligence of the 
elders, inquiry into private affairs, not only by the 
voice of fame, but by tampering with their neigh- 
bours, and examining their servants. 

371. A Puritan refused to baptize a child 
" Richard." 

Walking recipients of the Sacrament in the 
Netherlands. 

374. Under " the head of scandal," all offences 
were Ijiought under cognizance of the consistory. 

376. Lecturers preparing the way for the 
platform. 

379. James's hope of uniting the Protestant 
churches, for which cause he had the Liturgy 
translated into Latin and most adjacent lan- 
guages. 



414. Insolence shewn in Guernsey to the sol- 
diers and the chaplain. 

Christmas wncelebrated there. 

415. Charles, in pursuance of his father's plan, 
must begin with uniformity at home. 

419. The inquisitorial discipline unpopular. 
Snape and Cartwright were the means of ob- 
truding the discipline on these islands. 



Canb. 

JuxoN and Laud are buried in the same ; rave, 
at St. John's. 

His appeal to the council for his constant re- 
spect and reference to the law. — Calv. ^ Arm-^ 
p. 651. 

His views, as stated to Gauden. — Ibid., 658. 

Hatred of the Dutch Calvinists to him, long 
before the rebellion. — Ibid., 664. 

Letter to Vossius, 1629, upon the evils which 
he foi-csaw. — Ibid., 659-75. 

Lord Brooke seems to agree with hira in 
thinking celibacy desirable to the higher clergy. 
— Remains, p. 61. 



GiFFORD, B. J., vol. 7, p. 19, censures him 
too hastily concerning Mountjoy's marriage with 
Lady Rich. 



" Ludlow is of opinion that Laud's sentence 
was passed to encourage and please the Scots, 
who were then beginning to be very troublesome 
to the party who had called in their assistance." 
— Monthly Review, No. 358. 



darenboit. 

" The place from whence he took his title 
derives its name from Constantius Chlorus, thus : 
— when he came to Britain, he built a fortifica- 
tion, near New Sai'um, upon the side of the 
Downs, the ramparts whereof still appear very 
apparently, and the place is called Ciiloren, after 
the name that the Britons gave him by reason of 
his long train carried up after him. It standeth 
in Wiltshire, upon the north corner of Chlorendon 
Park, now called Clarindon, which takcth his 
name thereof, — a park of tiiat largeness and big- 
ness that it exceedeth any park in the kingdom. 
If we give credit to a late j)oct, the park bad 
twenty groves in it, each of them of a mile com- 
pass. It had a house of the king's within, but 
long since dilapidated. It doth now belong to 
the right hon. William Earl of Pembroke, lord 
chamberlain to his majcst)', who.sc licart is as 
large and liberal as the j)ark is wide." — Hist, 
of Jlllcliester. m^ 



.^ 



Hyde tells the king, 1642, "Your greatest 
st^ngth is in the hearts and iiflcotions of those 
persons who have been the severest a-sserlors of 
the public liberties, and so besides their duty and 
loyalty to your person, are in love with your in- 



100 



CLARENDON— HALLAM. 



elinations to peace and justice, and value their 
owH interests upon the preservation of your 
rights." — Clarendon Papers, vol. 2, p. 139. 



"June, 1646. To Nichola.s. 

"I would not yet huy a peace at a dearer 
price than was oflered at Uxbridiio, and I am 
persuaded in my soul, if ever it shall be purchased 
at a more dishonourable or impious price, it will 
be more unpleasant and fatal to those who shall 
liave theii" hands in makins^ the barsjain, than the 
war hath been. It is ill logic to infer that be- 
cause you cannot have it cheaper, therefore you 
ipust i^ivc whatsoever is asked. It may be, God 
hath resolved we shall perish ; and then it be- 
comes us all to perish with those decent and 
honest circumstances, that our good fame may 
procure a bettor peace to those who succeed us 
than we were able to procure for them, and our- 
selves .shall be happier than any other condition 
could render us. God preserve England from 
being invaded by the Turk ! for in my conscience, 
in this conjuncture it is prepared for quietness' 
sake to take any religion," — :Ibid., vol. 2, p. 237. 



Ibid., vol. 2, p. 241. His feelings in retire- 
ment at Jersey. July, 1646. 



■ Ibid., vol. 2, p. 284. On tlie cornpositiotis 
which were then frequent. 

286. His view of parties, and the little sin- 
cerity among them, except in the antimonarchic- 
al leaders. 291. 

291. Dislike of French assistance. 307. 

306. His refusal to act upon secret instruc- 
tions, in opposition to formal ones. 

307. His hopes. Opinion of the Independents. 

308. Apprehension that a monarchy will be 
established in Cromwell's family. 

Monarchy and Episcopacy. 
310. Cheerfulness and resignation. 
318. Religious feeling concerning the want 
of religion in .states. 

322. Hobbcs one of his old acquaintance. 
331-0. Advice to Digby. 1636. 



Hall.\:m says his letters are full of strange and 
absurd expectations, and demonstrate that he was 
HO practical .statesman, nor had any just concep- 
tion at the time of the course of atlairs. And he 
sneers at his inflexibility upon the alTairs of the 
Church. This is quite worlhv of Hallam. — Vol. 
2, p. 62. 



He would have had Charles remain in O.xford, 
and after the defending it to the last bisnuit, been 
tiiken prisoner with his honest retinue about him, 
and then relied upon his own virtue in imprisA- 
ment, rather than to have thrown himself into 
the anns of the Scots, who held them not fully 
open. — Clarendon Papers, vol. 2, p. 339. 



See the rest of this passage which is very fine, 
— and the comfort which he expresses in his 
good con.science. 

340. His English feeling respecting the suf- 
ferings of England, and the danger of a re.stora- 
tion by means of foreign aid. 

349. An admirable picture of what England 
under the rebels would be to a loyal and relig- 
ious family. 

350. He a.sks Dr. Earles for a discourse in 
the end of his contemplations upon the Proverbs, 
in memory of my Lord Falkland, " of whom in 
its place I intend to speak largely, conceiving it 
to be so far from an indecorum, that the preser- 
vation of the fame and merit of persons, and de- 
riving the same to posterity is no less the busi- 
ness of history, than the truth of things." 

356. Letter to his wife, expecting it would 
not be dehvered till after his death. 

358. His will, written at that time. 1647. 

359. Wise views concerning Church Govern- 
ment. 

360. Adnce to his children. 

361. Desire that they may be bred up in 
friendship with Lord Falkland's. 

Solemn protestation concerning the integrity 
of his own conduct, — and 363, of the king's in- 
tentions. 

364. — "I am not of the Dean's mind: if I 
could not get enough to keep me out of England, 
I would rather take a gaol, than skulk up and 
dovNTi with the perpetual agony and apprehension 
of being taken. A gaol is a quiet place, besides 
the benefit of having a man's friends know where 
to find him ; which as the world goes, is no 
small eonvenienc}'. I wonder that our friends 

I who are so intoxica.ted with the love of the En- 
glish air do not get them lodgings there ; it is 
worth an hundred of compounding." 

'. 365. 1647. — "I am very glad the Clergy in 
Scotland carry themselves so impetuously. It is 

I a spirit impossible to be severed from the Pres- 

I byter)^, and will sooner convert the nobility and 

I gentry of Scotland, than all the reasoa that can 
be spoken to them ; and they will find all the 

j power they have wrested from the king will do 
them no good, if the jus divinurn of that tribe be 
sniiered to conclude that Jesus Christ hath trust- 

' ed them only with the advancement of his king- 
dom. There is no question the clergy will al- 
ways have an extraordinary influence upon the 
people ; and therefore (except there be an army 
kept on foot to govern both, as you will find there 
is in all places where the clergy have no power) 

; there must be a way to govern the clergy abso- 
lutely, and keep it subject to the rules and orders 
of state ; which never was, nor never can be, 
without bishops : so that in truth civil prudence 
would make unanswerable arguments for that 
order, if piety did not." 

367—8. His opinion upon the difference be- 
tween the Protestant churches, — and Presby- 
terian ordination. — P. 402—3. 

368. Of outward dignity for a Chm'ch. 
379. Exhortation against conceding anything 
which ought not to be conceded — this is very 



VV HITAKER—DODD— BAXTER— NALSON— HERBERT, ETC. 



101 



true and very characteristic of Hyde — " In a 
word, dear Jack, we arc not sure God Almighty 
hath not determined the ruin of king and king- 
dom ; but we are sure he hath determined neither 
of them shall be preserved by impious or dishonest 
means." 

386. Concerning his account of Falkland, — to 
Dr. Earles. 

402. Want of Bishops a matter of necessity 
at first in the foreign Protestant churches. 

411. His counsel to yield nothing unreasona- 
ble, but to stand fast upon the old rock of estab- 
lished law. 1648. 

417. A declaration of his principles to the 
Queen. 

459. To Digby. 

478. His feeling toward the Queen after 
Charles' murder. 

520. Writing from Spain, he says " the peo- 
ple are generally more incurious than is easy to 
be believed, and much less respective of learn- 
ing, and consefpxently less supplied with learn- 
ed men than I imagined. Yet they are careful 
in writing their own histories, which I am study- 
ing diligently, and out of them inform myself 
more of the state of England than I could do by 
ray own chronicles ; and if I had money, I could 
supply myself with more materials concerning 
our own country, than out of our own records : 
I mean of the ancientest times." 

522. On the failure of the Scotch attempt — to 
Sir J. Berkeley, " I know I shall be thought too 
scrupulous, if not superstitious, but I cannot for- 
bear to desire you, who are an honest man, to 
remember that though God hath suffered us to 
be undone by the perjury and dissimulation of 
ill men, he will never suffer us to reverse those 
his judgements by our perjury and following the 
same courses." 

525. Prejudices agaiurt huii. 

529. Instability of the loyalists. 

— "I have long thought our nation will be 
either utterly extinguished under this great 
judgement, or be restored and preserved in such 
an extraordinary way as we shall not be able to 
assume any part of it to our own wits and dex- 
terity ; for methinks God Almighty exceedingly 
dLseountenanccs all the designs which our natural 
reason is apt to flatter us with." 



©mens. 

" I WAS told at Dumfcrmline," says Dr. Whit- 
AKER {Craven, 163), "that when Charles I. was 
in his cradle there, an Image (by which was 
meant an Angel) descended from Heaven, and 
covered him with a bloody mantle." 



The Church of England dated its misfortunes 
from the Long Parliament, Nov. 3rd, 1640. 
"The very day was thought ominous; so that 
before the appointed time some persuaded the 
Archbishop (Laud) to move the king to have the 
eitting respited for a day or two longer ; be- 
cause the Parliament in Henry VIU.'s reign. 



which ended with the diminution of the clergy's 
power, and the dissolution of religious houses, 
began the same day. But the Archbishop took 
little notice of the advertisement." — Dodd, vol. 
1, p. 117, quoting Collier, vol. 2, p. 161. 

DoDD says, " Providence seems to have had a 
design to I'etaliate upon the Church of England, 
that it should fall by the same weapons which it 
had made use of against others." Several cir- 
cumstances occurred to occasion such reflections. 



" On April 23, was his Majesty's (Charles 
II.) coronation day ; the day being very serene 
and fair, till suddenly in the afternoon, as they 
were returning from Westminster Hall, there 
was very terrible thunders, when none expected 
it. Which made me remember his fixther's cor- 
onation, on which, being a boy at school, and 
having leave to play for the solemnity, an earth- 
quake (about two o'clock in the afternoon) did 
affright the boys and all the neighbt)urhood. I 
intend no commentary on these, but only to re- 
late the matter of fact." — Baxter's Life, p. 303. 



1639. "One remarkable accident did not a 
little awaken those just resentments which his 
majesty had conceived against the covenanters. 
For upon the 19th of November, being the anni- 
versary of the king's birthday, part of the walls 
of the castle of Edinburgh fell down, and the 
king having given orders for the necessary re- 
pair, the covenanters would not suffer any ma- 
terials to be carried in for that purpose." — Nal- 
soN, voL 1, p. 278. 



Charles's funeral. " It was observed that at 
such time as the king's body was brought out 
from St. George's hall, the sky was serene and 
clear, but presently it began to snow, and the 
snow fell so fast, that by that time the corpse 
came to the west end of the royal chapel, the 
black velvet pall was all white (the colour of in- 
noeency), being thick covered over with snow. — 
Thus went the White King to his grave." — Mr. 
Herbert's Account of the Funeral, in WooeVi 
Athena;, vol. 2, p. 703. 



" The lesson for the 30th January xcas the 
chapter of the Passion." — South, vol. 3, p. 434. 



BXijith €xtr(ict0. 

Charles " had been always averse to Popery, 
and detested it utterly after he had viewed the 
practice of it in Spain." — Carte's Ormonde, 
vol. 1, p. 54. 



Both Ireland and Scotland wore in a state 
which required the rough remedy of civilization 
by conquest, — a Roman civilization. These 



LIBRARY 



102 STRADA—RUDYARD— ROGER NORTH— TACITUS— TAYLOR, ETC. 



kingdoms thci'cfore were in a better state under 
Cromwell's iron sway, than while they enjoyed 
their own barbarous usafies. But England had 
long been accustomed to order, and all the bless- 
ings which accoaipany it. 



That rebellion which real grievances would 
not have provoked, was kindled by imaginary 
ones. The people submitted to tyranny, and 
suffered their rights to be violated and in fact 
destroyed ; but they would not kneel at the com- 
munion, tolerate the surplice, use the finest lit- 
urgy that ever was composed, or bow at the name 
of Jesus. 



The Prince of Parma was the first General 
who introduced religious discipline into an army. 
— See Strada, Dec. 2, 1. 8, p. 457. 

Gustavus probably imitated him, — and Crora- 
iwell, Gustavus. 



Two evils had their origin in the Low Coim- 
try Wars, for there the foundation was laid for 
English republicanism, and French preponder- 
ance. 



I SUSPECT that the decree for coining half the 
plate (June, 1641) was past with a view of de- 
priving the king of that resource. 



" The present state of Christendom i.s appar- 
ent, that the House of Austria began to dimin- 
ish, as in Spain, so consequently in Germany, 
and that the French do swell and enlarge them- 
selves ; and if they grow and hold, they will be 
to us but Spain nearer hand." — Sir B. Rud- 

YARD. 1641. RUSHWORTH, 3, tOHl. 1 , p. 381. 



" But in England it is a common way of re- 
forming, even in state matters, instead of amend- 
ing or paring away what is amiss, to kick down 
whole constitutions all at once, however in them- 
selves excellent." — Roger Nokth. 



" TiBERTOQUE ctiam in rebus quas non occul- 
cret, seu natura, sive adsuctudine, suspcnsa sera- 
■per et obscura verba : tunc vero, nitenti ut sen- 
8US sues penitus abdcret, in incertum et ambig- 
uum raagis implicabantur." — Tacitus. JlnnaL, 
1. 1, e. 11. 

How well does this apply to Cromwell. 



"Argumentum pessimi turba est. Qumra- 
mus quid optimum factu sit, non quid usitatissi- 
mum ; et quid nos in possessione felicitatis aeter- 
nae constituaf, non quid vulgo, veritatis pessimo 
interpret!, probatum sit." — Seneca dc Vita bcata, 
c. 2. 



" Nothing can make recompense for a cer- 
tain change, but a certain truth, with apparent 
usefulness in order to charity, piety, or institu- 
tion." — J. Taylor, vol. 12, p. 74. 



" Amongst us there are, or have been, a great 
many Old Testament Divines, whose doctrine and 
manner of talk, and arguments and practices have 
too much squinted toward Moses." — J. Taylor, 
vol. 12, p. 286. 



" The government of the Church by Bish- 
ops," says Jeremy Tayloe, " is consigned to 
us by a tradition greater than some books of 
scripture, and as great as that of the Lord's 
day ; and that so notorious, that thunder is not 
more heard than this is seen in all the monu- 
ments of antiquity." — Vol. 13, p. 118. 



" Tyrants usually make good laws, and after 
they are dead are so hated that even their good 
laws are sometimes the less regarded." — Ibid., 
vol. 13, p. 408. 



" So violent was the zeal of that reforming 
period against all monuments of idolatry, that 
perhaps the Sun and Moon, very ancient objects 
of false worship, owed their safety to their dis- 
tance." — Douglas's East Coast of Scotland, p. 
185. 



" Thomas Hoi.lis, the eccentric republican, 
wrote these lines characteristic enough of such 
republicans, — 

'■ I freely declare it, I am for Old Noll, 
Though his government did a tjTant resemble. 
He made England great and her enemies trem- 
ble." — Memoirs of T. Hollis, p. 289. 



White Locke's History of the Parliament of 
England, and of some resemblances to the Jew- 
ish and other councils. MSS. were given by 
Hollis to the British Museum. 



" They magnified the New Invention of Cal- 
vin at Geneva, calling it the 'Pattern in the 
Mount.' " — Nalson, xxxvii. 

See Barrow concerning the opposers of Epis- 
copacy, vol. 3, p. 113. 



1639. "In raauy places the elections were 
managed with much popular heat and tumult by 
the countenance o-f those English nobility and 
gentry of the Scottish faction. At the County 
election for Essex, for instance, ' the Earl of 
Warwick made good use of his lord lieutenancy, 
in sending letters out to the captains of the Train- 



NALSON— HARLEIAN. 



103 



bands, who having power to charge the people 
with arms, durst not offend, which brought many 
of his side.' — ' Those ministers who gave their 
voices for my Lord of Warvvielv, as Mr. Marshal 
and others, preached often out of their own par- 
ishes before the election.' ' Our corporation of 
Essex consisting most of Puritans, and having 
had their voices in electing their own burgesses, 
and then to come to elect knights, is more than the 
greatest lord of England hath in their boroughs; 
the multiplicity of the people are mean-condi- 
tioned, and most factious, and few subsidy-men; 
and therefore no way concerned in the election.' 
" A man having but forty shillings a year free- 
hold hath as great a voice in the election as any ; 
and yet this man is never a subsidy-man, and 
therefore no way concerned in the election for 
his own particular : and when the statute was 
made, forty shillings it was then twenty povind 
in value now. And it were a great quiet to the 
state if it were reduced to that; and then gentle- 
men would be looked upon, and it would save 
tiie ministers a great deal of pains, in preaching 
from their own churches." 

Nalson, vol. 1, p. 279-80. " A paper sent to 
the Secretary of State by Mr. Nevil of dressing 
Temple, the unsuccessful candidate, whose life 
was threatened. ' It was said among the people 
that if Nevil had the day, they would tear the 
gentleman to pieces.' " 



An intercepted letter from Scotland, but -writ- 
ten apparently by an Englishman — (1640) says, 
" We know as well what the honest king does in 
his bedchamber, as that papist wench that lies 
by his side, who is the only animator on of the 
best sort of men that are against us. For to say 
honestly, as God bade, there are divers com- 
manders or brave men of that whorish religion ; 
but woe be to them and their posterity, for the 
close-fisted chiel will forget them as he doth 
poor Keuen (Rulhen, Governor of Ed. Castle), 
who is like to die of a flux with sour drink if 
God give the victory to his own. For the lords, 
we had a trial of thenr last year ; they have been 
mo.st of them gotten with Luncys (?) and .Tock- 
eys (Jacobuses?), save three or four which we 
fear will be too honest and too ceremonious to a 
king which hath not a heart to reward the brave 
but will spend thousands upon a mask or bi-ave 
organs." — Nalson, vol. 1, p. 509, i. e. 409 — the 
book being more inaccurately paged than any I 
remember to have seen. 



17th Nov. 1640. "Cornelius Burgess preach- 
ed before the House of Commons on Jer., 1. 5. 
' They shall ask the way to Zion with their faces 
thitherward, saying, Come and let us join our- 
selves unto the Lord in an everlasting covenant 
that shall not be forgotten.' 

" ' You cannot,' said he, ' be ignorant of the 
many murmurs, and more than whisperings of 
some desperate and devilish conceptions, suspect- 



ed to be now in the womb of the Jesuitical fac- 
tion ; therefore it becomes 3'ou above all others 
to be first in a covenant. 2ndly, that till they 
did this, there could not be such a full enjoying 
of God as otherwise there might be, and we 
might have much more of God even in this life 
than we now have, if we could be persuaded to 
such a covenant with him. 3rdly, Consider that 
whatever work God calls you to, you will never 
buckle thoroughly to it, till you have entered into 
covenant with him. 4thly, As if he were reSolv- 
ed to verify that of the poet, Flectere si nequco 
Superos, Acheronta movcbo, he draws arguments 
for covenanting from wicked men and devils, 
For, says he, wicked men stick not at a cove- 
nant with death and hell. Naj', 5thly, Consider 
that the devil himself will have a covenant from 
all his vassals that expect any extraordinary mat- 
ters from him. There is not a witch that hath 
the devil at her back, but she must seal a cove- 
nant with him, sometimes with her blood." — 
Nalson, vol. 1, p. 5.S2. 

Stephen Marshal preached on the same day 
to the same purpose, and they had each a piece 
of plate bestowed upon them by order of the 
House out of the Charity money which was gath- 
ered from the members at the Communion upon 
Sunday, 29th.— Ibid., p. 533. 



April, 1641. "Sir Thomas A,ston petition- 
ed the House of Lords setting forth that one 
Henry Walker and some other stationer had 
printed and dispersed a counterfeit petition as in 
the name of the county Palatine of Chester against 
episcopacy and the liturgy, as anti-Christian and 
unlawful. This was not welcome to those lord.s 
who favoured the faction ; and therefore offence 
was taken at some unfit and indiscreet words in 
Sir T. Aston's petition, for which he received a 
reprehension from the House. However, Walk- 
er and the others wei-e likewise sent for, and re- 
ceived also a gentle rebuke for their offence, — a 
slender punisluuent for so notorious a piece of 
forgery." — Nalson, vol. 1, p. 795. 



" The petitions were framed generally by Dr. 
Burgess' his junto in London pro re nata, and 
transmitted to their correspondents, who by per- 
suasions and thrcatenings, and all the methods 
imaginable procured hands to them." — Ibid., p. 
799. 



1644. "A HAri'Y thing it were," says Rich- 
ard Boothby, " both lor them (the Madagascar- 
men) and tliis kingdom, if that |)roject had or 
should go forward, which a gentleman of Hunt- 
ingdonshire, bred a merchant, in love told me; 
which he heard from others, or rather as I un- 
derstand it, from Bishop Mnrcton's own mouth ; 
that if the bishops of England, lately dismissed 
from voting in Parliament, and tyrannizing in 
temporal authority, should still contiimc in dis- 



104 BAYLE— SENECA— MOSHEIM—HACKET—ORME—LINGUET, ETC. 

respect with the kinjr and Parliament, they, or entretiens particuliers qui accompagnent la di- 
most part ol' them, would go and plant a colony rectiou dcs ames." — Linguet, Hist, des Jesuites, 
ia Madagascar, and endeavour to reduce those vol. 1, p. 11 
ignorant souls to Christianity." — IIarleia.n Col- 
lection of Voyages, &c., vol. 2, p. 635. 

" In the first years of the war," says Aitze- 
MA, of his countrymen the Dutch, " when they 
might easily have helped the king they would 
not help him ; all here, including the preachers, 
were against him. Aftei"wards when he, his 
affairs and his whole family lay prostrate, then 
they helped him with sermons and poems and 
ballads, upon which a war followed under the 
name of retorsie, — but then it was too late." — 
Vol. 1, p. 536. 



' Tel qui n'avoit qu'une disposition mediocre 
a devenir faiiatique le devient jusqu' a I'exces 
par I'eniotion que lui causent les idees de la 
guen-e ; et comme les esprits sont alors dans Tin- 
quietude, ils croient plus aiscraent tout ce qu'ils 
entendent dire de prodigieux." — Bayle, Pen- 
sees sur la Comete, vol. 2, p. 320. 

He then quotes Seneca, " Alios cito timor sibi 
reddit, alios vehementius perturbat, et in demen- 
tiam transfer!. Inde inter bella erravere lymph- 
atici ; nee usquam plura exempla vatieinantium 
invenies, quam ubi formido mentes, religione 
mixta, percussit." — Seneca, Nat. qucBst., 1- 6, 
c. 29. 



The Jansenists also taught that the saints are 
the only lawful proprietors of the woi'ld. — See 
MosHEiM, vol. 4, p. 380. 



Bishop Hacket says of Charles, he " had a 
quality to his life's end (I will call it humility ; 
it is somewhat like it, but it is not it), to be 
easily persuaded out of his own knowledge and 
judgment, by some whom he permitted to have 
power upon him who had not the half of his m- 
tellectuals." — Life of Williams, p. 164. 



Cromwell laid Manasseh Ben Israel's pro- 
posal before a meeting "composed of two judges, 
seven citizens of London, and the divines. The 
judges considered their toleration merely as a 
point of law, and declared they knew of no law 
against it ; and that if it were thought useful to 
the state they would advise it. The citizens 
viewed it in a commercial light, and as probably 
they had different trade interests, they were di- 
vided in their opinions about its utilit}'. Both 
these however dispatched the matter briefly. 
But most of the divines violently opposed it, by 
text after text, for four whole days. Cromwell 
was at length wearied, and told them he had 
hoped they would throw some light on the sub- 
ject to direct his conscience ; but instead of this 
they had rendered it more obscure than before : 
he desired therefore no more of their counsels, 
but lest he .should do any thing rashly, he begged 
a share in their prayers. Sir Paul Ricaut, who 
was then a young man, pressed in among the 
crowd, and said he never heard a man speak so 
well in his life, as Cromwell did on that occa- 
sion." — Oeme's Life of Owen, p. 160. 



" La fanatisrae, ce n'est point par des livTCS 
in-folio qu'il s'accroit. C'est sur-tout par ces 
discours publics appeUes sermons : c'est par les 



Charles and his Parliament — 

" Postulabant, non ut assequerentur, sed can- 
sam seditioni. Et Flaccus, multa coneedendo, 
nihil aliud effecerat, quam ut acrius exposeerent, 
quEB sciebant negatm-um." — Tacitus, Hist., 1. 
4, c. 19. 



Be it remembered that what the speculative 
English Republicans admired was the Venetian 
Government ; — the most merciless and inquisi- 
torial tyranny that ever existed. 



Who was the judge under Charles II. who in 
Cromwell's time proposed to apprentice the Dean 
of Gloucester to some good trade ? — South, vol. 
3, p. 309, Note. 



" Nothing was safe above ground. A man 
was foi-ced to bury his bags, to keep himself 
alive."— Ibid., vol. 3, p. 310. 



The Puritan preachers addressed the women, 
''daughters of Sion and matrons of the New Je- 
rusalem, as they called themselves." — See the 
pa.ssage. South, vol. 3, p. 402. 



It was proposed to execute Charles " in his 
robes, and afterwards drive a stake through his 
head and body, to stand as a monument upon his 
grave !" — Ibid., vol. 3, p. 435. 



Orders to examine his body ! — Ibid., vol. 3, 
p. 437.' 



Clarendon says that "no question our game- 
sters learned much of their play from Davila." — 
State Papers, vol. 2, p. 334. 



To these battles what Scaliger says upon 



1 See Note at the, end oT" Letters concerning Crom- 
well's Age." 



CARTE— RUSHWORTH— OVID— MA YNARD. 



105 



the death of the two Larals is applicable. — 
" Nam clades aeslimandae, non numerandae sunt : 
neque interest quot honaines sed quos amiseris." 
— Ep. 182, p. 380. 



Nalson's papers were in the hands of Dr. 
Williams, senior Fellow of St. John's, Cambridge. 
Twenty volumes about. — Carte's Preface to 
Life of Ormond. 



CromnjcU'6 ^ge. 

" Surely they that quarrel betwixt preaching 
and prayer, and would have them contend, never 
meant well to either." — Sir Benj. Rudyard. 
RusHwoRTH, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 1130. 



" I KNOW not how it comes to pass, but it hap- 
peneth to us, which is in no other religion in the 
world, that a man may be too religious : and 
many one by that scandal is frighted into a deep 
dissimulation " — Ibid. 



"Edward, the black T.nrd Herbprt" (of Cher- 
bury ? sic opinor), " upon hearing the Scots' de- 
mands of =£40,000 per month, advised the king 
not to accede to it, but to fortify Yoi-k against 
them. 'Reason of state,' he said, 'having ad- 
mitted fortification of our most inland towns 
against weapons used in former times, it may as 
well admit fortification against the weapons used 
in these times. But he mistook the spirit of the 
times when he added that towns have been ob- 
served always averse to wars and tumults, as 
subsisting by the peaceable ways of trade and 
traffic ; insomuch that when either great persons 
for their private interests, or the commons for 
their grievances, have taken ai'ms, townsmen 
have been noted "ever to continue in their accus- 
tomed loyalty and devotion." — Rushworth, vol. 
2, pt. 6, p. 1293. 

He had forgotten Ghent, Constantinople, Rome. 
Large towns where is a populace, will always 
be hot-beds of sedition. 



are now, Mr. Speaker, upon that vertical point." 
— Sir B. Rudyard. Rushwortu, vol. 2, pt. 2, 
p. 1358. 



" Et quoniam Deus ora mo vet, scquar era rao- 

ventem 
Rite Deum ; Delphosque meos, ipsmnque reclu- 

dam 
jEthera; et augustae reserabo oracula mentis." 
Ovid's Met.^ xv., p. 143. 

This was the feeling of G . Fox, and of every 
other ignorant enthusiast in that age. 



Serjeant Maynard, the best old book law- 
yer of his time, used to say that " the law wa-s , 
ars bablativa.^^ — Life of Lord K. GuildfordJ 
vol. 1, p. 26. 



The tune fixed for the Irish massacre wa.s 
St. Ignatius's day. — Rushworth, vol. 3, pt. 1, 
p. 398. 



Jan. 12, 1641. 

" When Si^ J. IfntViam was that day made 
governor of Hull, with orders ' not to deliver it 
up, or the magazine, or any part thereof, with- 
out the King's authority signified by the Lords 
and Commons in Parliament,' to hasten this order 
down to Hull, John Hotham his son was order- 
ed to go unmediately with the same, and he, 
then standing up in the gallery of the House of 
Connnons, thus expressed himself, ' Mr. Speak- 
er ; fall back, fall edge, I will go down and per- 
form your commands.' " — Ibid., vol. 3, ])t. 1, p. 
496. 



" Projects and monopolies are but leaking 
oonduit-pipes, the exchequer itself at the fullest, 
is but a cistern, and now a broken one ; frequent 
parliaments only are the fountain." — Sir B. Rud- 
yard. Ibid., 1341. 



What Sir B. Rudyard ascribed to the Papists, 
the Puritans were actually doing. — C. 12. 



1640. " I HAVE often thought and said, that it 
must be some great extremity that would re- 
cover and rectify this state ; and when that ex- 
tremity did come, it would be a great hazard 
whether it might prove a remedy or ruin. We 



3 April, 1642. 

" Depositions were made before the House 
of Commons, that one Edward Sandeford, a tav- 
lor of the City of London, had called the Earl of 
Essex, the Earl of Warwick and the parliament 
traitors, curst the parliament and wished the Earl 
of Warwick's heart in his boots, and King Pym 
and Sir John Hoth am both hanged. They sent 
fur him to the bar of the house, and the sentence 
pronounced upon him b)- the Speaker was ' that 
he should be fined to our sovereign lord the King 
100 marks, stand on the pilkn-y in Chcapside and 
Westminster ; be whipped from thence at a cart's 
tail, the first day to the Fleet, the second day to 
Bridewell, and there be kept to work during his 
lite.' " — Ibid., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 559. 



" The likeness of the .standard was much of 
the fashion of the City streamers used at the 
Lord Mayor's show, having about twenty sup- 
porters, and was carried after the same way. 
On the top of it hangs a fiag, the King's arms 
quartered, with a hand pointing lo the crown, 



106 



WHITAKER— DODD— ECHARD— WOOD. 



which -stands above with this motto, ' Give Caesar 
his duo..' 

" Sir Thomas Brooks, Sir Arthur Hopton, Sir 
Francis Wortlcy, and Sir Robert Dadington were 
the four cliief knigfhts baronets appointed to bear 
it."— Ibid., p. 784. 



"The partisans of the Commonwealth were 
no losers by their disloyalty. But the ruinous 
eflects of this contest to the one party and not 
to tiic other, are to be accounted for, not mere- 
ly from the vindictive spirit of the parliament, 
and the easy nature of Charles II. equally disin- 
clined to reward and to punish, but from the sour 
and parsimonious temper of the Puritans, and the 
extravaj^ant jollity and license of the Royalists." 
— Whitaker's Craven, p. 35. 



At Gisburne Park a picture of Cromwell, by 
Sir Peter Lely. "This," says Dr. Whitaker, 
" gives a truer, that is a worse idea, of the man, 
than any portrait of him which I have seen. It 
is said to have been taken by his own order, with 
all the warts and protuberances which disfigured 
his countenance. On the canvass is painted the 
word Now, which probably alludes to his per- 
emptory mandate for the immediate execution 
of the King. This was brought from Calton 
Hall, and seems to have been his own present to 
Lambert." — Ibid. 



" It was a tradition at Broughton Hall (in 
Craven), that a son of the family was shot on the 
lawn ; and that the village had been so com- 
pleatly pillaged of common utensils (in these 
wars) that an old helmet travelled in succession 
from house to house for the purpose of boiling 
broth and potage." — Ibid., p. 97. 



1638. Lord Arundel in a letter to his very 
good lord and cousin, Lord Clifford at Skipton, 
says of our three poor northern shires, " it will 
be fitter to fit them with such light arms as they 
have been accustomed to use and bear, than load 
them with heavier, which mingled with some 
other, may stand in good stead, and archery to 
be kept on foot." 

Dr. Whitaicer asks if this is not the latest in- 
stance of the use or intended use of archery in 
an English army? — Ibid., p. 299. 



The very nature of the King's army rendered 
good discipline difficult or impossible, composed 
as it was in great part of men of rank and for- 
tune, the flower of the gentry and nobility of 
England, serving as adventurers. The lax state 
of dLscipiine which thus arose is noticed in Pha- 
ronnida.' Quote that fine passage. 



" I AM sorry to find Sir J. Eliot in the first 
parliament (1625) warmly representing to the 
house, that six Romish priests had lately been 
pardoned upon the Queen's intercession. These 
complaints were followed with an humble peti- 
tion to his majesty that the laws against Popish 
recusants might be put in execution." — Dodd, 
vol. 3, p. 3. 



Henrietta's priests were impudently impru- 
dent, 1 629, they would have baptized the Queen's 
child in the bedchamber, if the King had notstept 
in and ordered one of his chaplains to perform 
that office. — Echard. 



Of the Queen mother Echard says, " that the 
English hated her, or suspected her, for her own 
sake, for her Church's, for her country's, and for 
her daughter's." 



» An Heroic Poem by William Camberlayne of Shafts- 



When the court of wards was taken away, 
1646, I am sorry to find Sir B. Rudyard, who 
had been surveyor of that court, indemnified with 
lands to the value of 6000 from the Earl of Wor- 
ee.ster's estate. That the Lord Say, as being 
master, should have 6£ 10,000 worth from the 
same estate was only in character, and could not 
stain liim. — Wood^s ^thence quoted, vol. 2, p. 237. 



" Henry Bard, son of the vicar of Stains, of 
Eton and King's, a great Oriental Traveller, 
was one of the first who appeared in arms at 
York. The Queen soon procured him a col- 
onel's commission. He was afterwards made 
governor of Cambden House in Gloucestershire, 
which he quitted and laid in ashes when it was 
no longer tenable. He was also for some time 
governor of Worcester. Knighted 1643, soon 
after created a baronet, and in 1645, made baron 
of Bromley and viscount Bellamont in the king- 
dom of Ireland. Being afterwards taken prison- 
er, he petitioned to be released, with a promise 
that he would appear no more in arms, but quit 
the land. 'Hitherto,' said he, 'I have only pur- 
sued my fortune, and have fought neither for 
your religion, nor for your laws, but to maintain 
the rights of an injured prince, whom Providence 
seems now disposed to abandon to some hard 
fate, while religion is entirely lost, and the laws 
become a mouse trap.' This merry and frank 
declaration purchased him his freedom, with per- 
mission to retire into Flanders. After the King's 
murder Charles II. sent him to Persia in hopes 
of obtaining money for the recovery of his crown, 
the King of Persia being under some obligations 
to England, upon account of the assistance our 
merchant ships gave him at Ormuz. But Bella- 
mont, when crossing the desert, was lost in a hur- 
ricane of sand. 



bury, London, 1659, 8vo. In his Notes to Joan of Arc 
Southey said he hoped to rescue it from undeserved ob- 
livion. 



DODD—KENNET— BAXTER. 



107 



" He had been a Catholic for some years. 
Prince Rupert had a son called Dudley Rupert, 
by his daughter Frances ; this son served as a 
volunteer at the sieji;e of Buda, and was killed 
there. 

" After the Re-Jto-ration Lord Bellamont's 
widow was obliged to oee': for relief at King's 
College, Cambridge, where her husband had 
formerly been fellr.w " — Dodd, vol. 3, p. 48. 
Wood referred to. 



Dodd (vol. 3, p. 58) affims that "at Droghe- 
d'i ',11 were put to the sword, together with the 
In'iD'jitants, women and ch'ldren, only about thir- 
ty persons escaping, v.'ho with several hundreds 
of th'^ Irish nation were shipped off to serve as 
slaves in the island of Barbadoes, as I have fre- 
quently heard the account from Captain Edmund 
Molyneux, one of that number who died at St. 
Germains, whither he followed the unfortunate 
king James 11. 

" As for Sir Arthur Ashton he had his brains 
•lashed out v/ith his wooden leg." 

This agrees well with Ludlow. Had he gilt 
^Ls wooden leg ? Very likely, I think. 

This is the same Ashton who commanded at 
Reading. 



The person who was shot for surrendering 
Bleehingdon House to Cromwell, was Colonel 
Francis Windebank, the secretary's second son. 
" Some suppose that tbo Fupposed demerits of 
♦he father had no sma'' irflrence over his perse- 
cutor." — Ibid., vol. 3, M. 59 



" I CANNOT," says Bishop Kennet, " but 
'Commend the piety of those gentlemen employ- 
ed to inter the body of King Charles I., who tak- 
ing a view of St. George's Chapel in Windsor, 
to find the most fit and honourable place of bur- 
ial, they declined at first the tomb house built by 
Cardinal Wolscy, as supposing King Henry VIII. 
wa.s buried there, ' in regard his Majesty would, 
upon occasional discourse express some dislike 
of King Henry's proceeding in misemploying 
those vast revenues the suppressed abbeys, mon- 
asteries, and other religious houses were endow- 
ed with.'" — Parochial Jlntiq., vol. 2, p. 51. 
Wood quoted. , 



" We know in the latter times of our confu- 
sion a project was carried on of destroying the 
ancient right of tithes, and converting that pious 
maintenance of the clergy into settled portions of 
money." — Kennet's Par. Antiq., vol. 2, p. 295. 



Baxter held that notion " that the Papists 
were busy in furthering the work of schism and 
confusion. The Papists, ho said, had begotten 
the Quakers, first pretending to strange revela- 
tioHs, visions and trances, such as commonly 



mentioned in the lives of their saints in the le- 
gends, and so you have here and there a Papist 
lurking to be the chief speaker among them ; 
and those have fashioned many others to their 
turns, who yet know not their own fathers." 



The Hampden family are said to have been 
settled upon the same estate before the conquest. 
— Hist, of Chilton. 



" Charles was first brought before the High 
Court on a Saturday, the next day a fast was kept 
at Whitehall, where preached Joshua Sprigg, 
whose text was, ' He that sheds man's blood, by 
man shall his blood be shed :' then Mr. Foxley, 
whose text was, ' Judge not, lest you be judged ;' 
lastly, Hugh Peters, whose text was, ' I will bind 
their kings in chains, and their nobles in fetters 
of iron ;' and thus by their wicked application of 
the Word of God, they endeavoured to justify their 
most execrable murder of their lawful King." 
— Arbitrary Government displayed to the life., 
p. 37. 



The five ministers ordered to administer spir- 
itual help to him after his sentence, were Mar- 
shal, Nye, Caryl, Salway, and Dell. — Ibid., p. 39. 



" I CANNOT here forbear to mention Hoselrig's 
bloody proposition, that six gentlemen of the best 
quality, royalists, might be put to death in re- 
venge of Dorislaus,^ to deter men from the like 
attempt hereafter." — Ibid., p. 97. 



" The notorious and blasphemous wretch, 
pander and buflbon, Hugh Peters, chaplain in 
ordinary to two great potentates, Lucifer and 
Oliver Cromwell." 

He is here said to have been expelled from 
Jesus College, Cambridge, for his lascivious life, 
and to have then turned player in Shakespere's 
company, usually acting the jester or fool. — 
Ibid., p. 98. 



" The money drained away from the Royal- 
ists, and the vast sums raised on the people by 
taxes, assessments and excise, coming into the 
soldiers' pockets, they set it going into motion ; 
which with the vast sums raised on the sale of 
the King'.s, Queen's, Princes', Bishops' and De- 
linquents' lands, made a flood of money for the 
present, and nothing of want then apjicared, 
which was the effect rather of the tyrant's ra- 
pacity than good management. For when this 
glut began to fall again into the private sinks of 
rich men, who lived by the use of money ; and 
others who had any groat sums fallen to their 

1 Sec Clarenilon. IJistory of the Rebellion. Book xii., 
vol. G. p. 297, ^'2\. He wns an ngcnt of the Parliament, 
kiUed at the Hasue. J. W. W. 



108 



KEITH— WHITAKER— DOUGLAS— THORESBY. 



shares, fcarinnj tho iniquities of the times, and 
knowinir no man could promi.se himself to be 
long master of his own, especially money, where 
the will ol' the tyrant was law, and whom to dis- 
oblige was fatal ; they remitted vast sums for 
their security into the bank in Holland, making 
them rich by trading with our money, whilst we 
sate contented with three per cent, for to be se- 
cure, so that our trade fell, and in some time after 
a scarcity of money appeared.'' — Ibid., p. 143. 



his hand and struck the first blow." — Ibid., 
p. 185. 



TuE amount of the weekly meal was paid for 
half a year, according to this book, 

" Likewise in sixteen hundred, forty-five, 
'Twas ordered also every man to give, 
A penny a week of every family. 
For one whole year together, — 'tis no lye : 
And this was sent poor Ireland to relieve, 
If those that ordered did not us deceive." 
Ibid., p. 212.' 



" An eminent dissenter (Dr. Caudry, a Pres- 
b)nerian minister, in his book called Independen- 
cy a Schism) hath made this observation on the 
vast toleration that was given in the time of the 
Commonwealth government, that the seven years' 
toleration then given had done more hurt to re- 
ligion, than all that could be called persecution 
for seventy years before that." — G. Keith. 



" The holy Thorn at Glastonbury was cut 
down in the civil wars by those madmen who 
looked upon every object of curiosity, especially 
if considered with a religious eye, as a monu- 
ment of superstition, and so set themselves in 
open hostility to almost every monument of re- 
ligion among us." — Whitaker's Life of St. 
Neot, p. 53. 

It was the kiwthorn of Judea, brought by 
some travelling brother, from the Holy Land, 
where it flowers about Christmas day. 



The taking of Dundee by Monk is reckoned 
one of the greatest misfortunes that ever happen- 
ed to any town in Scotland. There were at that 
time above sixty vessels in the harbour, and so 
great was the spoil, that it is said every private 
soldier had X60 sterling for his share. 

" In the street called the Murray Gate several 
bombs unburst, were lately found, deep sunk in 
the earth, 1782.'" — Douglas's East Coast of 
Scotland, p. 43. 



" The high altar at Aberdeen, a piece of the 
finest workmanship of any thing of the kind in 
Europe, was hewn to pieces in 1649, by order 
of the parish minister. The carpenter employed 
for this infamous purpose, struck with tho noble 
•workmanship, refused to lay a tool on it till the 
more than gothic priest took the hatchet from 



"I HAD it," says George Keith, "from the 
mouth of an honest faithful man, that he heard 
John Livingston say in prayer, ' Lord, since Dun- 
bar, thou hast spit in our face, and since that 
never looked over thy shoulder to us again.' 
This is he whom the author of the postscript 
calls that great man of God, and this prayer he 
had in a certain family in Aberdeen." — The Way 
Cast up, p. 59. 



A COLLECTION of verses on Oliver's peace with 
the Dutch, 1654, was printed at Oxford, with 
this title — ]\Iusarum Oxoniensium 'E?.aio<l)opia. 
" Mr. Hollis," says the worthy biographer of that 
thoroughly bigotted cosmopolitan, " calls this a 
cui'iosity, and so indeed it is, as it contains so 
many oily compliments to Oliver, from an uni- 
versity which has not been remarkable in this 
last eenturj- for their veneration of his memory." 
And he goes on in a strain of common-place in- 
sult not worth transcribing. He is quite stupid 
enough to have written in ignorance or forget- 
fulness of the fact that Oliver had purged Oxford, 
and filled it with his creatiu-es when this volume 
was produced. 

It is the height of impudence to accuse Oxford 
of ha\ing acted with time-serving policy in those 
days. 



Thoresby had two servants, the mother of one 
of whom, and the grandmother of the other were 
knights' daughters. He mentions it as an in- 
stance of the mutability of fortune ; but doubtless 
it was one of many such instances produced bv 
the civil w^ars and the extent of ruin which was 
thus brought on. 



"In the ingenious Dr. Sampson's MSS.,"say» 
Thoresby, " is an account of Oliver Cromwell's 
being set upon when at Cambridge by two mas- 
tifls, whereupon ho set his back against a tree, 
and taking his head with both his hands, as if he 
would have flung it at them, frighted them 
away." 



" Mr. John Jackson, a good old Puritan, and 
one of the assembly of divines at Westminster, 
was yet so zealously aff"ected for King Charles I. 
when he heard of his being brought before a pre- 
tended high court of justice, that he prayed earn- 
estly that God would please to prevent that hor- 
rid act, which would be a perpetual shame to the 
nation, and a reproach to the Protestant religion ; 
or at least would be pleased to remove him that 
he might not see that woeful day. His prayer 
was heard and answered as to himself — for he 
was buried the week before." — Thoresby, Ap- 
pendix, p. 157. 



RUSHWORTH. 



109 



" William Lister, Esq., was slain at Tad- 
caster in the civil wars. His son travelling 
through that town many years after was inquis- 
itive after the place of his father's sepulchre. 
The sexton who was then making a grave in the 
quire, told him it was thereabouts. He stays for 
further satisfaction. Upon taking up the skull 
they found in it the bullet that had given the fatal 
wound. This raortifying.and so unexpected ob- 
ject made such an impression upon the gentle- 
man, that he died upon it shortly after." — Ibid., 
p. 158. 



March 26, 1644. 

Anothee ordinance for the contribution of the 
value of one meal a week. 

" This having been voluntarily practised by 
many well affected persons, and found to be very 
useful (for raising auxiliaries) they have thought 
fit to add convenient power to that way of con- 
ti'ibution, that so the burden may not rest alone 
upon the willing party. All therefore within the 
bills of mortality shall pay upon each Tuesday 
the value of one ordinary meal for themselves 
and families, to be assessed by the alderman, 
deputy, common council men and others appoint- 
ed ; in case of nonpayment, distress to be made 
for double the value, and if no distress can bo 
found, the person to be committed. This ordi- 
nance for three months, and not to extend to such 
&s receive alms." — Rushworth, vol. 5, p. 748. 



April 6, 1644. 
" An ordinance that none shall sell any wares 
or fruits, nor work, nor travel, nor use, nor be 
present at any exercises, games, or pa.stimes, on 
the Lord's day. And that all Maj'-poles (a hea- 
thenish vanity, generally abused to superstition 
and wickedness), be taken down." — Ibid., p. 749. 



June, 1644. 
"A Dunkirk .ship having been taken near 
Arundel, wherein there were found several Pop- 
ish pictures, and particularly one curious large 
piece (designed to be set up in St. Ann's church 
at Seville), representing the story of Ursula (that 
went to Rome, as the legend hath it, with 11, 000 
virgins), and her husband Conanus, and their 
addresses to the Pope, &c., which picture of Co- 
nanus being fancied to be very much like the 
King, the piece was taken to represent the Queen, 
directing the King to surrender his sceptre to the 
Pope, and about this time publicly exposed at 
Westminster, and some pamphlets gave that in- 
terpretation of it. But others honestly explained 
the true design of the painter." — Ibid., p. 714. 



May, 1644. 

" The Earl of Forth writes to Essex ' in the 

behalf of a very worthy lady, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Crofts, one of the maids of honour to the Queen, 

who for recovering of her healthj is very desir- 



ous to repair to London : and for that purpose I 
entreat your lordslyp may be pleased to grant 
her a pass for hei'self, three women, and two 
men, a coach and six horses, and one saddle 
horse, with their necessaries, which I shall take 
as a great favour done unto, my lord, your lord- 
ship's humble servant. Forth.' 

" Essex communicated this to the Two Houses, 
and they agreed not to grant any such safe-con- 
duct for any from Oxford." — Ibid., vol. 5, p. 669. 



Aug. 6, 1647. 

Declaration of General Massey, and Colonel- 
General Pointz, showing the true grounds and 
reasons that induced them to depart from the 
City, and for awhile from the kingdom. 

" — Services begun by command of the state, 
grew first into suspicion, and afterwards into of- 
fence. It was a crime to do anything but what 
must be cried up by those who would have all 
things to dance accoi'ding to the motions of their 
own sphere. 

" — We hold it safer wisdom to withdraw to 
our own friends, whom we have always found 
fast and entire to their first principles, than con- 
tinue with those who like waves are beaten with 
every wind, and do take or receive counsel as 
their fears do prompt them. But not without 
this confession, that we acknowledge the General 
himself to be an excellent personage, and free 
from those violent distempers and heats of pas- 
sion in which other men do delight and perish. 

" — We shall always labour to keep ourselves 
in that posture, both with heaven and earth, as 
to be ready to wade through a sea of blood, and 
increase it with our own, that the Gospel of truth 
may flourish, and that the peace of the King, the 
Parliament, and the Kingdom may grow high 
and happy." — Ibid., vol. 7, p. 766. 



" The Scotch in their Declaration, 1 3 Aug., 
1647, quote, to complain of, a pamphlet against 
the House of Lords, in which the sectaries say, 
' that the Lords are but painted puppets and 
Dagons ; that our superstition and ignorance, 
their own craft and impudence have erected no 
natural issue of laws, but the mushrooms of pre- 
rogatives, the wens of just government, putting 
the body of the people to pain, as well as occa- 
sioning deformity. Sons of conquest they aro 
and usurpation, not of choice and election, in- 
truded upon us by power, not constituted by 
consent; not made by the people, from vvliom all 
power, place, and oflice that is just in this king- 
dom ought only to arise.' " — Ibid., vol. 7, p. 
770. 



1647. Wakefield. 
" Wk begin to do justice apace, keep Coun- 
cils of War often, punish ofl'cnders. At a Coun- 
cil of War yesterday, one Mac Ro, an Irishman, a 
notorious drunkard swearer, and one that slight- 
ed the Commander in Chief, was tried. He wa« 



110 NALSON— THEOBALD— FOULIS— WALTON— STRYPE— RACKET. 



clcarlj' ponvictcJ, and it was so bad that all cried 
out against it. His sentence was to be bored 
throiish the tongue with a red-hot iron, to suffer 
fourteen daj-s' imprisonment, with bread and wa- 
ter, to be cashiered the army, made incapable of 
ever servinj^ the army again, to deliver up his 
horse and arms. Another delinquent was also 
tried for being disorderly in his quarters, and 
other crimes, and was adjudged to a week's im- 
prisonment, to stand in the market-place during 
the time of the market, at the head-quarters for 
the space of an hour, with his faults, written in 
great letters on his breast. These are strange 
things here, and much gazing at it. Ingenuous 
people both martial and civil are much taken 
with it. It hath wrought much good against 
the soldiers already : the officers do confess it, 
and the country are sensij)le of it. Money and 
justice will work great reforniation." — Ibid., vol. 
7, p. 809. 



"Wednesday, 22 Dec., 1747, was, according 
to appointment, kept as a solemn Fast by the 
General and Officers; the duties of the day were 
performed by divers of the Officers, amongst 
whom there was a sweet harmony. The Lieu- 
tenant-General (Oliver Cromwell), Commissary- 
General Ireton, Colonel Tichburne, Colonel Hew- 
son, Mr. Pet«rs, and other officers, prayed very 
fervently and pathetically ; this continued from 
nine in the morning till seven at night." — Ibid., 
vol. 7, p. 94.3. 



Denunciations of Mr. Saltinarsh against the 
army, and his death, Dec., 1647. — Ibid., vol. 7, 
p. 944. 



Feb. 9, 1647-8. 
An ordinance for the more effectual suppress- 
ing of Stage Plays, "by committing and fining 
such as sliall offend herein for the first offence, 
and whipping them for the second, as being in- 
corrigible."— Ibid., vol. 7, p. 991. 



"Those 
That snuffie their unlearned zeal in prose, 
As if the way to heaven was through the nose." 
Litany, 1641. N.^lson, vol. 2, p. 809. 



"When the civil war raged in England, and 
King Charles the First's Queen wa.s driven by 
the necessity of affairs to make a recess in War- 
wickshire, she kept her court for three weeks In 
New Place." — Shakespcarch House at Stratford. 
Theobald's Preface, p. 25. Boswell's 3fa- 
lone, vol. 1. 



Men are as credulous in political as in relig- 
ions matters. See what Montaigne says (L. 
3, chap. 10), torn. 8, p. 332. 



Catholic flattery to Cromwell, and hopes of 
his conversion, by Dr. Thomas Bailey, a convert 
to the Church of Rome. In the Preface to 
FouLis's Jlornish Trcasojis. 



Doleman's book (Parson's) brought forth in 
another form by the Parliamentarians, changing 
it from dialogue into speeches. — Foulis's Plots 
of our Pretended Saints, p. 15. 



Ravages in the churches. — Ibid., 136-7-8. 



Mrs. Beal, of Westmin.ster, put up prayers 
for the return and conversion of her son, "who 
is fallen away from grace, and serves the king 
in his wars." — Ibid., p. 181. 



" I have knovm some citizens," says Brian 
Walton, "yea women in London, who having 
learned to read Hebrew, were so conceited in 
themselves, that they have despised the ablest 
divines about the city, and have almost doubted 
of the salvation of all persons that could not read 
Hebrew." — 27(6 Considerator Considered, \^. 31. 



"Cromwel qui devoit son elevation au fana- 
tisme, et qui etait lui meme, a ce que bien des 
gens croient, sujet a des intervalles fanatiques, 
faisoit mettre dans I'almanack de Londres ses 
desseins assez souvent, et s'en trouvoit bien, dit- 
on. Et parce que cette confidence donnoit beau- 
coup de credit a I'almanack, I'astralogue qui le 
fai.soit, craignant de ne pouvoir pas soutcnir sa 
reputation sous le regne de Charles 11. s'il ne 
se voioit gratifie d'une semblable lumiere, fut 
trouver un jour ce prince pour lui demander la 
continuation des influences politiquesdont il avoit 
joui sous I'usurpateur. Le Roi se moqua de lui. 
et les renvoLa en lui disant qu'il ne s'embaiTOs- 
soit pas comme Cromwel de prcjets vastes, et do 
vues longues." 

Bayle adds, in the margin, " J'ai apris ooci 
d'un gentilhomme tres doctc de la Grande Bre- 
tagne." — Pcnsees sur la Comcte, torn. 2, p. 204. 



" Sir T. Smith, being one of the Depnty- 
Lieutenants in Essex, searching the houses of 
the disaffected after the restoration for arms, re- 
covered some of the old weapons of which hLs 
own had been plundered." — Strype's Smith, p. 
173. 



Vote of Remonstrance. " If the loyal part 
had staid it out (who appeared the greater num- 
ber in the beginning of the questions), they had 
cast it out for a vile defamation ; but the one 
half of that part had slunk away, and were gone 
to bed." — Racket's Life of Williams, pt. 2. p. 
164. 



FOBBES—RERESBY—WAllWICK— COKE— STRAFFORD, ETC. Ill 



" How many wretched souls have we heard 
to say in the late troubles, what matter is it who 
gets the victory ? We can pay but what they 
please to demand, and so much we pay now." 
— HoBBEs's Dialogue concerning the Common 
Law. 



Lord Capel, in his last moments, reflected 
bitterly upon what he called his cowardly com- 
pliance with a prevailing party, in voting for 
Strafford's death. 



" The allowance which the Parliament made 
to their ambassadors, was incomparably beyond 
all former precedents, and better paid, being per- 
mitted to draw bills of exchange upon their mas- 
ters, a thing never heard of heretofore." — Som- 
ERs' Tracts, vol. 7, p. 504. 



Sir. J. Reresby says of Cromwell, " that his 
figure did not come up to his character : he was 
indeed a likely person, but not handsome, nor 
had he a very bold look with him. He was 
plain in his apparel, and rather negligent than 
not. Tears he had at will, and was doubtless 
the deepest dissembler on earth." 



"Lesley would sometimes merrily say, he 
had learned no High Dutch but one proverb : — 
' Ein bernhertziker soldat ist ein honsfoot,' fore 
Godt.' — A merciful soldier is a rogue in God's 
repute." — Sir, P. Warwick's Memoirs, p. 108. 



Strafford {Letters, vol. 1, p. 495) thanks the 
king (1635) "for his favour to Sir John Ho- 
tham : indeed the gentleman is of very good af- 
fections, and will, I am persuaded, shew himself 
very forward in such services as may be required 
at his hands." 



Coke to Stra(Ti)rd (vol. 2, p. 80), "If more 
antiquities shall come to your hands, the send- 
ing of them to his majesty will be a very ac- 
ceptable service." 



16.37. The Earl of Rothes said to a Dutch- 
man, '■ Holland is a well-governed .state ; I hope 
to sec this country so governed ere it be lon^, for 
we will have no more kings but this : and if we 
were rid of this king, we would never have any 
other j and if he will not give us way in what we 
expect, we will make our own way." — Straf- 
foed's Letters, vol. 2, p. 274. 



counsel from you, his head is so full of islands 
and plantations, to settle him. Sometimes he 
thinks of going against the Turk, to hinder him 
from joining with the Independents in England ; 
sometimes of going to sea, to discover the errors 
of Hackluyt's voyages." — Clarendon Papers, 
vol. 2, p. 292. 

One wonders such schemes were not carried 
into effect upon a large scale. But emigrants 
live always in hope. 



"In the town (ship) of Whickham, there is a 
stratum of burnt earth, consisting chiefly of clay 
and stone. According to tradition, the king's 
army encamped in the church lands below the 
church, and in the fields adjoining ; the Scots, 
under Le.sley, lay at Newburn ; and on their 
crossing the Tyne to attack the king's army, the 
latter fired their tents and fled : this fire commu- 
nicated with a small seam of coal, which burnt 
for several years, and at night flames issued from 
diflferent parts of the village and grounds adjoin- 
ing. The fire has been long extinguished, and 
the burnt earth and stones are used for the liio-h- 
way." — SuRTEEs' Durham, vol. 2, p. 239. 



Marchmont Needham published Mcrcurius 
Britannicus for the Parliament, beginning Au- 
gust 16-22, 1643. In 1647, he commenced 
Mercurius Pragmaticus for the King, and 1649, 
MeriHirius Politicus for Oliver ; journalists hav- 
ing in that age about as much probity as in this : 

— " Whose scurrilous paraphletts, flying every 
week in all parts of the nation, 'tis incredible 
what influence they had upon numbers of uncon- 
sidering persons, who have a strange presump- 
tion, that all must needs be true that is in print. 
This was the Goliah of the Philistines, the great 
champion of the late usurper, whoso pen was, in 
comparison of others, like a weaver's beam." — 
British Bibliographer, vol. 1, p. 514. 



"Hyde to Lord Cottington, 1646. 

" Your pupil. Lord Hopton, wants some good 



• Now obsolete. See Wackter's GloBsarium in v. UoNi 
anuumelia, opprobrium. J. W. W. 



" GMNSBORourxH. 30th July, 1643. 

" Lord Willoughby, of Parham, had taken thb 
town after a desperate assault, made prisoners 
there the Earl of Kingston, Sir Gervais Scroop, 
several other gentlemen and officers, and about 
two hundred and fifty common soldiers, and re- 
leased about two hundred prisoners, many of 
them belonging to Lord Fairfax. The Earl's 
house held out a day after the town was taken, 
and store of treasure was found in it. The Earl 
was sent in a pinnace to Hull, because the King's 
troops were drawing from Newark and other 
places to recover the town ; but some of these 
troops espying the pinnace, drew u|) some mus- 
queteers to the Tre'nt side, and firing at her un- 
happily killed the Earl and his man Savile in 
their cabin." — See Mrs. Hutchinson concerning 
this. 

" Colonel Cromwell then drew toward Gains- 
borough to secure it. After taking Burley House, 
ho marched to Grantham, where he met about 



112 



RUSHWORTIl. 



three hundred horse and dragooners of Notting- 
ham, and proceeding with them, formed a junc- 
tion, as had been concerted with the Lincolneers 
at North Searlc. At two in the morning they 
advanced toward Gainsborough, which was ten 
luiles distant, and some mile and half from the 
town fell in with a forlorn hope of the enemy, 
some one hundred horse in number. ' Our dra- 
gooners laboured to beat them back, but not alight- 
ing of their horses, the enemy charged them, and 
made them retire unto their main body. Crom- 
well advanced, and came to the bottom of a steep 
hill.' ' We could not,' he says, ' well get up but 
by some tracts, which our men essaying to do, 
the body of the enemy endeavoured to hinder, 
wherein we prevailed, and got the top of the hill. 
Thi.^ was done b\' the Lincolneers, who had the 
vanguard. When we all recovered the top of 
the hill, we saw a great body of the enemy's 
horse facing of us, at about a musket-shot or 
less distance, and a good reserve of a full regi- 
ment of horse behind it.' The King's troops 
advanced to take them at disadvantage, ' but in 
such order as we were,' says Cromwell, 'we 
charged their great body. I having the right 
wing, we came up horse to horse, where we dis- 
puted it with our swords and pistols a pretty 
time, all keeping close order, so that one could 
not track the other; at last they a little shrink- 
ing, our men perceiving it pressed in upon them, 
and immediately routed this whole bodv, some 
flying on one side, and others on the other, of 
the enemy's reserve ; and our men pursuing 
them, had chase and execution five or six miles.' 
Cromwell, seeing that the reserve was still un- 
broken, kept back Whaley, who was his major, 
from the chsisc, and with his own troops and the 
other of his regiment, three troops in all, got into 
a body. ' In this reserve stood General Caven- 
dish, who one while faced me, another while faced 
four of the Lincoln troops, which was all of ours 
that stood upon the place, the rest being engag- 
ed in the chase. At last General Cavendish 
charged the Lincolneers and routed them. Im- 
mediately 1 fell on his rear with my three troops, 
which did so astonish him, that he gave over the 
chase, and would fain have delivered himself 
from us. But I, pressing on. forced down a hill, 
having good execution of them, and below the 
hill drove the general with some of his soldiers 
into a quagmire, where my captain-lieutenant 
slew him, with a thrust under his short ribs. 
The rest of the body was wholly routed, not one 
man staying upon the place' 

" Cromwell having relieved the town with such 
powder and provision as he brought, thought to 
pursue his good fortime and fall upon a party of 
the King's troops, about a mile on the other side 
of the town, consisting of six troops of horse and 
three hundred foot. For this purpose he asked 
Lord Willoughby for four hundred foot, in addi- 
tion to his own horse, and marched toward them ; 
but fell in -with Newcastle's arm}-. Before he 
could call off his foot they were engaged, and 
were of course forced to retreat in disorder and 
with some loss, to the town, ' where now tbey 



I are. Our horse also came off with some trouble, 
being wearied with the long fight and their 
horses tired, yet faced the enemy's fresh horse, 
and by several removes got off, without the loss 
of one man. The honour of this retreat is doe 
to God, as also all the rest. Major Whaley did 
in this carry himself with all gallantry becoming 
a gentleman and a Christian. Thus have you 
this true relation as short as I could : what you 
are to do upon it is next to be considered. The 
Lord direct you what to do.' 

" This letter is addressed to the Committee 
for the Association, sitting at Cambridge, and 
Cromwell begins by saying, ' Gentlemen, it hath 
pleased the Lord to give your servant, and sol- 
diers, a notable victory now at Gainsborow." — 
RusHwoETH, 3 vol. 2, p. 278. 



"Oct., 1642. 

" Two demi-cannons used by Newcastle at the 
siege of Hull, thirty-six pounders, were called 
Gog and 3Iagog, and the Queen's pocket pistols. 
At the fight near Horncastle, 12th October, after 
the siege was raised, both parties had drawti out 
all their horse and dragoons from the adjacent 
garrisons. The King's army had seventy-four 
colours of horse, and twenty-one of dragoons. 
' Manchester had not above half so many colours, 
but as many men, for his troops were fuller. It 
was late before the foot could be drawn up. 
Manchester's horse and dragoons went on in sev- 
eral bodies singing of psalms. Quarter-master 
General Vermuden, with five troops, had the 
forlorn hope, and Colonel Cromwell the van, 
seconded by Sir T. Fairfax. The Roj'alist's 
word was, Newcastle ; that of the Parliamentary 
party. Truth and Peace. The dragoons gave 
the first charge, and then the horse fell in. Col- 
onel Cromwell charged with great resolution im- 
mediately after the dragoons of the other side 
had given him their first voile}' ; yet within half 
pistol shot they saluted him with a second charge. 
His horse was killed and fell down upon him, and 
as he rose he was knockt down asrain bv the gen- 
tleman that charged him, which was supposed 
to be Sir Ingram Hopton. But he got up, and 
recovered a new horse in a soldier's hand, and 
so mounted again. The van of the Royalists' 
horse, being driven back upon their own body, 
that was to second thom, put them into disorder ; 
and Manchester's troops, taking that advantage, 
charging all in with them, put them to the run ; 
leaving their dragoons (which were now on foot) 
behind him. And so, being totally routed, they 
had the pursuit, and did execution upon them 
for five miles together. The Earl of Manches- 
ter's foot hastened their march to come up to the 
engagement ; but the horse had done the work 
before they came : the number killed being com- 
puted to be about one thousand of the Royal 
party, and on his side very few slain, and none 
of note.' 

" The Parliamentary horse said by Sir Will- 
iam Widdrington to be very good and extraordi- 
narily armed." — Rushworth, 3 vol. 2, p. 282. 



WHITAKER—RU SH WORTH. 



11' 



*' In the old house of Denton, then the prop- 
erty of Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax, Prince Rupert 
lodged on his way from Lancashire to York, un- 
mediately before the battle of Marston Moor. 
There was then m the house a verj' fine portrait 
of John Fairfax, younger bi-other of the then 
lord, w-ho had been slain while defending Frank- 
endale in the Palatinate, 1621. With this paint- 
ing the Pi-ince was so much delighted that he 
forbade any spoil to be committetl upon the house ; 
an act of generosity more likely to be prompted 
bj' a fine work of art, than by resj^ect for the 
owner of Denton." — Whitaker, Loidis and El- 
mete^ p. 195. 

How is it that Whitaker has overlooked the 
real motive ? John Fairfax and his brother had 
fallen in the Elector Palatine's cause. 



Marston Moor. 

" Sunday, June 30. The besieger hearing to- 
wards evening of Prince Rupert's advance, and 
that his quarters would be at Knaresborough, or 
at Borough Bridge tliat night, thought it best to 
raise the siege, and give him battle with their 
whole strength. During the night therefore, and 
in the ensuing morning, they broke up from be- 
fore the town, removed all their artillery without 
loss, and took up a position four or five miles 
from York, upon a great moor S.W. of the river 
Ouse, called from the neighbouring villages some- 
times Hessam Moor, but more commonly Mars- 
ton. Then they drew up in battalia, expecting 
there to meet the Prince on his way to York. 
But Rupert ordered a party of his horse to face 
them, near a bridge, where their retreat was se- 
cure, quartered his foot and ordnance that night 
in the forest of Gortrey, within five miles of the 
city, and entered the city himself with about 
200 horse. 

" There he had a conference with Newcastle. 
The marquis entreated him not to give the ene- 
my battle, when he had every thing to gain by 
delay, and they every thing to lose. The Scots 
and English were upon sueh terms in the Par- 
liamentary army, that if their mutual ill-humour 
were allowed to work, he had good reason to be- 
lieve they would separate. But in two days he 
expected a powerful reinforcement, 3000 men 
under Colonel Clavering, from the North, and 
2000 more fi-om different garrisons. This advice 
must have prevailed if Prince Rnpert at that 
period of his fife had ever listened to reason. 
He declared that he had positive orders to fight, 
which, as in duty bound, he must obej-. Some 
of Newcastle's friends advised him not to engage, 
seeing the command was thus taken from him ; 
but that gallant nobleman replied, that happen 
what would, he would not shun the af;tion, ins 
only ambition being to live and die a loyal sub- 
ject to his Majesty. And when the army was 
drawn up he a.skcd Prince Rupert what service 
he would be pleased to command him. The 
Prince said he should begin no action till the 
morning, and desired him to repose till then. 
Newcastle accordingly went to rest in his own 
H 



coach, which was close by, in the field ; but he 
had not long been there before the firing becan. 

'■ The Parliamentarians (it is Rushworth's 
word) finding that the city was reheved, quar- 
tered themselves that night at Long ]Marston, 
and the places near, but great part of their horse 
stayed all night upon the moor. Early the next 
day they marched toward Tadcaster, meaning to 
prevent Rupert from furnishing York with pro- 
visions out of the East Riding, and also to ob- 
struct his march southward. The Earl of Den- 
bigh, and the Lancashire forces were advancing 
from the West, whence he came. Before they 
could reach the town, they heard that the Prince 
was pressing close upon their rear, on the moor 
near Marston, appearing resolved to fight them. 
Hereupon their foot and carriages were ordered 
back with all speed, some of them being advanced 
four or five miles. The Prince had jjossessed 
himself of so much of the moor that not being 
able to form there, they drew up their men on a 
large field of rye. This Rupert endeavoured to 
prevent, because it w^as an advantageous position, 
being on a rising ground, but the party which he 
sent was beat back. Their pioneers now made 
way to get ground, whereon to extend the wings 
of their army, and at last their army fronted to 
the moor from Marston to Topwith, being a mile 
and half in length. ' The Prince having part of 
his foot beyond Owse was as late as they before 
he had fully drawn up ; but between two and three 
o'clock both armies were pretty well formed.' 

" Rupert had in the field, including the forces 
drawn out of the cit}', about 14,000 foot, and 
9,000 horse, and about 25 pieces of cannon. He 
led the right wing of the horse (which had in it 
twelve divisions, consisting of 100 troops, and 
might be 5,000 men). Sir Charles Lucas and 
Colonel Hun-y commanded the left wing of the 
horse. Whether Goring, Porter, Tyherd, or all 
of them commanded the main body, Rushworth 
could not learn. 

" ' On the other side, the thrae conjoined ar- 
mies (by reason of the parties they had sent forth 
[as into Lancashire, under Sir John Meldrum, 
&c.] which were not yet I'cturned, and the men 
they had lost in this tedious siege), were so much 
reduced, that they did not exceed the Prince's in 
numter ; but in that respect both armies seemed 
pretty equal.' Sir Thomas Fairfax commanded 
the right wing of horse, consisting of 80 troops, 
being his own and part of the Scotch horse. 
Next in the main battalia was the Lord Fairfax, 
commanding the foot towards the right wi?)g, 
consisting of all his own infantry, and two brig- 
ades of Scots for a reserve. And towards tlic 
left General Leven, with the rest of the Scottish 
foot, and two brigaJdes of the Earl of Manches- 
ter's, with six regiments of Scots, and one of 
Manchester's brigades for a reserve. The left 
wing of the horse was commanded by Manches- 
ter, and his Lieutenant General, Cromwell, con- 
sisting of the Earl's whole cavalry, and three 
regiments of the Scottish horse under Lesley, in 
all about 70 troops. The Prince's army extend- 
ed in the front somewhat farther than theirs, and 



114 



RUSH WORTH. 



therefore on their left, to secure the flank, the 
Scottish dragoons were placed, under Colonel 
Frizcl. 

'• The Ficld-u-ord given by the Prince was God 
and the King ; by the other party, God vsnth Us. 
" About thi-ec the great ordnance on both 
sides began to play, with little effect. About 
live there was a general silence on each side, 
expecting who should begin the charge, 'for 
that there was a small ditch and a bank between 
the two armies (though they had drawn up their 
winixs within musquet shot), which either side 
mast pass if they would charge the other, which 
would be a disadvantage, and apt to disorder 
them that should first attempt it. In this pos- 
ture they continued a considerable time, so that 
on each side it was believed there would be no 
action that night. But about seven in the even- 
ing the Parliament's Generals resolved to fall 
on, and then the signal being given, the Earl of 
Manchester's foot, and the Scots of the main 
body advanced in a running march, soon made 
their way over the ditch, and gave a smart 
ciiarge.' 

" ' The front divisions of horse mutually charg- 
ed. Prince Rupert in person charging Crom- 
well's division of 300 horse. Cromwell was 
very hard put to it, being charged by Prince 
Rupert's bravest men, both in front and flank,' 
and they ' stood at sword's point a pretty while, 
hacking one another.' At last Cromwell broke 
through, and at the same time the rest of his 
horse of that wing, and Lesley's regiments (who 
behaved very well) had wholly broken all that 
right wing of the Prince, and were in chase of 
them beyond their left wing, and JManchester's 
foot on the ri<Tht hand of these went on by their 
side, almost as fast as they, dispersing and cut- 
ting down his foot. Newcastle's regiment of 
White Coats were almost wholly cut ofl'; for 
they scorned to fly, and were slain in rank and 
file, and the rest of that part of their army which 
escaped killing,, or being taken prisoners, fled in 
confusion towards York. 

" But Hurry with the Prince's left wing de- 
feated the Parliament's right ; ' for though Sir 
T. Fairfax, with Colonel Lambert, and 5 or 6 
troops, charged through them, and went to their 
own left wing, the rest of his troops were de- 
feated. Lord Fairfax's brigade was furiou.sly 
assaulted, and at the same time disordered by 
some of Sir T. Fairfax's new-raised regiments, 
who wheeled about, and being hotly ])ursued, 
fled back upon them and the reserve of Scottish 
foot, broke them wholly, and trod many of them 
under foot. So that their right wing, and part 
of their main body were routed, and fled several 
miles toward Tadcaster and Cawood, giving out 
that all was lost.' 

" The Royalists were pursuing, and just ready 
to seize all the carriages, when Cromwell with 
his horse and Manchester's foot came back from 
the chase ; both sides were now not a little sur- 
prised to sec they must fight it over again, for 
that victory which each thought they had al- 
ready gained. However the Royalists mai'ched 



with great resolution down the corn fields, the 
face of the battle being now exactly counter- 
changed ; for the King's forces .stood on the 
same ground, and with the same front that the 
Parliament's right wing before stood to receive 
their charge ; and the Parliament's forces in the 
same ground, and with the same front as the 
King's did when the fight began. 

" The battle thus renewed grew very despe- 
rate ; but after the utmost efforts of strength and 
courage on either side, the parliamentary forces 
before ten had cleared the field, recovered their 
own ordinance and carriages which were in so 
much danger, took all the Prince's train of artil- 
ler)', and followed the chase M'ith great slaugh- 
ter within a mile of York. 

" Sir Charles Lucas, Lieutenant General of 
Newcastle's horse. Major General Porter, Major 
General Tilyard, and the Lord Goring's son were 
taken, and near 100 other officers, 1500 common 
soldiers, 25 pieces of ordnance, 130 barrels of 
powder, several thousand arms, and, as was com- 
puted, about 100 colours, for which though there 
was a proclamation made to bring them in to the 
generals, yet the soldiers had already torn to piec- 
es most of them, delighting to wear the shreds 
in their hats. Some of them sent up to the Par- 
liament were 

" Prince Rupert's standard, with the arms of 
the palatine, near five yards long and broad, 
with a red cross in the middle. 

" A black coronet, with a black and yellow 
fringe, and a sword brandished from the clouds, 
with this motto, Tcrribilis ut acics oi-dinata. 

" A willow green, with the portiaiture of a 
man, holding in one hand a knot, in the other a 
sword, and this word, This shall untie it. An- 
other coloured with a face, and this motto, AiU 
mors, aut vita decora. 

" A yellow coronet, in its middle a lion couc'i- 
ant, and behind him a mastiff seeming to snatch 
at him, and in a lable from his mouth, written 
KiMBOLTON : at his feet little beagles, and be- 
fore their mouths written Pym, Pym, Pym, and 
out of the lion's mouth these words proceeding, 
Quousque tandem abutere patientia nostra. 

" The countrymen who were commanded to 
bury the dead, gave out that they interred 4150 
bodies. It was generally reported that at least 
3000 of the Prince's men were killed. The 
Parliament's party would not acknowledge in 
all their three armies above 300 slain. 

'"Cromwell, who was acknowledged by all to 
be a great agent in this victory, was wounded in 
the neck, but not dangerously. Fairfax being 
unhor.scd and flung on the ground, and woundcii 
in the head and face, was relieved and carried 
off by a party of his own horse. On the King's 
side abundance of gentlemen expressed wonder- 
ful courage, and charged with as much resolu- 
tion as could be expected from men : insomuch 
that it was then confidently reported Prince Ru- 
pert should say, ' I am sure my men fought well, 
and know no reason of our rout but this, that be- 
cause the devil did help his servants.' " — Rusji- 
woRTHj 3, vol. 2, p. 631. 



WARWICK— ESSEX— RUSHWORTH. 



115 



"Though the Marquis of Newcastle's foot 
stood like a wall, yet he (Oliver Cromwell) 
mowed them down like a meadow." — Sir P. 
Warwick. 



" At Cropedy Bridge, Waller lost five drakes, 
a minion, and several leather gmis of Weems's 
invention and making. Waller was a Scotch 
getjpral of the artillery, and was taken also." — 
RusHwoRTH, vol. 5, p. 676. 



Essex writes of his defeat in Cornwall, " It is 
the greatest blow that ever befell om- party." 
He complains that "never so many gallant and 
faithful men were so long exposed without suc- 
cour," and says " this is a business that shall not 
sleep, if it be in the power of your — Essex." 



" Fairfax marched to Gilsborough, four miles 
west of Northampton, and within five miles of 
Burrongh-hill, where his Majesty's army still 
continued, to whom a commanded party of horse 
gave an alarm. By some prisoners taken, he 
understood that his Alajesty was diverting him- 
self with hunting, the soldiers in no good order, 
and many of their horses at grass, having no 
thoughts of the so near advance of the Parlia- 
mentarians. Yet the alarm was so quickly tak- 
en through all their quarters, that Fairfax's foot 
being somewhat behind, and night approaching, 
he did not then think fit to venture any further 
attempt : but being rather apprehensive they 
might visit his quarters, mounted about twelve 
that night, and rode about the horse and foot 
guards till four in the morning, where an odd 
adventure happened. Having his thoughts oth- 
erwise busied, he hunself forgot the word, and 
was stopt at the first guard ; whereupon declar- 
ing who he was, and requiring the soldier that 
stood sentinel to give it to him, the fellow refus- 
ed, saying, he was to demand the word from all 
that past him, but to give it to none ; and if he 
advancjcd without it he would shoot hun. And 
so made the general stay in the wet, till he sent 
lor the captain of the guard to receive his com- 
mission to give the word. And in the end the 
soldier was rewarded for his duty and careful- 
ness." 



" Irkton made a soldierly and notable de- 
fence." — Sir p. Warwick. 

" In Sir Marmaduke Langdale's wing which 
Cromwell soon routed, there were some trivial 
but pernicious disputes betwixt him and the com- 
mander of (he Newark horse." — Ibid. 



(JTInb-mcn. 

"When Cromwell defeated about 4000 of 
them (1645) at Hambleton-hill, near Shrawton 



(which had been an old Roman work, deeply 
trenched), they 'shot briskly from the bank of 
the old work, and kept the narrow passage with 
musquets and other weapons. Dcsborough with 
the general's regunent, went round about the 
ledge of the hill, and made a hard shift to chmb 
up, and enter on their rear, which they no sooner 
discerned, but after a short dispute they ran ; 
many slid and tumbled down that steep hill with 
great hazard.' There were taken about twelve 
colours ; the motto of one of them was thus, ' If 
you offer to phmder our cattle, be assured we iviU 
bid you battle.^ " — Rusuworth, part 4, vol. 1, p. 
62. 



(Holoncl Iponcr — at Pembroke. 

" The man is certainly in two dispositions 
every day, in the morning sober and penitent, but 
in the afternoon drunk and full of plots. When 
he heareth news that pleaseth him, he puts forth 
bloody colours, and then he is for the King and 
Book of Common Prayer ; but if that wind turn, 
then he is for the oath and covenant, and then 
puts forth blue and white. He takes it very ill 
the King is in the Isle of Wight, and calls the 
general. King Thomas Fairfax, with other op- 
probrious language. He got a gentleman the 
other da}', and prest liim to tell him whether he 
was an Independent, or a Presbiter. The gen- 
tleman answered, neither, for he was a Protest- 
ant. Why so am I, quoth Poyer, therefore let 
us be merry. So in they went, and drunk so 
hard that neither was able to stir in four-and- 
twenty hours after. 

" Fairfax says ' I am nov/ preparing an arrow 
to send in a message unto his men, who I hope 
shortly will bring hun out bound, and as many 
more as have run unto him, since the first sum- 
mons.'"— Ibid., vol. 7, p. 1033-4. 



toales. 

May, 1648. "Most of the enemies have in 
their hats a blue and white riband, with this mot- 
to, ' we long to see our king.' The Countries 
are universally bent against the Parliament ; 
wherever forces come, they carry away their 
children, cattle, with what goods they can get, 
fiy into the woods, leaving their houses empty ; 
which how sad would it be to them, should we 
take the German way? Their smiths are all 
gone, their bellows cut by themselves before they 
went. If one would give forty shillings for a 
horse shoe, or a place to make it, it is not to be had. 
There is no possibility of ending this trouble, but 
by such a power, and such a way, as is lament- 
able to Ihiuk." — Ibid., p. 1098. 



QToIcljcstcr. 

" The other night they roasted a whole horse 
at one of their courts of guard ; the foot were very 
merry at it, but the troopers are discontented 
for the loss of their horses, not knowing how to 
get others ; nor well liking the service of rao-wnng 



116 



THORESBY— STRAFFORD— NICHOLS— CARTE. 



with their new devised long sithes, which weap- 
ons are put into the hands otsuch as were troop- 
ers/'— Ibid., vol. 7, p. 1204. 



In a house called the Red Hall, at Leeds,* be- 
cause the first that was built of brick (1628), by 
Thomas IMedcalf, alderman of the city, is an 
apartment called the King's Chamber, where 
Charles is said to have lodged: "probably," 
says a note in Whitaker's edition of Thoresby 
(p. 25), " while in the hands of the Scots and on 
his way from Newark to Newcastle, a maid serv- 
ant entreated him to put on her clothes and es- 
cape, offering to conduct him in the dark out of 
the garden door into a back alley called Land's 
Lane, and thence to a friend's house, from whence 
he might make his way to France. The King 
declined this, but gave her a token (the garter 
says the story) by which his son might reward 
her good will, if it should never be in his own 
power. She married a man who was an Under 
Bailiff, and Charles 11. in consequence made him 
Chief Bailiff in Yorkshire, and he afterwards built 
Crosby House in the Head Row." 



" When I was at Marston, alias Hutton Wands- 
ley," says Thoresby, "Mr. Corlas, the Rector, 
shewed me the door that Bishop Moreton had 
caused to be made out of his chamber, 1602, 
when the great plague being at York, that ex- 
cellent prelate (then minister there) exercised 
the most heroical charity to the poorer part of 
the infected, who being turned out of the city 
had booths erected for them on Hob-Moor, 
whither he went to pray with and for them, and 
to make him the more acceptable, he usually 
carried a sack of provisions with him. But be- 
cause none should run any hazard thereby but 
himself, he would not suffer any servant to at- 
tend him, but went from his study through this 
door to the stables, where he was his own groom." 
— Appendix, p. 148. 



Dr. Ricii.ard March, Vicar of Halifax. " The 
soldiers coming into the house in search of him, 
and supposing he might be hid in bed, stabbed 
their swords into it, where his wife was laid, and 
so frighted and wounded her, that it threw her 
into labour and she expired almost as soon as de- 
livered. The doctor fled, and a maid .servant 
made her escape with the child in the night, with 
nothing but her shift on, carrying it in that con- 
dition fourteen miles in the dark, to a relation of 
the doctor's." — History of Halifax, p. 489. 



Msl)cr. 

Strafford to Laud, 1634. "I am clear of 
your lordship's opinion, it were fit the Canons of 
England were received here as well as the Ar- 
ticles ; but the primate is hugely against it. The 
business is merely point of honour (or, as Sir 
' See supra ; Ist series, p. 372. J. \V. W. 



Thomas Cogne.sby would have expressed it, 
matter of punctilio), lest Ireland might become 
subject to the Chmch of England, a.s the prov- 
ince of York is to that of Canterbury. Needs, 
forsooth, we must be a Church of ourselves, which 
is utterly lost unless the Canons here differ, albeit 
not in substance, yet in some form from yours in 
England ; and thLs ci"otchet put the good man into 
such an agony, as you cannot believe so learned 
a man should be troubled withal. But I quieted 
hun by approving his wniting to your lordship, 
and assuring him I should repose myself in what- 
ever was assented by your grace ; to whose wis- 
dom indeed I wholly submit myself, being very 
ready to do therein as I shall receive directions 
from you. The truth is, I conceive, there are 
some Puritan correspondents of his, that infuse 
these necessities into his head, besides a popular 
disposition which inclines him to a desire of pleas- 
ing all, the sure way I think never to please a 
man's self. You will amongst the rest find a rare 
canon against the word salve, which I take to be 
a speculation far-fetched and dear bought."— 
Strafford's Letters, vol. 1, p. 381. See p. 145. 



Strafforb. 

Grotiu s says of Strafford " that his letter' to 
the King, and his expressions when about to 
suffer death, are strong presumptions of great 
virtue." — Nichols, Cah., p. 289. 

Evelyn says, " I beheld on Tower Hill the 
fatal stroke which severed the wisest head in 
England from the shoulders of the Earl of Straf- 
ford, whose crime coming under the cognizance 
of no himian law, a new one was made, not to 
be a precedent, but his destruction. To such 
exorbitancy w"ere things arrived." 

The mayor of Kilkenny, in an address deliv- 
ered to Wentworth, 1636, eulogized him for "so 
many wholesome laws and statutes voted in the 
last parliament ; so many provisions of state, reg- 
ulating the disorders of human society, daily is- 
suing from your Solomon-like prescience ; in 
which and by which we, in this your garden of 
Ireland, smell the gracious flowers of your gov- 
ernment, enjoy the felicity of your plantations, 
and feed our hearts with the satiety of present 
and hope of future improvement, so that no place, 
no degree, no sex over all this pleasant paradise, 
but is partaker of your comfortable influence. 
Even those choked up in the midst of the dark- 
est prisons acknowledge the sunshine of your 
provident care, and receiving new life and relief 
from your hands, cry out, Long live our life, our 
relief, noble Wentworth." — Collect. Hib., vol. 2. 
p. 413. 



"Whatever affection he had for power, he 
ha(^very little of self-interest in hmi." — Carte's 
Ormonde, vol. 1, p. 56. 



' That letter was a forgery. — Cabte's Ormonde, vol, I, 

p. Ki8. 



NALSON—DIGBY— WARWICK— SOUTH— STRAFFORD. 



117 



" If he could be said to lean on any side, it 
was in favour of the poor." — Ibid., p. 86. 



"They," sa3's Nalson (vol. 2, p. 1), "who 
will pull dovsm the throne of Solomon, always 
first endeavour to remove and destroy the lions 
that support it."^ 

" When he was made lord lieutenant of Ire- 
land, he, by Laud's assistance, procured from his 
Majesty the restoring of all the impropriations 
which in that nation were then in the crown to 
the bishops and clergy ; thereby rescuing the 
chui-chmen from those disadvantages which con- 
tempt and poverty in these declining ages of re- 
ligion had reduced them to; and by proposing 
rewards to merit, virtue, learning and piety, en- 
couraged men of parts to dedicate themselves to 
those nobler studies, that, contenting themselves 
with those competent provisions, they might be 
enabled to resist the temptations of applying 
themselves to the more gainful arts of secular 
professions." — Nalson, vol. 2, p. 4. 

Digby's speech upon the attainder. — Ibid., 
p. 157, 864-5. 

Charles said to Dr. Sheldon (afterwards arch- 
bishop), "that if ever he was in a condition to 
perform his vows, it was his intention to do pub- 
lic penance for the injustice he had suffered to 
be done to Strafford." — Ibid., p. 194. 



His death. — Ibid., p. 198—9. Poems upon him, 
p. 204. 



State of the army under hira in Ireland. — 
ibid., vol. 2, p. 537. 



" His memory was great, and he made it 
greater by confiding in it." — Sir P. War- 
wick. 



" He gave an early specimen of the rough- 
ness of his nature when in the eager pursuit of 
the House of Commons after the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, he advised or gave a counsel against an- 
other, which was afterwards taken up and pur- 
sued against himself. Thus pressing upon an- 
other man's case, he awakened his owti fate. 
For when that house was in consultation how to 
frame the particular charge against that great 
duke, he advised to make a general one, and to 
accuse him of treason, and to let him afterwards 
get off as he could, which befell himself at last." 
—Ibid., p. 111. 



1 " Let judges also remember, that Solomon's throne 
was supported by lions on both sidos ; let them be lions, 
but yet Uons under the throne ; being circumspect, that 
they do not check or oppose any points of sovereignty." 
— Bacon's Essays. Of Judicature. J. W. W. 



His good management of Ireland. — lb., p. 1 15. 



" Richelieu, hearing of his death, said, the 
English nation were so foolish that they would 
not let the wisest head among them stand upon 
its own shoulders." — Ibid., p. 162. 



Brutality at his execution. — Ibid., p. 163. 



Juxon's advice to Charles. — South, vol. 4, 
p. 26. 



In a letter to Sir John Jackson, 1624, he says, 
" being, I must confess, in my own nature a great 
lover and converser of hereditary good wills, such 
as have been amongst our nearest friends ; and 
therefore I desire that as they live still in us 
otherwise, so they may too in their affections." 
— Strafford's Letters, vol. 1, p. 25. 



" Believe me, I keep a narrower watch over 
myself than any of them can do, and I trust God 
shall so assist me with his grace, that where 
they think to surprize me, shame shall fall upon 
themselves. I much value not what men say, 
govern myself, am persuaded as little by opinion 
as most men : yet I could be content that dogs 
should rather fawn than snarl upon me ; and 
sometimes to hear from a faithful wise friend, 
what judgement others have of me ; for so I may 
come to hear of my errors, which I should be 
sure to amend with all possible speed and care." 
To Lord Cottington. — Strafford's Letters, vol. 
1, p. 163. 



" I AM happy to live in the noble memory of 
my lady ; it is her ladyship's great goodness to 
have it so, else this bent and ill-favoured brow of 
mine was never prosperous in the favour of la- 
dies. Yet did they know how perfectly I do 
honour, and how much I value that excellent 
and gracious sex, I am persuaded I should be- 
come a favourite amongst them. Tush, my lord, 
tush, there are few of them know how gentle a 
Garfon I am." To the Earl of Exeter. — Ibid., 
vol. 1, p. 179. 



1633. He writes from Ireland to the King, 
that " the yearly payments in that country alone 
(without the debt) arc impossible by any other 
ordinary way to be in time supplied, but by the 
subject in Parliament : and to pass to the extra- 
ordinary, before there be at least an attempt first 
to cflbct it with ease, were to love dillicultics too 
well, — rather voluntary to seek them, than un- 
willingly to meet them, and might seem as well 
vanity in the first respect so to alFcct them, as 
faintlcss to bow under them when they are not 
to be avoided." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 183. 



118 



STRAFFORD. 



The Earl of Exeter says to him, " My lord. 
I could be angry with you, were you not so far 
off, for wronging of your bent brow, as j'ou term 
it in your letter : for you had been curst with a 
meek brow and an arch of white hair upon it, 
never to have governed Ireland nor Yorkshire so 
well as you do, where your lawful commands 
have frotten you an exact obedience. Content 
yourself with that brave commanding part of 
your face which sheweth gravity without dul- 
ness, severity without cruelty, clemency without 
easiness, and love without extravagancy; and if 
it should be any impeachment unto your favour 
\nt\i that sex which you so much honour, you 
should be no loser; for they that have known 
them so long as I have done, have found them 
nothing less than diabolos blancos.'' — Ibid., vol. 
1, p. 241. 



— " ]My opinion hath ever been, that honour- 
able and just redemptions of the subject from 
oppression and wrong, should be the immediate 
acts of sovereignty, indeed the proper charge 
and office of kings to provide for, mthout inter- 
position of any parliament, or other bod}', be- 
twixt their light and the eyes of their people : 
who discerning whence those blessings are com- 
municated, may be justly moved to praise and 
magnify them for their goodness and protection.'' 
— Ibid."^, vol. 1, p. 245/ 



Str.\fford recommends to the King a con- 
sfant rule that nothing imposed by way of fine 
upon delinquents should come into any other 
purse than his o^ti exchequer. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 
249. 



Speakixg of the Bishop of Durham's vexing 
the Catholieks for clandestine marriages, &c., 
after they had compounded for their recusancy, 
Strafford says (a. d. 1634), "But yet did I 
never know Puritans capable of this Christian 
wisdom, as I take it to be, to choose fit times 
and opportunities : their zeal ever eating up all 
human judgement and providence with a Deus 
providebit, or some such misapplied text of holy 
writ. I beseech your lordship he may be leaint 
a little to believe his majesty and his ministers, 
and how to carry himself in these civil matters ; 
for it is too much he .should exercise sovereignty 
over us both in and forth of the pulpit. Neither 
hath his Majesty these under instruments in right 
tune, till he hath made them and taught them to 
dance his measure, rather than one invented after 
their own fancy." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 268. 



1634. To Lord Cottington. — "By my tnith, 
my lord, in good earnest, I grow extremel}^ old, 
and full of gray hairs, since I came into this 
kingdom, and should wax exceeding melan- 
choly were jt not for two little girls that come 
now and then to play by me. Remember, I tell 



you I am of no long life, and then shall you lose 
the faithfullest of all your lordship's most humble 
and most affectionate servants." — Ibid., vol. 1, 
p. 294. 



1634. "I HEAR the Spanish resident is very 
angry, I am sorry for it. Would to God our 
master could hit it with that crown ! for un- 
doubtedly, in my poor judgement, the common 
and public interests of these kings and their 
people stand best together of any other two na- 
tions in Christendom." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 299. 



"Far be it from me, ra}' lord," he says to 
Laud, " ever to take a difference in opinion of- 
fensively from the meanest of my friends, much 
less sure from your grace, whom I protest upon 
my faith, I reverence more than I do any other 
subject in the whole world, and to whose judge- 
ment I shall sooner lean and trust myself than 
my own ; so as if you be not free with me in 
that kind, upon all occasions, you proceed not 
with me as with your son, and take from me the 
glory of that obedience I have set apart for j'ou 
as my ghostly father." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 299. 



" You mention my garden at Woodhouse," he 
says to Sir Ed. Stanhope, "and I thank you for 
the visit. And as prosperous as you conceive 
his Majesty's affairs go here (and indeed unpros- 
perous, I praise God, they have not been hither- 
to) yet could I possess myself with more satis- 
faction and repose lender that roof, than with all 
the preferment and power a crown can commu- 
nicate with her grace and favour. My mind 
works fast towards a quiet, and to be discharged 
of the care and impoi-tunity of affairs, which, God 
knows, force me against my wiU from many ol' 
those more excellent duties I owe his goodness 
and blessings. Nor can I judge any men so en- 
tirely and innocently happy as those that have 
no necessity of business upon them, but such a.s 
they may take or leave as they please, without 
being accountable for any neglect or success to 
others." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 303. 



Writing to Laud, 1634, upon the affairs of 
the Irish church, he says, "it is very true that 
for all the primate's silence, it ^fas not possible 
but he knew how near they were to have brought 
in those articles of Ireland, to the infinite disturb- 
ance and scandal of the church, as I conceive: 
and certainly could have been content I had been 
surprized. But he is so learned a prelate, and 
so good a man, as I do beseech your grace it 
may never be imputed unto him. Howbeit 1 
will always write your lordship the truth, whom- 
soever it concerns." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 343. 



— "I AM not ignorant that my stirring herein 
will be strangely reported and censured on that 



STRAFFORD. 



119 



side ; and how I shall be able to sustain myself 
against your Prynne's, Pirn's and Ben's {? Rud- 
yard?) with the rest of that generation of odd 
names and natures, the Lord knows." — Ibid. 



— " Without offence to Mr. Jones, or pride 
in myself, be it spoken, I take myself to be 
a very pretty architect too." — Ibid., vol. 1, 
p. 348. 



1634. "I FIND well enough I am upon the 
disadvantage ground, where I am like still to be 
troublesome to my friends, and seldom in place 
and season to speak either for myself or for them, 
which, in good faith, I should the more freely do 
of the two. I spend more here than I have of en- 
tertainment from his Majesty ; I suffer extremely 
in ray own private at home; I spend my body 
and spirits with extreme toil; I sometimes un- 
dergo the misconstructions of those I conceived 
should not, would not have used me so, in such 
a measure (I know well what I write), as I vow 
to you, I would absolutely leave all, but that I 
have the comfort and assurance of my master to 
be with him accepted, however I be with others. 
God reward that goodness towards this absent 
servant of his, and make me able to serve him 
answerable to those sovereign duties I owe him." 
—Ibid., vol. 1, p. 354. 



Concerning the admission of the English Ar- 
ticles in Ireland, he asks for a letter from the 
King, " that so if a company of Puritans in En- 
gland ma}' chance in Parliament to have a month's 
mind a man's ears should be horns, I might be 
able to shew his Majesty at least approved of 
the proceedings. There is not any thing that 
hath passed since my coming to the government 
I am liker to hear of than this ; and therefore I 
would fence myself as strongly as I could against 
the mousetraps and other the smaller engines of 
Mr. Prynne and his associates." — Ibid., vol. 1, 
p. 381. 



1635. To his brother. Sir George W.— "If 
my Lord Treasurer (Weston) be dead, and that 
j'ou hear me by any nominated to succeed him, 
I pray you make answer, that upon some former 
rumours of tlie like heretofore, you have heard 
me in private seriously profess it was the place 
in the whole world the most unfit for me : and 
that I desire it should be so understood by all 
that love me. For, you are sure, that I neither 
follow the service of the crown with so indiscreet 
affections, or so far neglect the moderate care 
of my own contentment and subsistence, as (be- 
ing a person in my own opinion so uncapable) to 
accept an employment so much to the disservice 
of my master, or my own ruin. And therefore 
intreat all my friends that speak of it, to silence 
it as much as may be, as a thing not to be enter- 
tained by me." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 391. 



1635. To the Earl of Newcastle.—" If I had 
any design upon it, I confess your lordship's 
counsel for my repair to court is very sound, and 
I humbly thank j^ou for it ; it being indeed very 
much which a man's own presence moves in those 
cases. But judging the place imfit for me, and 
I for it, my purpose is to take a clean contrary 
way : for I will be so far from hastening thither, 
as I will delay all writing to court as long as I 
possibly can, that so, till the place be again set- 
tled, I may be in a land where all things are for- 
gotten. There shall I trust to enjoy my own 
quiet more to my contentment, and that (as yom- 
lordship observes most judiciously) so great a 
place and high employment will never .stoop to 
him that neither looks after it, nor regards it." 
—Ibid., vol. 1, p. 411. 



" Believe me, I have no ambition, nay no in- 
clination to that place ; for it is most certain I 
have an inward and obstinate aversion from it. 
I do not serve the king out of the ordinary ends 
that the servants of great princes attend them 
with. Great wealth I covet not : greater pow- 
ers than are already entrusted with me by my 
master I do not desire : I wish, much rather, 
abilities to discharge these I have, as becomes 
me, than any of those I have not. Again, I serve 
not for reward, having received much more than 
I shall ever be able to deserve. Besides there 
should, and I trust in God thei'e shall be, a time 
for me in stillness and repose to consider myself, 
and those other more excellent and needful duties 
than these momentary trifles below, which the 
Treasurer's place admits not, at least to my sat- 
isfaction ; for this is most certain, that a Treas- 
urer must die so, or be dishonoured, if not alto- 
gether ruined. And to be tied to the importunity 
of affairs all my life, in good faith all the prefer- 
ments, and what else soever men most esteem in 
this world, shall, I trust, never so far lay asleep 
or infatuate, the sense I ought to have of that, 
much better which remains after this life." — 
Ibid., vol. 1, p. 420. 



To Lord Cottington, 1635. — " 'Tis true I am 
in a thing they call a progress, but yet in no 
great pleasure for all that. All the comfort I 
have is a little Bonney clabber ; upon my faith, I 
am of opinion it would like you above measure ; 
would you had your belly full of it ; I will war- 
rant you you .should not repent it ; it is the brav- 
est, freshest drink you ever tasted. Your Span- 
ish Don would, in the heats of IMadrid, hang hLs 
nose and shake his beard an hour over every sup 
he took of it, and take it to be the drink of the 
gods all the while." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 441. 



1635. Latju writes concerning the Earl 
^2j|^e — " I find his majesty very careful that the 
church should have all her own restored to her, 
and that the Earl be fined answerable to that 
which upon publication his cause shall merit ; 



v^- 



120 



STRAFFORD. 



and that the orderin;^ of this shall be by your 
Lordship, and your experience upon the place 
and of the fact. All that I can perceive is earn- 
estly desired is the declining of a public sentence, 
and savinw of the Earl, ibr his place and alliance' 
sake, from the stain which a sentence would 
leave upon record, both on himself and his pos- 
teritv, which, when you have taken into serious 
consideration, I leave to your wisdom. 

" My Lord. I am the bolder to write this last 
line to you upon a late accident which I have 
very casuallj^ discovered in Court. I find that 
notwithstanding all your great services in Ire- 
land, which are most graciously accepted by the 
King, j-ou want not them which whisper, and 
perhaps speak louder where they think they may, 
again.st your proceedings in Ireland, as being 
overfull of personal prosecutions against men of 
quality, and they stick not to instance ui St. Al- 
bans, the Lord Wilmot, and this Earl. And this 
is somewhat loudly spoken by some on the Queen's 
side. And although I know a great part of this 
proceeds from your wise and noble proceedings 
against the Romish party in that kingdom, j^et 
that shall never be made the cause in public, but 
advantages taken (such as they can) from these 
and the like particulars to blast you and your 
honour, if they be able to do it. I know you 
have a great deal more resolution in you tlian to 
decline any service due to the king. State or 
Church, for the barking of discontented persons ; 
and God forbid but you should. And yet my 
Lord, if you could find a way to do all these 
great sen-ices and dechne these storms, I think 
it would be excellent well thought on. I heart- 
ily pray your Lordship to pardon me this fre<^- 
Jom, which I brought with me into vour friend- 
ship, and which (though sometimes to my own 
hurt) I have used with all the friends I have." — 
Ibid., vol. 1, p. 480. 



find, they were not ill-pleased to see me. Sure 
I am it much contented me to be amongst ray 
old acquaintance, which I would not leave for 
any other afiection I have, but to that which I 
both profess and owe to the person of his sacred 
JMaje.sty. Lord ! with what quietness in myself 
could I live here in comparison of that noise and 
labour I meet with elsewhere ; and I protest put 
up more crowns in my purse at the year's end, 
too. But we'll let that pass, for I am not like to 
enjoy that blessed condition upon earth. And 
therefore my resolution is set to endure and strug- 
gle with it so long as this crazy body will bear 
it ; and finally drop into the silent grave, where 
both all these (which I now could, as I think, in- 
nocently delight myself in) and myself are to be 
forgotten ; and fare them well. I persuade my- 
self, exuto Lepido, I am able to lay them down 
very quietly, and yet leave behind me, a.s a truth 
not to be forgotten, a perfect and full remem- 
brance of my being your Grace's most humbly 
to be commanded." Wentworth. — Ibid., vol. 
2, p. 26. 



There were some near the King, and so 
Strafford tells hun, who publicly professed 
his ruin. — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 33. 



" As for wit or importunity," says "Went- 
woRTH, " in the former I did never affect other 
than a single plainness ; nor is my nature possi- 
blv to be hardened into the latter." — Ibid., vol. 
2,"'p. 33. 



JrsTiFicATio>; of his apparent rigour. — Ibid., 
vol. 2, p. 20. 



He represented to the King that " the Lon- 
doners were la\-ing out great sums upon the 
plantation, and that it were not only very strict 
in their case, but would discourage all other 
plantations, if the uttermost advantage were taken. 
Besides, it was very considerable the too much 
discouraging of the City, which in a time thus 
conditioned (1636), and when thev were to be 
called upon still for those great payments towards 
the shipping business, might produce sad effects ; 
whereas, in my poor judgement, they were rather 
to be as tenderly, as possibly might be, dealt unth, 
if not favoured, and kept In lile and spirit." — 
Ibid., vol. 2, p. 25. 



He says to the King, " Out of the truth of my 
heart, and with that liberty your Majesty is 
pleased to afford me, admit me to say, Reward, 
well applied, advantages the services of kings 
extremely much ; it being most certain that not 
one man of very many serve their masters for 
love, but for their own ends and preferments, and 
that he is in the rank of the best servants that can 
be content to serve liis master together with him- 
self.''— Ibid., vol. 2, p. 41. 



V 



Writing from Gawthorp, 1636, he say^ t^ 
Laud, " I am gotten hither to a poor house I 
have, having been this last week almost feasted 
to death at York. In truth, for anything I can 



Upon the appearance of a breach with Spain, 
Wentworth says, '" The servant his Majesty 
employs here shall be sure to have his hands full ; 
and if we prosper not in our designs upon the 
House of Austria- there is reason for him to be- 
lieve he may happen to suffer through the mis- 
fortune as soon, and as deeply, as any other min- 
ister of his Majesty's, howbeit he had no part at 
all in the counsels ■, therefore, as well for our 
own indemnity as your glory, you may be sure 
of our prayers.'' — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 54. 



'"If once the season come to that part, Lord 
deliver me from seeking an alms from the hands 
of a Puritan ! It is a seneration of men more 
apt to begin bitsiness than obstinately to pursue 



STRAFFORD. 



121 



and perfect it ; and the part they delight most 
in is to discoui-se rather than suffer." — Ibid., 
vol. 2, p. 54. 

This is said with reference to the Palatinate. 



1637- The paper upon the policy of going to 
war with Austria on the Palatine's quarrel, con- 
tains plain indications of a design to render the 
Crown independent of Parliament. — Ibid., vol. 
2, p, 60-2. 



A STRONG passage -addressed to Laud, against 
the desired war for the Palatinate, and the de- 
signs of those who were urging the King to it, — 
with a clear sense of his own danger. — Ibid., vol. 
2, p. 66. 

This is one of the most considerable passages 
in the Letters. 



Fairfax's son left under Strafford's care 
by his grandfather. d£l200 appomted for his 
education. — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 70. 



" Perchanci: some in my case would bemoan 
himself, thus still to have the negative singly and 
severely put upon hun by your ministers on that 
side, by that means to find every hand lift up, 
and hear every mouth opened wide in his con- 
trary. But in truth this moves me very small ; 
and such are the purposes I have assumed in 
your service, and so much more earnestly do I 
seek after it, than after myself, as I am able to 
bear this and much more with ease and content- 
ment." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 83. 



" Now howbeit my Lords the then Justices, 
and with them this whole Council, infomied his 
Majesty before my coming into this kingdom, it 
was impossible to improve his revenues here, 
.<;ave only by imposing 12d. a Sunday on the re- 
cusants, yet all these particulars, leaving that 
penal duty untouched, make up the increase of 
ihree-score and ten thousand pounds by year, 
whereof the better half is already actually set- 
tled."— Ibid., vol. 2, p. 91. 



AccoTTNT oQais means, and vindication of his 
expenditure, addressed to Land, in answer to 
those who were maligning him at Court — Ibid., 
vol. 2, p. 105-6-7. 

This letter is of great importance in the view 
it opens of his spirit and temper. 



To Laud, 1638. "Good and faithful a.ssist- 
ance in truth I have here at the Committee of 
Revenue, but this goes no further than the pri- 
vate ; for as for the public envy and malice con- 
tracted in the execution, from persons pretend- 
ing and interested, that I must take to myself — 



tread that thorny path alone. God help me and 
sustain me, for assuredly it begins to press and 
pinch me shrewdly. This testimonj- 1 must ever 
give, that his Majesty is to acknowledge the best 
part of that great work of the plantations to the 
comfort and cheerfulness you have ever given 
me in the undertaking and prosecution of it. By 
my troth, I had otherwise long since sunk under 
the burthen, so much it is against my nature and 
disposition continually to dwell upon contesta- 
tion in a manner with all men, where nothing is 
.sought by me but quietness, silently and peace- 
ably to pass over this life. I call the Heavenly 
Power to witness, no other respect but the serv- 
ice of God and his Majesty should longer oblige 
me unto it." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 157. 



To Laud. "I still beseech you be pleased to 
settle a peace, if possibly it may be, in the house 
of my late Lord of Clare, which I shall most 
humbly acknowledge, howbeit perchance this is 
more than either I or yourself shall have from 
any body else. But I owe so much to the mem- 
ory of the wife I had from them, that it gives me 
infinite contentment when I am able to further 
anythuig I think would have pleased her." — 
Ibid., vol. 2, p. 194. 



— " My Lord, I am not so blind but I am able 
to discern betwixt a proceeding of aflection per- 
sonally towards me, and a languishing puipose 
to hold me up by the chin, tcllcment q%ielleinent, 
for as long as I may be of use in these affairs. 
Nay, I discern you in one of these, and some- 
body else in the latter." — Ibid. 

— " It is alone your goodness and alTection 
that moves you to consider any trouble of mine, 
which as I cannot but take most kindly from 
your Grace (as what had I ever from you other 
than as from a father '?) so in other respects all 
things of this life are become wondrous indifler- 
ent to me, since I am sure the best of it is past 
already." — Ibid. 



To Laud, 1638. "God send them (the Scots) 
well into their right wits, say I, deliver the pub- 
lic peace from the ill of them, and me out of 
their fingers. You may pray as much if you 
please, for your share, for if truth were known, 
they wish you no better than myself, and that, 
believe me, is ill enough." — Ibid., p. 196. 



To Windcbank, Aug. 1638. "The business 
— indeed gathers fearfully and apace, and sits 
wondrous dark upon the public peace ; may God 
be pleased in his mercy to disperse and clear up 
all again ! The skirts of the great rain, if not 
part of the thundering and lightning I confess, 
is probable enough will fall upon this kingdom. 
Believe me this consideration travails my thoughts 
exceedingly, day and night, and requires the 



122 



STRAFFORD. 



whole man ; onvnc rcrimm vigilans with me that 
touchcth upon that .string. For love of Christ, 
let me have early instruetions what I am to do, 
and then I trust we shall be able (and that alone 
will be, I assure you,, a mighty work) to hold our- 
selves here upon the stayes, by one means or oth- 
er. I humbly thank you for )'our friendly and 
kind wishes to my safety ; but if it be the will 
of God to bring upon us for our sins that fiery 
trial, all the respects of this life laid aside, it 
shall appear more by aetions than words, that I 
ean never think myself too good to die for my 
gracious master, or favour my skin in the zeal- 
ous and just prosecution of his commands, statu- 
tum est semel." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 202. 



Of the Scottish business, he says to Lord Clif- 
ford (Aug. 1638), "as I am not at all advised 
with hitherto, to speak of, so I shall more volun- 
tarily interest m3'self in, as in truth having in this 
kingdom sufficient, if not too much for one man 
to go through with." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 208. 



To Laud. "Undoubtedly that business con- 
cerning Mr. Croxton is at rest, for I hear no 
more of it, for which I am glad. For as the 
times are now disposed, the fewer of those ques- 
tions are stirred the better. However Dr. Sing, 
nor all the minstrels in Ireland to help him, shall 
neither sing nor play me forth of the remem- 
brance I have upon what terms Mr. Croxton was 
commended unto me before I touched Irish earth, 
and so both they and he shall find if there be oc- 
casion." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 249. 



"I UNDERSTAND I am deep in that lord's dis- 
pleasure (Hamilton's), but why or wherefore, by 
all Truth I know not, and therefore care not. I 
procure daily so many ill wishers, keep the 
friends I have with so much difficulty, in this 
rigid way I go for my master's service, as almost 
makes business unwelcome unto me, yet so long 
as I do serve, I will thorough by the grace of 
God, follow after what shall please him to send." 
—Ibid., vol. 2, p. 250. 



Holland insinuated that he was insane, and 
to have it said he had been confined three quar- 
ters of a year. If I understand his reply, he had 
been delirious three daj's in his childhood. — Ibid., 
vol. 2, p. 292. 



will either for truth sake, or shame give me 
over. In the mean time I shall practise (piiet- 
ness in my own thoughts, and patience towards 
other men." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 256. 



1638. To Newcastle — 

'• In sadness I judge my wisdom in manageing 
of affairs to be very small, yet do know my de- 
sires and resolutions in the pursuit of my master's 
commands and trusts to be so just and faithful, 
that I am not out of hope within a little more 
time to have as few declared enemies, as now I 
have many. Surely when they shall find how 
ranch they have been misinformed of me, they 



1638. "If it shall not please God to put the 
Scottish subjects into their right wits again, that 
they do humbly and repentantly conform to your 
Majesty's will, I shall give order that for this 
next year there be paid at York to Sir Williaiu 
Uvedale your treasurer for the wars, as my rents 
come in, ^GlOOO at Midsummer, and ..£1000 at 
Christmas ; and if this be not sufficient, I do mcst 
humbly beseech your Majesty command all I have 
there to the uttermost farthing. And I am de- 
sired by the Master of the Rolls, and Sir George 
Radcliffe, that c£500 betwixt them may be ac- 
cepted upon the same terms and the same days 
of payment. And in like manner a young Captain 
of your Majesty's, my brother, that hath some 
fortmie by his wife there, d£lOO." — Vol. 2, p. 279. 



" I THANK God I never found a purpose in mr 
heart to wrong any creature ; yet for all that, 
on the other side, I confess a natural stiffness 
there which hardly brooks an injury unprovoked, 
and causelessly put upon me." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 
284. 



"Whenever I fail to the uttermost of my skill 
and power to serve his person and crown faith- 
fully and justl)^, let shame cover me at after' as 
a cloak, and be for ever fastened to my posterity 
as a garment not to be cast off." — Ibid., vol. 2, 
p. 286. 



" Argyl having sent him some publications 
of the covenanters, he returns ' his Majesty's 
most gracious proclamation, one for all, instar 
omyiium indeed ; neither to my seeming is it in- 
grete, for Glaucus his exchange j^ou will find it, 
our gold for your brass." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 299. 



1639. "If his Majesty's mind had been known 
to me in tune, I could have as easily have se- 
cured it (Dunbarton) against all the Covenant- 
ers and devils in Scotland, as now walk up and 
down this chamber : but where trusts and in- 
structions come too late, there the business is 
sure to be lost. Besides sometimes overmuch 
secresy towards persons that wish well to busi- 
ness, doth as much hurt, depriving ourselves by 
that means of their concurrent counsels and as- 
sistance, as at another time the inconsiderate dis- 
covering ourselves to such as wish ill unto them. 
For my own part I never was much in love witli 
the way of King James his keeping of all the 
affairs of that kingdom of Scotland amongst those 



" At after souper goth this noble king 
To seen this horse of bras," ifec. 

Chaucer. The Squire's Tale. J. W. W. 



RADCLIFFE— LAUD— WHITAKER. 



123 



of that nation, but carried indeed as a ni3'steiy to 
all the council of England ; a rule but overmuch 
kept by our master also ; M'liich I have told my 
Lord of Portland many and often a time, plainly 
professing unto him, that I was much afraid that 
course would at one time or other bring forth ill 
effects. What those are we now see and feel at 
one and the same instant." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 325. 



"The Archbishop of Tuam says to him on his 
departure — ' this kingdom shall give you no other 
valediction than was given to Josiah 

— similem cui nulla dederunt 
Ssecula, cui similem ssecula nulla dabunt." 



1640. Good Friday— 

" But this is not a season for bemoaning of my- 
self; for I shall cheerfully venture this crazed 
vessel of mine, and either by God's help wait 
upon your Majesty before that Parliament begin, 
oi- else deposite this infirm humanity of mine in 
the dust." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 403. 



" Of all things I love not to put off ray cloaths, 
and go to bed in a storm." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 408. 



" Old R!Chard(?) hath sworn against me gal- 
lantly ; and thus, battered and blown upon on all 
sides, I go on the way contentedlj', take up the 
Cross, and gently tread those steps, which I trust 
lead me to quietness at last." — lb., vol. 2, p. 154. 



L.\ST Letter to his son. — Jbid., vol. 2, p. 417. 



His last suit to the king by Usher, was that 
he could be pleased to remember two of his 
friends, Ormond and Sir G. Radchffe. — Rad- 
cliffe's Life of Strafford. 

Hk never did any thing of any moment without 
taking advice. Care to discountenance drunk- 
enness in Ireland. — Ibid., p. 433. 



"I LEARNED onc rulc of him," says Sir G. 
Radcliffe, "which I think worthy to be re- 
membered : when he met with a well penned 
oration or tract upon any subject or question, he 
framed a speech upon the same argument, in- 
venting and disposing what seemed fit to be said 
upon that subject, before he read the book ; then 
reading the book compare his own with the au- 
thor, and note his own defects, and the author's 
art and fulness, whcreliy he drew all thiit ran in 
the author more strictly, and might better judge 
of his own wants to supply them." — Ibid., p. 435. 



Strafford offered his life if he would urge the 



king to abolish Episcopacy. — Laud's Troubles, 
p. 177. 



He had a collection of ancient coins, which 
were purchased by Thoresby's father. 

" Of the heterogeneous character of Sir T. 
Fairfax," says Whitaker, " it would be unpar- 
donable in an antiquary to speak without grat- 
itude, in an Englishman, without a mixture of 
censure and pity. He was bred a presbyterian, 
though without any violent hostility against the 
Church of England, and he served the Parlia- 
ment without an)^ personal animosity against the 
king. Till roused by action, the native powers 
of his mind seemed to doze ; his deportment was 
awkward, his temper sullen, his conceptions 
clouded, his utterance embarrassed. In the field 
of battle he was all on fire, prompt, intelligible 
and spirited. He w^as a man of no intuition into 
character, and suffered himself to be duped by 
the Parliament into the fashionable opinion of 
their absolute supremacy, even over the king 
himself, as the great council of the nation. This 
is .stronglj', though politely expressed in the fol- 
lowing letter, addressed to the Queen on her 
landing at Burlington, which has never before 
been published. 

" To the sacred Majesty of the Queen. 

Selby, the 25th Feb., 1642-3. 
Madam, 

" Your Majesty's safe and happy arrival in this 
country doth infinitely rejoice the hearts of all 
men, who though divided in opinions and fallen 
into most bloody dissentions, yet every one hopes 
by )'Our Majesty to obtain his desires. My 
hopes and the expectation of all men with me 
are, that by the powerful influence of your Maj- 
esty's presence, your gracious mediation and 
great wisdom, this kingdom which hath tasted 
nothing but war and miserj' since your Maj- 
esty left it, shall now be restored to the happy 
condition of peace, and all misunderstanding 
taken away, wiiich in human reason is the only 
means to make your majesty and j'our royal pos- 
terity to be loved and rich at home, potent and 
feared abroad. 

" Madam, — The Parliament (the sceptre) by 
which all the glorious and happy princes of this 
land have governed, hath commanded me to serve 
the King and your Majesty in securing the peace 
of these northern parts. My highest ambition 
and humblest suit is, that your Majesty refusing 
all attendance and service of those who by that 
highest Court have been found and declared en- 
emies of the peace and state, you will be i)leased 
to admit mo and the forces with me to guard 
your sacred person, wherein I and this army 
shall all of us more willingly sacrifice our lives 
than suffer any danger to invade the trust re- 
posed in, madam, your most loyal, most hum lo 
servant, T. Fairfax." — Loidis and Elmete, p. 
194. 



124 



RUSHWORTH— WARWICK— BASTWICK. 



"The most extraordinary part of Fairfax's 
character was a passionate fondness for antiqua- 
rian pursuits, which miwht seem alike incompat- 
ible with 'the drowsy humour of the Presbyte- 
rian' and the active enixagements of the soldier. 
To him we are indebted not only for the basis 
of Thoresbv's musemu, but what is of infinitely 
more importance, for the voluminous collections 
of Dodsworth, which perpetuated so many thou- 
sands of charters relating to the genealogical and 
monastic antiquities of the northern counties, just 
transcribed under his patronage, before the blow- 
ing up of St. Mary's Tower at York consigned 
the originals to destruction. These he bequeath- 
ed to the University of Oxford." — Ibid., p. 195. 



Fairfax refused to open the king's letters tak- 
en at Naseby, but Cromwell and Ireton pressed 
hira to it. — RusHwoRTH, vol. 6, preface iii. 



After the surrender of Colchester, Fairfax 
writes thus to Manchester, Speaker {pro tempore) 
of the House of Peers, '" for some satisfaction to 
military Justice, and in part of avenge for the 
innocent blood they have caused to be spilt, and 
the trouble, damage and mischief they have 
brought upon the town, this country and the 
kingdom : I have, with the advice of a council of 
war of the chief officers, both of the country 
forces and the array, caused two of them who 
were rendered at mercv\ to be shot to death 
before any of them had quarter assured them. 
The persons pitched upon for this example were 
Sir Charles Lucas, and Sir George Lisle ; in 
whose military execution I hope your lordships 
will not find cause to think your honour or jus- 
tice prejudiced. As for the Lord Goring, Lord 
Capel, and the rest of the persons rendered to 
mercy, and now assured of quarter, of whose 
names I have sent your lordship a particular list, 
I do hereby render unto the Parliaments judg- 
ment, for further public justice and mercy to be 
used, as you shall see cause."' — Rush worth, vol. 
7, p. 1243. 



Sir p. Warwick says of Fairfax, he was "a 
man of a military genius, undaunted courage and 
presence of mind in the field both in action and 
danger, but of a very common understanding in 
all other affairs, and of a worse elocution, and 
so a most fit tool for JNIr. Cromwell to work 
with." 



jBastmick. 

Nalson (vol. 1, p. 499) quotes this from his 
libel, p. 19, speaking of the Romish Hierarchy, 
purposely from that topic to traduce the English 
Church. '"In the number of which," saith he, 
"are cardinals, patriarchs, primates, metropoli- 
tans, archbishops, bishops, deans, and uuiumer- 
able such vermin, a member of which monstrous 
body our hierarchy is ; this is not known in Sacred 



Writ, nor never came from God, but rather from 
the pope and the devil. Diabolus caccavit 
illos." 

Of Laud he says, " I am so hardened in good- 
ness, as I fear neither post nor pillory ; conceiv- 
ing always that I hold my ears by a better tenure 
than he holds his nose, being a loyaller subject 
to my prince than he hath grace to be, and bet- 
ter able to do him service than he hath ability to 
judge of. But if he should by his might and 
power, and the iniquity of the times, advance me 
to that desk (the pillory), I doubt not by the 
grace of God I shall make there the funeral ser- 
mons of all the prelates in England. I hope I 
shall have the honour of the good work, and 
withal bring such things to light, as all Europe 
and the whole Church of God shall be the better 
for it to the world's end. And if they shall sac- 
rifice me upon the altar of the pillory, I shall so 
bleat out their episcopal knaveries, as the odour 
and sweet smelling savour of the oblation shall 
make such a propitiation for the good of this 
land and kingdom, as the King hiinself and all 
loyal subjects shall fare the better for it. 

" And he closes his admonition to the reader 
with this sentence, from whence it took the name 
of his Litany, ' from plague, pestilence and fam- 
ine, from bi.shops. priests and deacons, good Lori 
deliver us.'" — P. 10. 

Bastwick's whole letter to the Keeper of the 
Gate House (Nalsox, vol. 1. p. 500) should be 
given in a note. 



In another letter he entreats the keeper to 
give him liberty upon the word of a Christian, 
and one reason is that he might go abroad to 
practise upon such as had the plague, which 
was then in London, "of which he tells him he 
is not afraid ; and indeed who ever reads the 
whole libel would have reason to credit him ; for 
it is so pestilent that no plague could be more 
mortal." — Ibid., p. 502. 



More specimens of his crazy humour, ibid, 
p. 503 ; and of his beastly abuse, p. 502. 



When Bast wick quarrelled with Lilburne he 
fell as foul upon the Independents as he had done 
upon the bishops, and deduced them also from 
the devil's posteriors. — Ibid., p. 512. 



"His libel was WTitten when he was a pris- 
oner for a book which he had written against 
one Chouncy when under pretence of battering 
down the pope's supremacy, he aspersed the 
English Church. A wealthy and grave citizen 
visited him then as a martyr, and urged him to 
write his Litany ; rewarded him with ten pieces 
of gold for it, and circulated it in MS. Lilburne, 
then newly out of his apprenticeship, got it print- 



STRAFFORD— GARRARD— NALSON— LAUD. 



125 



ed in Holland, and the disperser made dC60 by 
the first edition, but on the second the disperser 
saved himself by mforming against Liiburne, 
who was thus brought within reach of the law." 
—Ibid., vol. 1, p. 513-4. 



Garrard says that B. writes an excellent 
Latin style. — Strafford's Letters, vol. 2, p. 
57. 



1637. " In the palace yard two pillories were 
erected, and there the sentence of Star Cham- 
ber agaiiist Burton, Bastwick, and Prynne was 
executed. They stood two hours in the pillory ; 
Burton by himself, being degraded in the High 
Commission Court three days before. The place 
was full of people, who cried and howled ter- 
ribly, especially when Burton was cropt. Dr. 
Bastmck was very merry ; his wife. Dr. Foe's 
daughter, got a stool, kissed him ; his ears being 
cut off, she called for them, and put them in a 
clean handkerchief, and carried them away with 
her. Bastwick told the people the lords had 
collar days at court, but this was his collar- 
da}', rejoicing much in it." — Garrard, vol. 2, 
p. 85. 



Ipriinnc. 

Nalson says (vol. 1, p. 798), "I have heard 
a gentleraan his familiar avow that be was so 
infinitely sensible both of the folly and mischief 
of those youthful and passionately injudicious es- 
says, which were rather the results of prejudice 
and revenge than law or reason, that he has 
heard Mr. Prynne say, that if the King had cut 
off his head when he only cropt his ears, he had 
done no more than justice, and done God and 
the nation good service." 



1634. "No mercy shewed to Pr\-nne : he 
stood in the pillory, and lost his first ear in a 
pillory in the palace at Westminster in full term, 
his other in Cheapside ; where while he stood 
his volumes were burnt under his nose, which 
had almost suffocated him." — Garrard. Straf- 
ford's Letters, vol. 1, p. 261. 



in written copies about the city ; and that when 
they went out of town to their several imprison- 
ments, there were thousands suffered to be upon 
their way to take their leave and God knows 
what else !" — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 99. 



" Once again you return to Prynne and his 
fellows, and observe most justly that these men 
do but begin with the church, that they might 
after have the freer access to the state : and I 
would to God other men were of your lordship's 
opinion, or if they be so already I would they 
had some of your zeal too for timely prevention : 
but for that, we are all too secure, and will not 
believe there is any foul weather towards us, till 
the storm break upon us." — Laud. Ibid., vol. 
2, p. 101. 



" Mr. Prynne 's case is not the first wherein 
I have resented the humour of the time to cry 
up and magnify such as the honour and justice 
of the King and state have marked out and ad- 
judged mutinous to the government, and offens- 
ive to that belief and reverence the people ought 
to have in the wisdom and integrity of the mag- 
istrate. Nor am I now to say it anew (even 
there, where the right understanding, and right 
use made of this niLschief would be the only way 
to take off the ill it threatens to us all) that a 
prince that loseth the force and example of his 
punishments, loseth withal the greatest part of 
his dominion. Yet still methinks we are not got 
thorough the defence, nay I fear do not sufii- 
ciently apprehend the malignity of it. In the 
meantime a liberty thus assumed, thus abused, is 
very unsullerable ; but how to help it I know not, 
till I see the good as resolute in their good, as 
we daily observe the bad to be in their evil ways : 
which God of his grace infuse into us ; for such 
are the feeble and faint motions of human frailty, 
as I do not expect it thence." — Ibid. Straf- 
ford to Laud, vol. 2, p. 119. 



16>34, June 20. " Mr. Prynne, prisoner in 
the Tower, who hath got his ears sewed on, 
that they grow again as before to his head, is 
relapsed into new error." — Ibid., p. 266. 



1637. " A LITTLE more quickness in the gov- 
ernment would cure this itch of libelling. Laud 
writes to Wentworth, agreeing with him in this 
mind. But what say you to it that Prynne and 
his fellows should be sufTercd to talk what they 
pleased while they stood in the pillory and win 
acclamations from the people, and have notes 
taken of what they spake, and those note-s spread 



Strafford to Laud. " It Is strange, indeed, 
to see the frenzy which possesseth the vulgar 
now-a-days, and that the just displeasm-e and 
chastisement of a state should produce greater 
estimation, nay reverence to persons of no con- 
sideration either for life or learnbg, than the 
greatest and highest trusts and employments 
shall be able to procure for others of unspotted 
conversation, of most eminent virtue tuid deep- 
est knowledge : a grievous and ovcrspiculing 
leprosy ; but where a-ou mention a remedy, sure 
it is not fitted for the hand of every physician ; 
the cure, under God, must be wrought by our 
iEsculapius alone, and in that my weak judg- 
ment to be eliccted rather by corrosives than 
lenitives ; less than Thoroiv will not overcome 
it. There is a cancerous malignity in it which 
must be cut forth, which long since rejected all 
other means, and therefore to God and him I 
leave it."' — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 136. 



126 



CLARENDON— HOWELL— STRAFFORD. 



"I THANK you," says Hyde to Nicholas (1647), 
" for your friend Lilburne, and desire you to send 
me as many of his books as you can. I learn 
much by them ; and in earnest I find a great 
benefit by reading ill books, for though they 
want judgment and logic to prove what they 
promise, yet they bring good materials to prove 
somcwiuit else they do not think of. And so I 
gain very much law by reading Mr. Prynne, 
though nothing of it be applicable to those pur- 
poses to which he produces it." — Clarendon 
Papers, vol. 2, p. 363. 



My Lord of Buckingham having been long 
since jNIaster of the Horse at court, is now made 
master also of all the wooden horses in the king- 
dom, which indeed are our best horses ; for he 
is to be high-admiral of England . So he is be- 
come dominus cquorum et aquarum." — Hoell's 
EpistolcE Ho-EliancE, p. 1880. 



In Cato's letters, though it is falsely said of 
Strafford, that " he was no sooner got out into 
the court, but he began openly to counteract the 
whole course of his past life, he devised new 
ways of terror and oppression, and heightened 
all those grievances of which he had complain- 
ed," the writer, fierce whig as he is, justly adds, 
" but though the two great parts of his life were 
thus prodigiously inconsistent, I do not remem- 
ber that he ever condemned the worst, though he 
sufliered for it ; or recanted the best. It is prob- 
able his judgment in both cases aporoved his 
conduct."— Vol. 2, p. 289. 



Strafford's Letters and Dispatches. Dublin, 1 740. 

Ded. In Ireland. — "He did not exact of the 
recusant the twelve-pence a Sunday, as by law 
he might have done. But let none hence con- 
clude that his Lordship was a favourer of the Pa- 
pists, and an encourager of their religion. No, 
he very well knew a better way to secure the 
Protestant interest, a more noble and effectual 
means than penal laws, viz., repairing of churches 
and building mansion-houses for ministers ; in- 
troducing a learned clergy, and enjoining them 
strict residence ; affording them countenance and 
protection against the encroachments of the pow- 
erful, restoring to them means of hospitality, and 
looking carefully to the education and marriages 
of the King's wards. This was his method of 
supporting the Protestant cause ; and thereby he 
gave a deadly l)low to the Church of Rome." 

P. 9. Lord Cliflbrd promises absolutely a seat 
in Parliament for Appleby. 

15. 1621. "Neither do I conceive it to be 
within the power or ability of Spain to diffuse 
itself, and maintain war against so many preva- 
lent enemies in places so far distant ; and then 
it will follow, if he must needs lay down arms 
somewhere, in no place with more honour to him- 
self, with more advantage to his aflfairs, than in 
the Palatinate." 



1 6. The enjoj-ments in the country. 1 623-24. 

19. 1623. " My opinion of these masters (Par- 
liament) your Lordship (Clifford) knows sufficifent- 
ly, and the services done there coldly requited on 
all sides, and which is worse, many times mis- 
construed. I judge further, the path we are like 
to walk in is now more narrow and slippery than 
formerly ; yet not so difficult but may be passed 
with circumspection, patience, and principally 
silence." 

22. Treaty of marriage. " Commissioners 
are appointed to treat with my Lord of Carlisle, 
the prime whereof is the Cardinal of Richelieu. 
which occasioned a difference about placmg oV~ 
them. Cardinals taking precedence of all but 
kings in person, which was wiped away with 
this accord, that they should meet in the Car- 
dinal's house, and that the Cardinal must keep 
his bed. This rock passed over by this sick ac- 
commodation," &c. 

23. "I was best pleased to hear of that com- 
modity, bemg for all the rest, John Indiflbr- 
ent." 

27. Sir Richard Beaumont to Wentworth : — 
" If it be tolerated that men shall come six, sev- 
en, nay ten apprentices out of a house, this is 
more like a rebellion than an election. The gen- 
try are wronged, the freeholders are wronged." 

29. When he was nominated sheriff (1625). 
it was told me by two counsellors that the King 
said you were an honest gentleman ; but not a 
tittle to any of the rest. 

30. A private and husbandly course, when 
sheriff, advised. 32. His intentions on this matter. 

31. Question concerning the sheriff's office 
disqualifying him for sitting. 

33. 1625. Course which he means to pursue 
happily expressed. 

35. His favour with James. 

38. Chief Justice Hyde. 

Toleration intended in Ireland, but rejected 
there. 1627. 

42. IsleofRhe.^ This only every man laiows, 

at since England was England, it received not 
iSO dishonourable a blow. Holles. 

46. The Speaker sends him copies of speeches 
which he writes for 1628. Probably ministers' 
.speeches which may have been written, as be- 
ing necessarily prepared. 

48. The president's place, " the highest pitch 
of northern honour." 

49. " You tell me God hath blessed you much 
in these late proceedings," says Wandesford to 
him. 

Ncscia mens hominum ! 

Dread of the Papists on his appointment. 52. 

51. Cottington speaks of Hocus? Hocus's 
dog — silver with five legs, — and puppets ? 

60. " In my own nature I am the man Iciivt 
suspicious alive." His temper, 80, 87. 

His religious feelings at this time after the 
death of his wife. 79. 



1 Called by Clarendon " that unfortunate descent upon 
the Isle of Rh6, which was quickly afterwards attended 
with many unproeperous attempts, and then with a miser- 
able retreat, in which the flower of the army waa lost." — 
Hist, of the Rebellion, book i., vol. 1, p. 47. 



STRAFFORD. 



127 



65. His propositions concerning the govern- 
ment of Ireland. 

71. The one shilling per week upon recusants 
to be raised for supplying the want of revenue ! 
73-4-6. 

75. Conformity of religion with England, ev- 
ery good Englishman ought to desire as well in 
reason of state as conscience. 

85. Desire of semng the King. 

He is against all non-residents, as well lay as 
ecclesiastical. 

Goring, 119, 165. 

87. The passage to Ireland infested by pi- 
rates. 90. 

90. As Lord President he took one shilling in 
the pound. 

92. Mischief of Irish grants. 

93. Project for victualling the Spanish West 
India fleet, wiiming that trade from the Ham- 
burghers. 

93. Flax proposed. A mint. Disuse of the 
woollen manufactures, to keep them dependent on 
England, and an intent to make the Kmg sole 
ealt merchant. 193. 

94. Irish levies for Spain likely to be trained 
for rebellion. A ju.st suspicion of Spain on this 
point. 

96. Salt. 193. 

State in which he found the army and all 
things else, " so as it doth almost affright me at 
first sight ; yet you shall see I will not meanly 
desert the duties I owe my master and myself." 

99. He tells the council, " rather than fail in 
so necessary a duty to ray master, I would un- 
dertake, upon the peril of my head, to make the 
King's army able to subsist and to provide for 
itself amongst them, without their help." 

99. Ormond. 352. 378. Vol. 2, p. 18. 

102. Falkland complains that he had had, 
during his government, no aid from the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Abbott, who it seems neg- 
lected Ireland as he did England. 

104. A direct trade from Ireland to the Ter- 
ceras and Canaries proposed. 

106. Biseayan privateers. Wentworth's strong 
feeling at seeing the mischief, and wanting mcan.s 
to punish it. 

124. His principle of conduct well stated, and 
the opposition he is likely to find. 

136. His disinterestedness in oflice. 8. 130. 

132. Presentation. 

135. Humanity to the Spanish privateer pris- 
oners. 

138. His severity apprehended before he went 
over. 

139. His objection to see commbsions pass 
from father to son. 

145-6. His opinion of what the Foulis's sen- 
tence in his star chamber case ought to be. 

151. Care against iU bishops. 

The church "impiously preyed upon by per- 
sons of all sorts, that I dare say you would be 
amazed and astonished at it, as much as I am, 
1 if you were but here amongst us ; by means 
whereof the clergy here are retluced to such a 
contempt, as is a most lamentable and scan- 



dalous thing to see in any Christian common- 
wealth." 

161. Charles instructs Strafford to disregard 
letters of favour which importunity may force 
from him. — I much question whether this be not 
the worst proof of his insincerity. He sought 
ease for himself, and threw all odium of refusal 
upon Strafford ; — who however always advised 
that this should be done. 

Windebank says to Strafford, " When we had 
the happiness and honour to have your assistance 
here at the council board, you made many ill faces 
with your pen, — (pardon I beseech your Lordship, 
the over free censure of your Vandyking.") 

" Another remarkable error of your Lordship, 
which makes much noise here, is that you reluse 
all presents." 

163. Spanish prisoners. 182. 

169. Advice to his nephew. His own course 
in yotith. " My breeding abroad had shewn me 
more of the world than yours hath done." 170. 
He advises him not to put himself at court be- 
fore he is at lea.st thirty. It is an excellent letter. 

171. Necessity of preventing the bishops from 
making injurious leases. 173. 

172. His views of bringing Ireland to conform- 
ity in religion, vol. 2, p. 39. 

173. It seems he thought the King had no 
real opposition to apprehend, and might carry 
through any just and honourable action against 
all that should be attempted. 1633. 

186. When Strafford represents from Ireland, 
1633, that the meaner sort of subjects there live 
under the pressures of the great, and that otTi- 
cers exact much larger fees than they ought to 
do, and recommends two or three examples to 
remedy the former, and a commission to regu- 
late the latter, '' that so the subjects might find 
your JNIajesty's goodness and justice, watching 
and caring lor their protection and ease, both in 
private and public respect," Charles answers, 
•' We approve the reformation of these pressures 
and extortions by examples and by commissions, 
by our own authority, but by no means to be done 
by Parliament." 

186. He thought a House of Commons (IrLsh), 
equally balanced between Papists and Protest- 
ants, would be ea.sier to govern than if either 
party were absolute. 

189. He say.s, after Bedell's explanation, "In 
which good mind if he continue, I shall be sure 
to discontinue my ill mind towards him." 

He and Laud gird at each other as Cambridge 
and Oxford men, both Johnnians. 

190. Irish expenditure and revenues : — he de- 
termines to pay his way, and make every half 
year discharge itself. 

190. A quarter's pay of the captains alway;? 
to be kept back, as a security upon their death 
for the arms for which they are answerable by 
bond or otherwise. 

192. He advises a malt tax upon the brew- 
ers, " to repress the infinite excess of drunken- 
ness in this kingdom. Besides, it may be a step 
towards an excise, which, although it be heathen 
Greek in England, yet certainly would be more 



128 



STRAFFORD. 



hcneficial to the crown, and less felt by the sub- 
ject, than where the impositions are laid upon 
the foreign vent of commodities inward and out- 
ward, as we see a plain demonstration of it in 
the Low Countries." 

194. '• If I be found at any time declining the 
upright and constant paths of his Majesty's hon- 
our and profit, and the public good of his king- 
doms, abandon me as the most abject wretch 
that lives."' 

196. 1633. Not one corn of powder in the 
store of Dublin Castle, which Wentworth prop- 
erly calls a passing shame. 

198. His own money advanced (fourteen hund- 
red pounds), to pay off some sailors, who would 
otherwise have cost the crown ten pounds per 
day, till they were discharged. 

200. Respect which he is ordered to require 
from the nobility. HLs thoughts upon this. 

201. He desires that he may not be inhibited 
from hearing and ending causes, as Lord Falk- 
land had been, '" which certainly did lessen his 
power extremely. I know very well the com- 
mon lawyers will be passionately against it, who 
are wont to put such a prejudice upon all other 
professions, as if none were to be trusted, or ca- 
pable to administer justice but themselves. Yet 
how well this suits with monarch}', when they 
monopolize all to be governed by their year 
hooks, you in England have a costly experience. 
And I am sure his Majesty's power is not weaker 
in this kingdom, where hitherto the deputy and 
council board have had a stroke with them." 

205. Lord Falkland, the father, seems to have 
died in consequence of a fall from his horse, '" the 
King being the nearest man to him when he fell, 
and the first that came in to help him." 

220. "I wonder not that the lawyers thus went 
about to limit and restrain all courses of prerog- 
ative. I wish they do it not too often and too 
much ; and that they would monopolize less to 
themselves all judicature, as if no honour or jus- 
tice could be rightly administered but under one 
of their bencher's gowns. Otherwise I am sure 
they little understand the unsettled state of this 
kingdom, that could advise the King to lessen 
the power of his deputy, indeed his own, until 
it were brought into that stayed temper of obe- 
dience, and conformity with that of England : or 
at least till the benches here were better provided 
with judges than, God knows, as yet they are." 

228. Wentworth recommends to the King, 
'" the consideration of Flanders, which, should it 
chance throu<rh the present disorder and ill suc- 
cess of the affairs of Spain, to bow under the yoke 
of France, or of my lords the States, mi^ht prove 
a far more troublesome neighbour to the crown 
of England than now it is."' 

•■ Again, to secure the Palatinate by all princely 
pro\ddence from being possessed by the French ; 
for, considering the ambitions of that nation be- 
gin to show themselves, extended far beyond the 
Rhine ; — how they have, par bicn seance, as it 
were, set upon and taken the whole dutchy of 
Lorrein, and how little respect they manifest to- 
wards us in their late declaration of iheir Court 



of Parliament ; — I fear me they may be apt 
enough to make way for themselves where thev 
find the fence the lowest." 

233. Charles says to him, 1634, concerning a 
Parliament, '" as for that hydra, take good heed ; 
for you know that here I have found it as well 
cunning as malicious." 

238. His management of the Irish Parliament. 

They themselves could not deny, had the pay- 
ments been set on the wealthy (whereas most 
inconscionably the landlords and money-men, to 
ease themselves, had laid it upon the poor and 
bare tenants) they could have pinched no man. 

246. Of the nobility who were absent in En- 
gland, he says, " I had rather have their proxies 
than their company." 

247. Half musket shot, — if they be good you 
must have them out of Holland . . . your offi- 
cers of the ordnance, I fear, rather take counsel 
how to save a proportion upon every musket or 
corselet to their own purses, than how to per- 
form the ser\ice sufficiently for the good of the 
business. 

249. He intercedes for the mitigation of Sir 
John Bourchier's fine, in a way very honourable 
to himself. 

267. The Popish party and their clergy infi- 
nitely solicitous that no Protestants be chosen (to 
Parliament) where they can possibly hinder it. 

269. "In these matters of form, it is the best 
not to be wiser than those that went before us, 
but stare super vias antiquas.^^ 

270. " The Priests and Jesuits here are very 
busy in the election of knights and burgesses for 
this Parliament ; call the people to their ma.sses, 
and there charge them on pain of excommuni- 
cation to give their voice with no Protestant. I 
purpose hereafter to question some of them, be- 
ing indeed a very insufferable thing for them thus 
to interpose in causes which are purely civil, and 
of passing ill consequences to wann and inflame 
the subjects one against another, and in the last 
resort, to bring it to a direct party of Protestant 
and Papist, which surely is to be avoided as much 
as may be. unless our number were the greater." 

271. Letter from Bishop Bridgeman (of Ches- 
ter), thanking him for certain judicious church 
promotions. 

273. His promise to raise and clear the rev- 
enue, — " and if in all this I make one penny of 
benefit to myself, in the course of these pay- 
ments, let my master take my head upon my re- 
turn." 

Speech at the opening of the Irish Parliament. 
— '■ I spake it not betwixt my teeth, but so loud 
and heartil}', that I protest unto you I was- faint 
withal at the present, and the worse for it two 
or three days after. It makes no matter, for 
this way I was assured they should have sound 
at least, with how little weight soever it should 
be attended. And the success was answerable : 
for had it been low and mildly delivered, I might 
perchance have gotten from them, it was pretty 
well : whereas this way, filling one of their senses 
with noise, and amusing the rest with earnestness 
and vehemence, they sware (yet forgive them, 



STRAFFORD. 



129 



they know not what they say) it was the best 
spoken they ever heard in their lives." 

274. " Surely this kintrdom is in an excellent 
way, and England to hope for a considerable 
supply from hence, which hitherto hath been of 
infinite expense unto us." 

284. "Surely the more I am trusted, the 
greater shall be my care. I shall be watchful 
upon all occasions, and by fitting degrees still to 
abate from the power of the Popish clergy, which 
indeed was grown to excess, and a shame it was 
ever suffered to rise to such a height." 

295. Obliged, by want of support from En- 
gland, to give up his scheme of making iron ord- 
nince in Ireland. 

296. Tallow — their great .staple commodity, 
out of which they pretend are to be raised their 
own rents, and all the great payments to his 
Majesty. Direction had been sent from En- 
gland to stop its exportation, which Strafford 
would not follow, saying it would infinitely dis- 
content them all, nothing so much, and destroy 
their trade above all that can be foreseen. 

297. "I spend a round sum, more than all 
my entertainments come to." 

300. He intreats of Laud to aid him in keep- 
ing the revenue of Ireland from the English mm- 
Ister. 

300. Cottington. Who was this with the 
beads? 330. 

303. A greyhound for the prince. 1634. 

308. Restraint of tallow, — it was designed 
to give t he.. Soa p rnrpm-i^tinn the sole right of 
vending it. His arguments against it. 

350. His conduct when Sir Piers Crosby 
threw out the bill for repressing of murders, by 
a strict punishment of the accessories. 

353. Motives for continuing the parliament. 

All the Protestants are for plantations, all the 
others against them. 

364. Intrigues of France with the Papists. 
France having taken up the ambitious views of 
Spain, and employing the same course of policy. 
This is a good letter o f Cokeys . 

365. Charles chose to have the Irish Parlia- 
ment dissolved. " My rca.sons," he says, " are 
grounded upon my experience of them here ; 
they are of the nature of cats. They ever grow 
curst with age ; so that if ye will have good of 
them, put them off handsomely when they come 
to any age, for young ones are ever most tracta- 
ble. And in earnest you will find that nothing 
Ciin more conduce to the beginning of a new, than 
the well ending of the former Parliament." 

367. He delays admitting the Earl of Nothi.s- 
dale to be of the council, because he is a Papist. 
"I judge it without all question far the greatest i 
service that can be done unto your crowns, on ' 
this side, to draw Ireland into a conformity of I 
religion with England, which indeed would un- 
doubtedly set your Majesty in greater strength 
and safety within your own dominions, than any { 
thing now left by the great and happy wisdom 
of yourself and blessed father unaccomplished, ! 
to make us an happy and secure people within 
ourselves. And yet this being a work rather to 
I 



be effected by judgement and degrees, than by 
a giddy zeal and haste, whenever it shall seem 
good in your wisdom to attempt it (for I am con- 
fident it is left as a means whereby to glorify 
your Majesty's piety to posterity) there will in 
the way towards it many things fall continually 
in debate and consideration at the board with 
which it will be very unfit any of the contrary 
religion be acquainted." 

371 . "I must tell you I am in a libel threaten- 
ed with a Felton or a Ravillac already." 1634. 

378. Laws of wills .nnd use s. His aim to 
gain wardships for the crown, that the best 
houses might be bred up in religion as they fall. 

392. "The Biscayners are fishing our west- 
ern ports, and have been up the river of Limer- 
ick forty or fifty miles within land, and there 
taken two or three Dutchmen of very good value; 
and would in a short time, if suffered, destroy 
the whole trade of this kingdom." 

393. " Your advice by act of state to restrain 
the sending over children to be bred in foreign 
parts, is not only approved, but required by his 
^Majesty to be effectuall}' executed." 

394. " Some loose and dissolved men of war 
of S. Sebastian's, the Passage, and Dunkirk, have 
demeaned themse lves worse towards us than 
ever." 

392. The great business of the Londoners' 
plantation. '• Methinks, sir (if I may be so bold), 
would your Majesty be plea-sed to reserve it en- 
tire to yourself, after it be once settled well, it 
might prove a fit part of an appanage for our 
i young master the Duke of York. Believe me, 
I am of opinion it may be made a seigniory not 
altogether unworthy his Highness." 

401. Levying the .subsidies. — "Yet that I 
might be the more sure that all things shall be 
carried indifferently, and that the Itrirthen may 
lie upon the wealthier sort (which, (xod knows, 
hath not been the fa-shion of Ireland), 1 have told 
them, that I will join four commissioners with 
theirs in every county, with these only instruc- 
tions (the sum being thus set by themselves) to 
see that all things be carried suitable to his Maj- 
esty's justice and princely regard of his people." 

411. Weston's ill will to him, and jealousy 
of his familiarity with Laud. 

431. — "by your experience in both houses 
you have discovered the root of all disorder in 
that kingdom to be the universal dependence of 
the Popish faction upon Jesuits and friars ; which 
former deputies have also observed, and there- 
upon moved for their banishment and suppres- 
sion ; but it seemeth the performance was re- 
served for your active resolution." 

444. Calway. — " A country which lies o\it at 
a corner by itself, and all the inhabitants whol- 
ly natives and papists, hardly an Englishman 
among.st them, whom they kept out with all the 
industry in the world." 

473. Flax. — He sends to buy seed. — Vol. 2, 
p. 19. • 

492. Ill effects of grants upon the Irish ex- 
chequer. 

498-9. Lord Mountnorris. 502-5.8.9.14.9. 



130 



STRAFFORD. 



504. IIowcll says of him, " I never knew any 
man's misery so little resented, who having con- 
tested with so many lord deputies is now met 
withal." 

511. Cottington. — "You said right, that 
Mountnorris his business would make a great 
noise ; lor so it hath amongst ignorant, but es- 
pecially ill-aflected people ; but it hath stuck 
little among the wiser sort, and begins to be 
blown away amongst the rest." 

Gan-ard writes more faithfully. — 508-9. 

Vol. 2, p. 15. Strafford. — "The truth is, Sir 
L. Carey is a vain young man, and cannot be 
sufficiently taught to learn his duty, as well to 
his betters as to his own soldiers. You shall do 
well to cause him to pay his soldiers what he 
oweth them, and to defalk it out of his own en- 
tertainments. I understand by his uncle New- 
burgh, he has a great mind to part with his com- 
pany, and to bestow himself in the Low Coun- 
tries, which I am glad of, that we may get shut 
of him there." 

17. Summary of what he had done in Ireland. 

18. Equal justice. Wills and uses. 

23. " I have with much difficulty obtained 
direction for a privy seal for taking off the four 
shillings upon a ton of coals, new imposition ; as 
also that other immeasurable charge set upon 
horses to be transported hence into Ireland, as 
also one shilling and sixpence upon every head 
of cattle, and stopped another imposition intended 
to be set upon all live slioep brought thence." 

42. He recommends that the King should 

preferably employ men of fortune in his service, 

rather than those who have their fortunes to make. 

54. Charles intended the place of Admiral for 

the Duke of York. 

56 Sir Henry Anderson, of Yorkshire, obtains 
an audience, and makes a remonstrant speech 
to the King, 1636. 

65. Duke of York to be provided for in Ire- 
land. " God having blest you with so royal and 
plentiful a posterity, if provisions be not early 
thought of for them by your servants, and by 
yourself, they will at some time or other fall 
weightily and with pressure upon the crown." 

72. Marquis Hamilton is not easily taken off, 
especially where there is a glimmering of good 
profit to come in. — Garrard. 

92. Plots of the exiles, and advice concerning 
the army in Ireland, to be kept up till total con- 
formity in religion be brought about. 

96. Against sending the rents to the English 
Exchequer. 

103.^ilke calls the changing of the tenures 
of the lower sort of Irish from their oppressing 
Lords to their gracious King, the "true founda- 
tion of wealth and peace, and the only hope of 
introducing civility and religion, wherein the 
prosperity of that kingdom doth consist." He 
tells Wentworth this in his masterpiece. 

108. " U nld Ned Coke were alive again, he 
would perchaiice advise him to take the company 
of his fellows along with him, and tell him (as 
he never failed to do, as often as a patent of 
monopoly came in his way) animalia solivaga 



semper sunt nociva, and for better authority quote 
him Aristotle for it." — Wentworth. 

109. He writes to the Duke of Medina, say- 
ing, he has sent "those merchants and .ship to 
begin and settle, I trust, a trade of linen cloths, 
nmch if I deceive not myself, to the benefit of 
both kingdoms." 

111. Irish abroad plotting rebellion, and in- 
citing Spain and Rome to encourage and sup- 
port it. 

112. Strafford's letters to Con upon this sub- 
ject. 

119. To Laud. "If others would keep the 
same quarter with us your grace doth, that is, 
first rcejuire our opinions on this side, before any- 
thing be resolved there, his Majesty would not 
be so early and often engaged to the prejudice 
of these affairs ; and drawing along with it a 
mighty disadvantage upon us, that by this means 
become the negative ministers of casting them 
aside at after, and contracting unto ourselves the 
hatred of the parties interested, as the reward of 
our good and faithful .service." 

124. "My Lord of Holland tells every one 
that he hath so satisfied my Lord of Salisbury, 
that he thinks he did him a favour to fine him 
but c£20,000 ; but I believe that my Lord of 
Northumberland hath made his sister Carlisle 
speak to my Lord of Holland, and the fine will 
be remitted, but I do not think the other will re- 
mit the injury, for weak minds have strong reten- 
tions of injuries, and only noble hearts know how 
to forgive." — Lord Conway. 

131. Laud replies. "I am sorry if the min- 
isters on this side do not keep the quarter they 
should with yoa For there is no reason in the 
world that the sourness of every negative should 
be put upon you on that side. Great reason 
there is that it should be kept off from the King 
as much as may be, and as great that it should 
be divided among the ministers with some indif- 
ferency, and not lodged upon one, or few. But 
this is not the way, for every man saves himself 
as well as he can, let the burden light where it 
will. And now I am grown almost as proud as 
you, for whereas you write that his Majesty must 
not always look to be served upon such terms, I 
shall say so too ; and perhaps when I am gone, 
my saying shall be found true." 

132. Laud. " I see your lordship hath a great 
opinion of him (Sir G. Radcliffe) or else you would 
not trust 3^our son with him. And I hope he will 
discharge that trust, so as shall give you content, 
and lay such a foundation in your son as shall 
enable him to withstand any Prynning." 

135. Tobacco contract. Strafford writes to 
the king of his unfriends. His profits, p. 137. 

138. " Mr. Hambden is a great brother : and 
the very genius of that nation of people leads 
them always to oppose as well civilly as ecclesi- 
astically all that ever authority ordains for them ; 
but in good faith were they right served, they 
should be whipt home into their right wits ; and 
nuich beholden they should be to any that would 
thoroughly take pains with them in that kind." — 
Strafford, 1637. 



STRAFFORD. 



131 



151. Bedell. He had devoted all he should 
recover in a certain process for his see, to the 
edition of the Irish Bible. 

158. " As well as I think of Mr. Hambden's 
abilities, I take his will and peevishness to be flill 
as great ; and without diminution to him, judge 
the other (?) hovvbeit not the father of the coun- 
try (a title some will not stick to give unto them 
both, to put them, if it be possible, the faster and 
farther out of their wits) the very Sinciput, the 
vertical point of the whole faction." 

185. 1638. The Scots. " There is a speech 
here that they have sent to know the number of 
Scotchmen in Ulster ; and that privately there 
hath been a list taken of such as are able to bear 
arms, and that they are found to be above 40,000 
in Ulster only." — Laud. 

196. Northumberland writes (1638, July) con- 
cerning the Scotch troubles — " In the Exchequer 
(being examined upon this occasion) there is found 
but £200 ; nor by all the means that can yet be 
devised, the treasurer and Cottington engaging 
both the king's and their own credits, are able to 
raise but £1 10,000 towards the maintaining of 
this war.- The king's magazines are totally un- 
furnished of arms and all sorts of ammunition, 
and commanders we have none, either for advice 
or execution. The people through all England 
are generally so discontented by reason of the 
multitude of projects daily imposed upon them, 
as I think there is reason to fear that a great part 
of them will be readier to join with the Scots, 
than to draw their swords in the king's service." 

187. Concerning the Earl of Antrim, Strafford 
says to the king : "I neither hope much of his 
parts, of his power, or of his affections." 

188. 1638. Strafford fears the withdrawal of 
any troops from Ireland, and says to the king, 
" Besides, Sir, you understand how little practice 
or knowledge I have in these military affairs ; so 
a,s I should humbly desire to have one experi- 
enced person left near me, to advLse with upon 
any sudden storm." 

190-1. Strafford's view of the Scotch troubles, 
and the course to be pursued, a most able letter. 
But when he expected that the means might be 
raised by voluntary contributions, it shows that 
ha was far from being aware how widely and 
deeply disaffection had spread and struck root, 
and that he thought others were as disinterested 
and as liberal and as loyal as himself. 

195. 1638. "It is not to be kept secret, that 
there are 40,000 Scots in Ulster able to bear 
arms ; we hear the crack of it, if not the threat, 
every day in the streets. And might they have 
bad Conruuiglit too (and that they have it not, 
the whole kingdom bear me the ill will of it), it 
would have been so much the stronger laid for 
them." 

198. Good order of the troops in Ireland — 
best manner of increasing them, 204. 

204. Earl of Antrim. 

208. To Lord Clifford, directions for muster- 
ing and training. 

219. The Bishop of Down. " All the Puritans 
in my diocese are confident that the arms raised 



against the king in Scotland, will procure them 
a liberty to set up their own discipline here 
among themselves, insomuch that many whom I 
had brought to some measure of conformity have 
revolted lately, and when I call them in question 
for it, they scorn my process." 

221. The Queen's Letter concerning St. Pat- 
rick's purgatory, and Strafford's reply ! this in 
1638 ! Laud says of it to him :— p. 230. "T 
am half wa}' into purgatory to think such a mo- 
tion, in such a place, at such a time, amidst such 
people, should be offered to you ! But in this 
you have played the courtier notably, and I hope 
to good purpose. You may see by that what 
good offices I have done me here, for I have 
many motions from thence which I can scarce 
tell what to say to." 

283. Strafford to the King. "We see the 
monstrous birth, the late contempt of inferiors, 
the negligence and remissness in some others to 
preserve magistracy, hath brought forth among 
us, and sure how could other fruit be with right 
reason expected? For that once trod down it 
cannot choose but the next step will be upon 
monarchy itself." 

288. Character of Sir J. H otham whom Straf- 
ford recommends to the King. 

288. His anxiety that the King should have 
the credit of kind actions. 

297. Earl of Antrim. Strafford's sense of 
danger from the arming a body of Irish. 

Impossibility of raising raonej' in Ireland by 
loan. 

300. As many O's and Mac's as would startle 
a whole council board on this side to hear of. 

Antrim, he proposed to transport over with 
him 10,000 live cows to furnish them with milk, 
which he affirmed had been his grandfather Ty- 
rone's play. 

302. He saw they would do well enough, feed 
their horse with leaves of trees and themselves 
with shamrocks. 

307. " It is most true Leslie can neither write 
nor read, and to boot a bastard begot betwixt 
two mean folks. A captain he is, but no such' 
great Kill-Cow as they would have him ; never 
general to the King of Swede ; general of the 
forces (as they learn to command, howbeit in 
itself not so good as that of colonel) of a Hanse 
town. Lubeck, as I take it, and no more." 

308. Sir Marmaduke Langdalc active in op- 
posing .'^hip-money, 1639. 

Letters to Sir J. Hotham. 

313. Advice to avoid fighting, but secure Ber- 
wick and Carlisle. 1639. 

314. And not to strike the first blow. 324. 
322. French ambassador wants to accompany 

the army, — that he might communicate with the 
Covenanters. 

325. Treachery in Scotland. 

327. To Sir Henry Vane, he speaks of "the 
secresy you nobly promise, and I assure myself 
from your own virtue and affections to me !" 

332. Charles giving way to the Ear! of St. 
Albans and others, 365. 81. 

335. Earl of Antrim, 336-57-8, 9. 



132 



LAUD— CLARENDON. 



343. Measures for ascertabiing the number of 
Scot-s in Irckind. 

366. Earl of St. Alban and Clanrichard, 425. 

" It hath been the constant endeavour of this 
state to break the dependencies which great lords 
draw to themselves of followers, tenants, and 
neighbours, and make the subject to hold iname- 
diately of the crown, and not to be liable to the 
distresses of great lords.'' 

383. Oath scrupled by the Scots. 

388, 9. Strafford's opinion of the ship money, 
the duty of obedience and the danger of imagin- 
ary liberties. 

416. Charles's promise "on the word of a king." 



Laud's Life and Troubles. 
Preface. 

Prynne's \allany with the papers, 4. 39. 

Archbishop WilUams. Hacket. 

Fate of the papers. 

Sancroft left perhaps more wi-itten with his 
own hand than any man either of this, or the last 
age, ever did write. 

9. Laud's desire of union. 

14. Dream, 20. 39. 

15. Death of James I. 20. 

16. O. P. 

21. Bugs in the text explained by Churches 
ia a marginal note. 

27. Fears for the Church. 
30. Scheme for separating the colonies from 
Spain, religion to be the means employed. 
34. His sense of the evil of factions. 
41. Dr. Donne. " The King forgave him cer- 
tain slips in a sermon preached April 1, Sunday 
1627." 

59. Fall of his picture. 
73. Protestation of his motives. 
Brutality of Essex and Say. 
Comfortable psalms. 
Scotch troubles how brought about. 
His advice for peace. 

78. Lindsey excludes clergy from the pacifi- 
cation. 

Strafford advises calling a parliament. 

79. Canons. Continuance of the convocation, 
80. 

83, 4. Scots invited. 

85. Strafford had scent of this, and therefore 
they struck first. 

92. Sunday the fast day in Scotland 

96. His objection to galleries in Churches. 

104. Charged with innovating! his reply. 

113. Difference between reformation and de- 
struction. 

121. The real presence. 

135. "This I could bear with more ease, had 
I not written more against Popish superstition 
than any Presbyter in Scotland hath done." 

144. Burton. Prj-nne, &c. Laud gave no sen- 
tence, as being in some degree concerned, 145. 

151. The want of written law gives a latitude 
to the judges which comes a little too near that 
arbitrary governor so much and so ju.stly found 
fault with. 



74. 



75. 
76. 



159. His feelings concerning Popery. 

161. What should keep him from Rome ? very 
fine. 

162. Use that he has made of his revenues. 
178. Character of Strafford. 

187. Bill for taking away the bishop's votes. 
His foresight. 

206. Prynne. 208, 216-9, 412-3. 

208. Synod of Divines. 

224. Uniformity. 

227. Chillingworth. 

232. Sir Henry Vane. 

297. Impropriations in Ireland. 

310. Featley's evidence. 

314. Painted windows. 

319. Coronation oath. 

337. They print whatsoever Ts charged against 
me as if it were fully proved, never so much as 
mentioning what, or how I answered. 

340. Consecration of Churches. 

343. Books of sports. 

372. The feoffment. 

387. Act against relieving a priest. 

473. His birth — in reply to Lord Say. 

475. His slow promotion. 

476. Aim in reforming a neglected worship. 
478. Lord Say in the Coiurt of Wards, a ty- 
rant. 

483. Gifts and graces, 484. 
487. North and South, &c. 
491. Preaching. 

498. Separation. 

499. Ceremonials. 

" They will be convinced in every particular 
out of the Word of God, to the very taking up 
of a rash or straw, as their grave master J. C. 
taught them. As if God took care of straws, or 
their taking of them up." 

501. Lord Say, 512. 

502, 3. Calvinists. 

510. King's power with regard to the Church. 
519. Great part of the powder treason was 
hatched at St. Winifred's Well. 
527. Running lectures. 

530. The Cathedral at Salisbury much pes- 
tered with seats. 

531. A pun. Laud and Charles. 

610. To Sir Ken. Digby on his change of re- 
ligion, a beautiful letter, most characteristic of, 
and most honorable to the writer. 
Vol. 2. 

189. Oxford relapsing into a drinking humour. 

195. Jackson. 

Answer to Lord Say's speech. 

12. Roundheads. 



Clarendon's State Papers. 
3. Spanish match. The Pope insisted that 
the children should be brought up Catholics under 
the mother till they were twelve or fourteen. 
James having limited their education under the 
mother to seven years. James was contented to 
yield thus much farther, "that howbeit in the 
public articles (which in that point he desires not 
to be altered), he mentions but seven years, he 



CLARENDON. 



133 






will oblige himself privately by a letter to the 
King of Spain, that they shall be brought up sub 
regimine matris for two years longer, that is, 
until the age of nine." 

10. "James promised a perpetual toleration 
to exercise the Roman Catholic religion within 
their private houses — but with this protestation, 
that if they shall insolently abuse this his Maj- 
esty's high grace and favour to the danger of 
embroiling his state and government, the safety 
of the Commonwealth is in this case supreme 
law, and his Majesty must, notwithstanding his 
said oath, proceed against the offenders." 

14. Don Fennyn's wild report to Buckingham 
of a ppople in America who produced Told . with- 
out workmgfor it in the mines, had also precious 
stones, and were besotted with a prediction that 
there should come unto them a nation with flaxen 
hair, white complexion, grey eyes, that shall gov- 
ern them. 

18. Buckingham'.s treaty with the King of 
Sweden for the conquest of that part of America, 
Jamaica, St. Domingo, &c. 

49. 1631. League offensive and defensive 
with Spain against Holland. 

67. Prohibited books introduced under the 
Spanish resident's address. 

72. Father Leander alias Jones. 

127. One D. Francesco de Melo, of the house 
of Braganza, a very wise and well-tempered man, 
now ambassador at Geneva, 1634. 

130. F. Leander's account of the disputes 
among the Roman Catholics in England. The 
propositions that the King could only legislate 
with his parliament, and that in certain eases the 
temporal commonwealth might depose the King, 
were deemed very injurious to their cause. 

134. "The King," F. Leander says, "is not 
a heretic, — only a person not sufficiently in- 
formed." 

140. Wealth of the Jesuits in England, some 
2 or d£300,000 in yearly rents of lands, houses 
and money at use. More than 360 Jesuits in 
the country, and out of it more that 550 Engli.sh 
students in their cf)lleges. 

141. Danger from them. 

159. Li.st of gifts which Charles permitted the 
Lord Treasurer Portland to receive, amounting 
to d£44,500 : among them was a sum ofr£500 
from Sir Wm. Withpool, for pardoning his burn- 
ing in the hand. 

167. Employment of French Capuchins in 
Scotland, a mischief planned by Richelieu and 
Father Joseph, of which Leander warns Winde- 
bank. 1634. 

197. Leander's view of the nearness of the 
two Churches and the speech of the French Em- 
bassador, that " if the Hugonots had framed their 
(Imrch upon the model of the English, there 
would not have been a Papist at that time in 
France." 

199. Number of missionaries in England. 

202. Desire of the King and of the Bishop to 
do away all persecution. 

203. English clergy described by Leander. 
208. Terms of possible reconciUation. 



221. The Founder of the Ben. Coll. and Con- 
vent at Douay begins it at Leander's instigation. 

317. The Spaniards, — "they think we are so 
much in love with this trade, as it is a recom- 
pense for any thing we can do for them." — Hop- 
ton. 1635. 

338. Windebank writes to the king, 1635, — 
" I am given to understand, that the Protestants 
in France complain much of an altar, which the 
Lord Scudamore hath caused to be set up in his 
chapel there, after the manner of the Church of 
England : which being held a great superstition 
by the Protestant party in France, they are much 
scandalized at it ; and it is thought it may hazard 
the interest your Majesty had in that party there : 
and thereupon hath been forborne by your Maj- 
esty's former ambassador." 

356. Charles's instruction to the Queen's agent 
at Rome. He will allow of no foreign jurisdic- 
tion within the jurisdiction of the Church of En- 
gland : sees the danger : and complains of the 
Jesuits. 

368. Fanshaw. 
Vol. 2. 

44. Pope's instructions, that the Papists be not 
too forward in sei-ving the King either with men 
or money. And that the Roman Cathohc clergy 
desist from that foolish, nay rather illiterate and 
childish custom of distinction in the Protestant 
and Puritan doctrine. 

69. 1639. Sir Arthvir Hopton reports a con- 
spiracy between the fugitive Iri.sh in Spain, and 
some Romish bishops in Ireland, for creating a 
rebellion. 

79. The Dutch said Charles durst not break 
with them ; and if he durst, they feai'ed him not ; 
and rather than suffer the Spanish fleet to escape, 
they would attack it, though it were placed upon 
his Majesty's beard. 

81. Charles saw that the fire in Scotland 
threatened not only the monarchical government 
there, but in England also. 

134. Windebank's merriment after his escape. 
Sure he could never be a good privy councillor, 
for he tells all that he ever knew or did. 

Mr. Sec. Vane to the Lords' Justices, 16th 
March, 1 640, warning them that a rebellion was 
intended in Ireland. 

135. Mountnorris's letter to Strafford, aflcr 
Straff(jrd's condemnation. — A most affecting let- 
ter. 

144. Lord Paget's letter to the Parliament 
when he joined the King. 

146. Lord Herbert. "I have got five hund- 
red pounds. If I could tell how, I would send it to 
Mrs. M. I cannot for my life turn it into gol€." 

151. Stamford's letter to the King, imputing 
all the evil to the Earl of Bristol, Archbishop 
Williams, and the rest of their cabal. 

155. An excellent letter of Sir W. Waller's 
to Sir Ralph llopton, showing what the feeling 
of good men was. 

157. The variations in the Scotch liturgy 
" were ma<le out of a desire to comply with those 
exceptions which were most known against it." 

158. Motive for arresting Strafford, 



134 



CLARENDON. 



When members were expelled, there were 
brought in in their room " mean and obscure per- 
sons both in birth and fortune, who were notori- 
ously known to be disaffected to the government 
of the church and state."' 

159. Cause of alarm given to the Irish by the 
Parliament, before the Parliament. 

167. T.ailv R;Hipln,o^h. — "For we have learnt 
at last that it is an easier thing to be weary of 
the government we have, than to mend ourselves 
by a change. Our own disorders have brought 
us into this meddle, that we must either submit 
to one, or be tyrannized over hy hundreds. And 
those that did with the greatest violence pull 
themselves from under the King's govei-nment, 
■when they looked upon it in comparison with 
Queen Elizabeth's, could with as much greedi- 
ness submit to it, now they are able to compare 
it experimentally with Sir H. Vane's." 

169. 1644. Lord Inchiquin says he entered 
into no terms with the Parliament " till I saw 
that there was no living in Ireland for any but 
Papists : and that his ^Majesty was yet so de- 
luded by these people, that his confidence of 
their integrity indueotl him to leave us in their 
power, who we know intend our extirpation, and 
resolve to be no longer obedient to his Majesty 
than he shall permit them to do what may con- 
duce to that end. 

" Ormond, the man in the world the rebels 
have shown most hatred to, and that justly, as 
being the person has given them most of preju- 
dice." 

182. Sir J. ^otham^ when he departed from 
London, gave assurance to some of his nearest 
friends, " that he would not deny the King en- 
trance into Hull, and surely had not done it, but 
that he was informed by some person near the 
King, in case he permitted his Majesty's en- 
trance, he would lose his head ; and it is con- 
ceived the same person did most prompt the 
King to go to Hull." 

186. Hotham was the first man who moved 
in the House of Commons that Laud might be 
charged with high treason, and yet the person 
that suffered immediately before him upon the 
same stage. 

188. An excellent letter of Culpeper's to Dig- 
by : — " Remember that a kingdom is at stake, 
and the present and all future ages will call 
them wise and honest too that shall preserve it." 
He advises "a severe and most strict reforma- 
tion in the discipline and manners of the army. 
Our courage is enerved by a lazy licentious- 
ness ; and good men are so scandalized at the 
h(*rid impiety of our armies, that they will not 
beheve that God can bless any cause in such 
hands. Begin upon a new scale, and learn of 
ray lord Montrose to be as conscientious in pro- 
tecting your friends as terrible to your enemies, 
and subtle in taking all measures for such." 

191. Digby"s letter to the Scotch lords: — 
"Is there any that would pretend themselves 
bound in conscience to enforce the same church 
government here which is settled in Scotland? 
Certainly, my lords, they who justily their taking 



up arms against their King, to with.strind his im- 
posing upon them a church government, against 
their consciences, can ill pretend to justify their 
continuing in arms against him, because he will 
not let them impose upon him a church govern- 
ment against his conscience." 

201. Ormond. 287. 

202. Glamorgan's instructions : — They prove 
a lamentable willingness in Charles to make 
scape goats of his faithful servants. And also 
a duplicity, which no doubt was forced upon him 
by the times. See, also, 306. 

207. Culpeper : — " As for foreign force, it is 
a vain dream." This was a real statesman. 

209. Charles represents to Montreuil, that if 
he could in conscience consent to cstabhsh a 
Presbyterian Church in England, the Independ- 
ents would not submit to it. 

220. 1646. Charles sends Montreml a prot- 
estation " that all my servants, and all others 
who adhere to me, shall be saved from ruin or 
any public dishonour. Which is a condition 
that my wife writ to me that not only she, but 
likewise Cardinal Mazerin, were absolutely of 
opinion that I was sooner to die than not to have." 

226. March, 1645-6. Charles's overtures to 
Sir H. Vane. 

234. 1646. Hyde looks for advantages which 
"may be taken from the necessary distractions 
among themselves ; there being not yet six men 
of one mind in their future designs upon the pub- 
lic, or in their private charity to each other." 

243. Charles's ground for refusing to yield in 
church matters, forcibly stated. 254. 

252. An Irish row described to the Nuncio. 

257. Protestation of the Irish Popish clergy, 
that they aU propagate the Romish faith. 

278. Charles says of the Scotch, "The Devil 
owes them a shame." 

296. His contrition for Strafford's death, and 
his declaration, that he was surprised into his 
assent to the perpetual Parliament, " instantly 
after I made that base unworthy concession." 

298. The Pope's terms conamunicated through 
Sir K. Digby. 

317. " I am not satisfied that too imperious a 
dislike heretofore in our Church of England, 
when she was of reputation and authority toward 
those churches (the French), espeeially the testy 
and imprudent carriage of my lord Sligo, when 
he was ambassador, towards those of Charenton, 
was not the best argument that hath been yet 
given, for those unworthy and uncharitable opin- 
ions of the religion of the King and Court of En- 
gland." — Hyde. 

322. Hyde's opinion, that the Scots would not 
betray the King. 

326. 1646-7. His opinion that the King 
should make no unworthy concessions. 

333. His foresight that there could be no 
peace till we were prepared to settle upon the 
old foundations. 

336. Scandal of entertaining Con. — and inex- 
cusable intrigues with the Irish Catholics. Here 
is a feeling evinced of Charles's want of open- 
ness to his best servants. 



CATO— NICHOLS. 



135 



337. The Scotch a bare-faoed rebellion. 

342. Of Digby he says, "Yet truly I more 
fear that young man's fate, than I do any man's 
to whom I wish so well." 

366. " If ever I come abroad again into the 
world, and any part be mean enough for me to 
act, I shall have ambition enough to make some 
means to be admitted to my lord marquis (Or- 
mond), whom, in good faith, I take to be the 
most excellent subject the King is lord of." 

383. 1647. Nicholas writes as news which 
he has received from England : — " The House 
of Commons hath again voted the settlement of 
Presbytery, with liberty for tender consciences, 
which is a back door to let in all sects and her- 
esies. The Socinians now begin to appear in 
great numbers under the title of Rationalists ; 
and there are a sect of women late!)'' come from 
foreign parts, and lodged in Southwark, called 
Quakers, who swell, shivei", and shake, and when 
they come to themselves (for in all the time of 
their fits Mahomet's holy ghost converses with 
them), they begin to preach what hath been de- 
livered to them by the spirit." 

448—9. Charles's most admirable letter to his 
son. 

455. Scheme for attempting to release the 
King from Carisbrook. 

543. Ascham. " There was found about the 
person of the man when he was dead, upon the 
left side next his skin, and neai'est his heart, a 
plate of silver, which is now in his majesty's 
keeping (of Spain), and a model whereof we 
herein send your Majesty. We here take it to 
be some combination entered into at that time. 
It may be the hieroglyphic may be better under- 
stood nearer England, though it wants not sev- 
eral comments here." 

554. Whalley. 

xxxvii. App. " The King (1647) lately asked 
Mr. Marshall what exceptions they had against 
the Liturgy, or against what part of it they took 
dislike. He answered that the Parliament had 
made an ordinance that it should not be used, 
and therefore he could not approve of it. To 
which the King replied, that he could have had 
as good a reason as that from the Earl of Pem- 
broke." 

Martin, upon reading of letters from Holmby, 
desiring directions how to deal with such as 
flocked up to be touched by the King, said he 
knew not but the Parliament's Great Seal might 
do it as well if there were an ordinance for it. 

xl. " There is a new sect sprung up among 
them, 1647, and these arc the Rationalists; and 
what their reason dictates to them in church or 
state stands for good until they be convinced 
with better ; that is, according as it serves their 
own turns." 



Cromwell. 
" Though I am sure that he was an usurper, 
I am not sure that he was a hypocrite, at least 
all along, though it was most probable be was one 
at first." — Cato's Letters, vol. 2, p. 293. 



The very reverse seems to rae true. 



Mr. Brooke says in a letter to Mr. Gough, 
1783, "My friend Dade tells me that a family 
in the East Riding of Yorkshire are in posses- 
sion of a collection of letters written from Ches- 
hunt by a woman who lived as mistress with 
Richard Cromwell, which gives a particular ac- 
count of his death, and of the most material trans- 
actions of the latter part of his life." — Nichols's 
Illustrations vol. 6, p. 413. 



James Nichols. Calvinism and Arminianism 
compared. 

ii. Those benevolent men who plead for the 
perfectly innocuous nature of mental error, would 
acknowledge the erroneousness of this principle, 
were they to peruse the strange and unscrip- 
tural assertions made by many of the early Cal- 
vinists. 

Calvin " sophi-stically changed some of the 
plain doctrines of the Gospel into the fate of hea- 
thenism." 

iv. Doctrines connected with general redemp- 
tion suffered greatly from being recommended 
solely by the Lutherans, some of whose tenets 
were exceedingly obnoxious to such moderate 
men as wished to be at the greatest possible dis- 
tance from Popery. 

vi. No Lutherans at Dort. 

vii. The explanatory and often opposite sig- 
nifications given by the various parties at Dort, 
occupy a far larger space in the acts than the 
canons themselves, and contain curious apologies 
for every contradictory grade of Calvinism. 

xxix. Since the middle of the last century Ar- 
minianism has been rapidly gaining ground in 
Scotland. 

xxxiii. Grotius's Adversaria published after 
his death, and the extracts there from other writ- 
ers, have past for his own, where opinions con- 
trary to his have been ascribed to him. 

xlv. Puritans of the Rebellion differ from their 
predecessor-s, for they commenced offensive op- 
erations (the English ones) not as secedcrs from 
the church, but as Calvinists. The trumpeters 
and drummers and bellows-blowers of rebellion 
were conformable Episcopalians. 

Laud's moderation. 

xlvi. After the Restoration, " the rigid Cal- 
vinists almost unanimously became Nonconform- 
ists, and the more moderate Presbyterians with 
nearly all the Arminians, took refuge under 
Episcopacy." 

xlvii. Milton defends the regicide by quota- 
tions from Calvin and his followers. 

xlviii. " — it was a general Calvinistic crusade 
against Arminianism and Episcopacy." 

Luther sobered as he advanced in years, and 
then his sentiments concerning lawful obedience 
were entirely changed. 

xlix. Mr. Scott calls the bellwethers of re- 
bellion a few honest but undiscerning men. Nich- 
ols shows that they were neither. 



136 



NICHOLS. 



His acknowledgmpnt of obligation to them 
when they hud iuiiendcd their ways, and confined 
themselves to the duties of their profession. 

1 . John Diirye had been employed under Laud 
for many years in trying to efi'ect a union among 
the Protestants. He became a Bellwether. 

Hi. Opportunities of religious instruction which 
the Long Parliament enjoyed ! 

Effect of their perversion of religion in pro- 
ducing irrcligion. 

liv. Complaints by the preachers of the Par- 
liament as being sermon-proof. 

Ivii. The judges, not the bishops, occasioned 
the grievance and the rebellion. 

Comparison between the loyal and the Parlia- 
ment sermons. 

Iviii. When did these abominations break out? 
— when the Covenant triumphed. A good pas- 
sage. 

lix. Episcojiacy popular — made so by the con- 
.sequences of destroying it. 

Ix. The Puritans were the fathers of English 
liberty, just as the devil was the cause of Job's 
final earthly prosperity. 

Ixi. Intolerance preached by them. 

Ixiii. Saying of John Hales that he would re- 
nounce the Church of England to-morrow if it 
obliged him to believe that any other Christians 
should be damned, and that nobody would con- 
clude another man to be damned who did not 
wish him so. xciv. 

Ixiv. Cudworth's description of zeal. 

Ixix. Cromwell's policy with the Independ- 
ents, setting them to prepare a Confession of 
faith, — which would, ipso facto, have Presby- 
terianized them. 

Ixxi. English oath and English consciences : 
happily likened by Jeremiah Burroughes. 

Ixxiv. Owen acquits tiie zeal of those who put 
Servetus to death. 

Sedgewick. Opposite revelations concerning 
the King's murder. 

Ixxviii. An hvmdred and fourscore new opin- 
ions. 707. 

Ixxix. Arminianism and Episcopacy both as 
such formally excluded from the benefits of tol- 
eration, even in the republican array. 

Ixxxv. Change in the Long Parliament. Ixxxvi. 

Ixxxvii. Good effect that some good men re- 
mained. 

The second hot incpiisition again.st Arminian- 
i.sm (1653) undertaken at the earnest solicitation 
and under the immediate conduct of the Inde- 
pendents : that of 1643 was by the Presbytery. 
In this the Calvinists agreed heartily. 

c. Cudworth not asked to preach after a ser- 
mon upon the life of Christ. 

Jackson. 

Cudworth's father was editor of Perkins's 
works. 

cv. Cudworth's description of holiness. 

cviii. Schism sown by the Pa[)ists. 

cxiv. Host of Calvinistic prophets. 

cxv. Mede had defended the rites which An- 
drews, not Laud, revived. 

cxvi. Straflbrd and Laud, they were rather 



baited to death by beasts than sentenced with 
any colour of law or justice. 

cxxi. P. Heylyn. 310. 

cxxxvi. Peter Du Moulin — he and his family 
firebrands. 

cxli. William Orme's rascally book. 380. 

cxlvii. Winwood's character of Grotius. 

cl. Abbot. 

clxi. Hooker attacked as not Calvinistic. Tol- 
erance of Opposite doctrines in his time. 

clxii. All the turbulent spirits, with very few 
exceptions, high Calvinists. 

cxliv. Evangelical reviewers he calls regular 
traders in misrepresentation. 

4. Many converts to Arminianism during the 
Rebellion. 

5. Mr. Knowlittle is Hugh Peters — Dr. Du- 
bious is Baxter. 

9. Debates by word of mouth useless or hurt- 
ful. This is beautifully said by Womack. 

16. Franeker, the grand hotbed of the rank- 
est Calvinism. 197. Its character. 

There are good names in this Exam. Mr. 
Frybabc, and Dr. Damman — which is the better 
for being a real name — and of a Calvinist divine, 
whom it suited to a letter. 

31. Sudden conversions. — "The ordinary 
course is not for the kingdom of heaven to offer 
violence to us, and to take us by force ; but for 
us to do so by it." 

71. Calvin's ill temper. — " That wild beast 
of impatience," he called it, "that raged in him 
and was not )-et tamed. He would frequently 
reproach his brethren (especially if they dissent- 
ed from him in the matter of predestination, &c.) 
by the name of Knave, Dog, and Satan. And he 
so vexed the spirit of Bucer, that he provoked the 
good, mild man to write thus to him, 'Judieas 
prout amas, vel odisti;.amas autem vel odisti, 
prout libet :' that his judgement was governed by 
his passions of love and hatred, and these by hb 
lust. And for his bitter speeches Bucer gave 
him the title of a fratricide." — Bishop Womack. 

203. It was common for a church, i. e. a con- 
gregation, to educate a promising young man for 
their pastor. But whether this were done in the 
English Church I know not. It is the Hugonot 
church of Bourdeaux which is spoken of, as thus 
doing in the case of Cameron what " w^as very 
common at that period, and worthy to be more 
generally adopted in modern times." — It cannot 
be done by congregations who have not the pat- 
ronage in their own disposal. 

205. James a friend, but not patron of Cam- 
eron. 

C. lost his life for opposing the seditious Hu- 
gonots. 

206-7. Political character of Calvinism. — 
Conditional obedience the only trace of condi- 
tionality which is to be found throughout their 
fatal system. 

207. The preachers stirred up civil wars in 
France. 

208. Knight's sermon, and Paraeus's book 
burnt. 1622. 

209. Grotius^ foresight that no empire would 



NICHOLS. 



137 



( 



be safe any longer than while those who held 
such principles were destitute of power. 

210. Here is the opinion of a Freneh Protest- 
ant Charpentier that the massacre was just and 
necessary, in order to subdue an impious faction, 
— for there were two parties among the Protest- 
ants, and the turbulent party provoked it. I 
doubt tire Protestantism of such an apologist. I 
believe the peaceable part would not have es- 
caped persecution : but I believe also, that noth- 
ing but the violence and crimes and extrava- 
gance of the Reformers prevented the perfect 
triumph of the Reformation. 

— Upon referring to Thuanus it appears that 
Charpentier was paid by the French court for 
writing its apology. 

212. Grotiu s induced to palliate Popery by 
his learning, ''Tiaving traced some of the orig- 
inally innocent observances of the Romish church 
up to the purest ages," and because he saw it as- 
suming a milder aspect, and supported by such 
moderate reformers of it as Thuanus, Cassander, 
&c. That milder aspect it did not long continue 
to affect. 292. 

216-17. His foresight of the Puritans' views 
and the danger in Scotland. 

221. The Caraeronists confess the intemper- 
ance of the early Hugonots. They carried into 
Holland a species of Anninianism. 

234. Certain dogmas maintained by the Cal- 
vinists not on a belief of their truth, but as sup- 
ports to other dogmas which could not be main- 
tained without them. 

249. Gustavus's success laid the foundations 
of the Prussian monarchy. 

254. The castle of Gutsein. Offence given by 
a wrongful decision concerning it by the Electoi-- 
Palatine King, upon which the ejected sister 
blew it up. and the officer of justice in it which 
came to put the Calvinist sister in possession. 

255. Political ambition of the Calvinists. 

256. Prophecies connected therewith. 
262. Jurien. 

261. Comenius invited by the ParHament, 
1641, to assist in the reformation of the public 
echools of this kingdom. 

268. Owen's atrocious language concerning 
Ireton. 

272-3. yror;j ]ay and not Lgjigjuet said here to 
have been the Juniu sBojtJ.ii& "^^b c, Yig dim^ 

303. HammoM's sermon, 1643, upon the 
fashion of swearing at the court and in the army. 

304. One (?) who maintained that God had 
hidden from the first Christians the liberty of re- 
sisting superiors, as part of his counsel to bring 
Antichrist into the world ; but that he had now 
manifested it to his people as a means of casting 
Antichrist out. 

305. That Christ died for the sins of all man- 
kind, was declared by the ministers of Christ 
within the province of London, fifty-two Presby- 
terian ministers, to wit, 1648, to be an abomina- 
ble error, a damnable heresy, and a horrid blas- 
phemy. 

307. James's error in supporting the Calvin- 
ists at Dort, and his strange concession to C. 



' Pcrrin concerning resistance to kings in matters 

contrary to God's word. 
p 329. Beal's dying words, — I believe the 
RESURRECTION — a fine example of a double 
I meaning, and of the religious feeling of the loy- 
, alists. 

! 333. More ministers deprived in three years 
by the Presbyterians than in Mary's reign, or 
than had been suspended by all the bishops from 
the first year of Elizabeth ! 

334. Servility of ministers who depend on 
their patrons and their flocks — well stated both 
by Heylyn and Nichols. 

336. Prince Rupert fighting against those 
Calvinists on whom his father depended for suc- 
cess in his schemes of ambition. 

350. Nye's opinion of Marshall and his mo- 
tives. 

359. A good view of the miseries and conse- 
quences of this rebellion. 

362. Judge Jenkins — his testimony that 
Charles always required his council to inform 
him if the suits preferred to him were agreeable 
to the laws, and not inconvenient to his people, 
before he would pass them. 

376. Nichols well says that the constitution, 
even at its deepest depression in Charles's days 
" contained within itself copious materials for 
self-restoration ; and the course pursued by the 
Calvinistic malcontents was not that which the 
laws suggested for the redress of grievances." 

Vol. 2, p. 378. Jenkins's declaration against 
abuses. This excellent man's writings ought to 
be collected. 

380. Meric Casaubon's excellent conduct 
when required by Cromwell to write the histo- 
ry of the war. 

381. Owen. 384-9. 416. The Quaker wom- 
an. 506. 654. 

382. With whom lay the guilt of the King's 
death, — this is well put by Salmasius. 385. 

387. Proofs that the Presbyterian preachers 
had their full share in instigating the King's 
death. 

392-3. Incendiary language of the two Du 
Moulins. 

395. Respect paid to antiquity by the En- 
gli.sh Church. 

401. Assembly of Divines — their lives writ- 
ten lately by James Reid, who regrets that the 
Covenant is no longer in operation ! 

403. Featley. 404. His reward for going 
with the reforming party. 460. 

406. Nye's exhortations to blood. 

407. Havoc in the cathedral at Nonvich. 
409. Say and Pym charged with enriching 

themselves, &e. 

412. Calamy's sermon on Christmas Day. 

415. Hammond on toleration. 

452. The Covenant. 

Cromwell's impulses. 

458. The preachers called upon to add to 
their faith virtue, "or military valour, as the 
word generally denotes in Homer," says Mr. 
Reid. Mr. R. is this what it denotes in St. 
Paul ? 



138 



NALSON— ORME. 



469. Twisse left in poverty, being too old to 
help himself. 

499. The troubles (humanly) foreseen by 
Mede, Fcrrar, Herbert and Jaekson, who were 
all mercifully taken from the wrath that was to 
come. 

501. Mede held it unlawful to pull down 
churches. He would have had the ground al- 
ways remain holy. 

502-3. Desire of making our church appear 
attractive to the Catholics. 532. 

504. Jeremy Taylor lineally descended from 
the martyr Rowland Taylor. 

520. A scheme for making Thursday the Sab- 
bath. 

521. The Eucharist. J. Mede. 

532. Bishop Andrews. James, however, had 
no such bias as is here imputed to him. 

562. Burnet's declaration that resistance on 
account of religion is unlawful. 607. The Ar- 
minian doctrine. 

564. Gerard Brandt's wise doctrine on this 
question. 

575. Laud's tolerance. 655. 

599. j^ro tins discouraged from coming to En- 
gland. 634** 

606. French Protestants acknowledge the 
Commonwealth. 

607. The Parliament prayed for in the Dutch 
pulpits. 

612. flrotins thought that a war for the Pa- 
latinate vigorously pursued would have operated 
as a safety valve and prevented the rebellion. 

613. The Elector Palatine obtained at the 
treaty of Westphalia no more than had been re- 
fused when offered through Charles's ambassador 
many years before. 

626. E.iffh.(jjeu's notion of becoming Patriarch 
of France. 

635. Selden and Ship Money. 

683. Laud's Arrainianism the cause of his un- 
popularity. 

686. Graduation of Calvinism. 

The tendency to invent new forms of worship. 

694. Great number of Roman Catholics in 
Holland. 

699. Jesuit sowing schism. 

700. Dr. Weston's knowledge of the Gun- 
powder Plot. 

730. Hammond's denial that any Papist was 
ever in this country put to death by the laws 
for his religion. 

733. Effect of the rebellion in strengthening 
the Papists. 

734. Views of Grotius for the Pi'otestant cause. 

735. Queen of Bohemia. 

742. Mede upon silencing Nonconformist min- 
isters. 

753. Vossius shrunk from his duty toward 
Laud, his friend and benefactor. 

772. State of religion in Scandinavia, not 
brought about without great difficulty, and some 
severity also. 

773. Laud and Cromwell compared in point 
of toleration. 

794. Sanderson. Our church the true mean 



between the extremes of Popery and Presbj^e- 
rianism, which meet. 

795. Latitudinarians. 

812. Wesley the elder, his history shows how 
the same man was thought Whig and Tory. 

814. His own account of seeing James at 
Magdalen " lifting up his lean arm." 



Scotlanb. 

1639. "One Mary Michelton who for sev- 
eral years had been distracted by certain fits, 
was reported to be inspired ; in which fits thou- 
sands resorted to her ; she extolled the covenant, 
and made bitter invectives against the opposers 
of it. Rollock, her favourite, and as was sup- 
posed, her tutor, being desired to pray with her, 
answered he durst not do it, ifbcing no good 
manners for him to speak while his master was 
speaking in her ; when as by observation of the 
most intelligent, it appeared confederacy, and 
that she was not entranced ; for in her pretended 
raptures she would make pertinent an.swers ; and 
all she spake was in favour of the covenant, that 
theirs was from heaven, but that that command- 
ed by his majesty from Satan, and that all its ad- 
herents should be confounded." — Nalson, vol. 
l,p. 93. 



Treaty, 1639. 

" Here by the way the reader shall observe a 
neat piece of presbyterian hypocrisy in Alexander 
Henderson, the minister of Edinburgh, the most 
rigid of the faction, and the main engine by whom 
the covenanting lords wound up the mobile and 
clergy to those heights. For it had been by him 
and his party made a great crime in the bishops 
and clergy to meddle in secular and civil affairs; 
and this opinion was universally propagated 
through the whole party, and stiffly maintained 
by them to this day. Yet to see the admirable 
effects of presbytery, this very man thrusts him- 
self into the heat of war, marches and encamps 
with an army, treats and advises as a commis- 
sioner, and to his eternal reproach gives a test- 
imony of hypocrisy against himself and all the 
associates of his opinion, signing this treaty, which 
was purely civil, with his own hand." — Ibid., vol. 
l,p. 241. 



A DISCUSSION between Owen and some of the 
Scotch ministers at Glasgow, in Cromwell's pres- 
ence. " Hugh Binning is said to have managed 
the dispute that he nonplused Cromwell's minis- 
ters, which led Oliver to ask, after the meeting 
was over, who that learned and bold young man 
was. Being told his name was Binning, he hath 
bound well indeed, said he, but (laying hand on 
his sword) this will loose all again." — Okme's 
Life of Owen, p. 127. Biographia Scoticana, 
quoted, p. 167. 



1638. First conmiotion. " It is more dan- 



STRAFFORD— NAL SON. 



13d 



gerous," says Strafford, writing to Northum- 
berland, " because it falls upon us unexpected, 
which hath been in a great part occasioned by 
that unhappy principle of state practised as well 
by his majesty as by his blessed father, of keep- 
ing secret and distinct all the affairs and consti- 
tution of that crown from the privity and knowl- 
edge of the council of England, insomuch as no 
man was intrusted, or knew anything, but those 
of their own nation, which was in eflect to con- 
tinue them two kingdoms still, and to put them- 
selves with confidence upon the faith of his minis- 
ters and subjects there, where they might have 
had the eyes of their English to have watched 
over them, in timely prevention of all which 
might grow to the disquiet of the public peace, 
or prejudice of their own private affairs, or rights 
of that crown." — Stbafford's Letters, vol. 2, p. 
190. 



Laud's opinion that Traquair was treacher- 
ous, and why the introduction of the Liturgy had 
failed so dangerously. — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 264. 



Jrclflitb. 

" The barbarism of the soldiers to the Irish 
was such, that I have heard a relation of my own, 
who was a captain in that service, relate, that 
no manner of compassion or discrimination was 
shewed either to age or sex, but that the little 
children were promiscuously sufferers with the 
guilty ; and that if any who had some grains of 
compassion reprehended the soldiers for this un- 
christian inhumanity, they would scoffingly re- 
ply, why? nits will be lice, and so would dis- 
patch them." — Nalson, vol. 2, p. 7. 



" There is extant in the Paper Office, a pe- 
tition from Ireland to reverse an order of the 
Council Board (in Strafford's time), forbidding 
them to plough with their horses tyed only to one 
another's tails, and to use the English way of 
traces, for their more commodious performing 
the service of their tillage." — Ibid., p. 39. 



" It was confidently averred to the Irish that 
Sir John Clotworthy did in the House of Com- 
mons declare in a speech, that the conversion of 
the Papists in Ireland was only to be effected by 
the Bible in one hand, and the sword in the other. 
And I have been told by a person of honour and 
worth, that Mr. Pym gave out that they would 
not leave a priest in Ireland." — Ibid., p. 536. 



" State of the army when Wentworth was 
appointed : — 2000 foot, 400 horse, ' all divided 
into companies of fifties ; yet as they are, they 
give countenance unto justice itself, and are the 
only comfort that the poor English undertakers 
live by: and at this hour the king's revenues are 
not timely brought in but by force of soldiers.' " 



— Lord Wilmot. Strafford's Letters, vol. 1, 
p. 61. 

" Your lordship may believe me out of long 
experience, I have found these people to be a na- 
tion as ready to take the bit in their teeth upon 
all advantages as any people living, although 
they pay for it, as many times they have done 
before, with all that they are worth." — Ibid. 



1631. "Certain intelligence of attempts m- 
tended by the Turks (Barbary or Morocco Moors) 
against the western coast of Munster. From 
Baltimore, a weak English corporation on the 
coast there, they had carried off" above 100 En- 
glish inhabitants the preceding summer. And 
the revenue could not by possibility afford to 
keep more than two pinnaces for the guard of 
the coasts." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 68. 



Transplanting septs who had no real prop- 
erty. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 69. 



" I FIND them in this place," says Went- 
worth, "a company of men the most intent 
upon their own ends that ever I met with." — 
Ibid., vol. 1, p. 96. 



1 633. Wexford, once the most reformed part 
of the kingdom, had been Romanized by the 
priests. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 102. 



" I WHOLLY agree with you," says Laud to 
Wentworth, " that the wars and their noise stunned 
the Church ; and that since the time of peace it 
hath scarce thrived any better than it did in the 
war, must needs be in part charged upon the 
weakness and negligence of the clergy them- 
selves. For the recovery of the weakness, I am 
wholly of your lordship's belief that the physi- 
cians that must cure it are on this side the sea ; 
and further that the fees allowed in those parts 
are not large enough to tempt them over. And 
to force them in such a case, I can never hold it 
fit ; for such a work will never be mastered by 
unwilling hands." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 124. 



State of the Pope's kingdom in Ireland, 
warmly expressed by Bedell. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 
147. 

Here too is foresight of the massacre. 



" Nor can I answer what became of the pri- 
mate and the rest of the bishops while the poor 
inferior clergy were thus oppressed, more than 
this, that I ever thought it was not in their power 
to help it. But if any of them be as bad for op- 
pression of the Church as any layman, that I am 
sure is unanswerable ; and if it appears so to you, 



140 



STRAFFORD. 



great pity it is but some one or other of the chief 
offenders slionld be made a pubHc example, and 
turned out of his bishopric. And I believe such 
a course once held, would do more good in Ire- 
land than an}- thing that hath been there this 
forty years." — Laud to Strafford. Ibid., vol. 1, 
p. 156. 



" Ireland in my memory was so replenished 
with fair hobbies, that they furnished England 
and other countries, and were everywhere much 
esteemed. Now we hear so little of them, that 
it seemeth the honour of breeding for service hath 
no more esteem.'' — Secretary Coke. Straf- 
ford's Letters, vol. 1, p. 158. 



2d Jan. 1633. Strafford sends an ingot of 
silver of 300 ozs., being the first that ever was 
got in Ireland. 



1633. Miserable state of the clergy and of 
the church.— Ibid., vol. 1, p. 187-8. " 



" Here are divers of the clergy whose wives 
and children are recusants, and there I observe 
the church goes most lamentably to wreck, and 
hath suffered extremely under the wicked alien- 
ation of this sort of pastors." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 
188. 



" They are accustomed here to have all their 
christenings and marriages in their private houses ; 
and which is odd, they never marry till after sup- 
per, and so to bed. This breeds a great mischief 
in the commonwealth, which is seen in this, that 
because these rites of the church are not solem- 
nized in the public and open assemblies, there is 
nothing so common as for a man to deny his wife 
and children, abandon the former, and betake 
himself to a new task. I conceive it were fit 
these particulars should be reduced to the cus- 
tom of England, which is not only much better 
for the public, but the more civil and comely." 
— Strafford to Laud. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 188. 



Ibid., p. 195. State of the army. "Their 
horsemen's staves rather of trouble to themselves, 
than of offence against an enemy." He wished 
the staves changed into carabines, musket-bore, 
and he would have had the calevers changed for 
muskets, but the king disapproved this, consider- 
ing the manner of service in those parts. 



1633. Here Strafford says, "they have 
swallowed down this maxim, that the revenue 
of this crown must ever be rather over than un- 
dercharged ; because if there be once a surplus, 
it will be carried over into England, and so by 
little and little drain the kingdom of all her 



wealth ; where in the other case, this rathei 
fetches from, than communicates anv thing with 
England. An opinion I should better excuse in 
them, if those were less English that practise it; 
and yet this have they drunk so far down as it 
will be impossible to gain it from them : unless 
it be not only against their wills, but before they 
be aware of what is intended." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 
223. 



Sir Henry Sidney down to Strafford's time 
was called by the people the good deputy, " and 
the common people, who knew not his name, 
w'ould account from the time of the good deputy, 
making an a?ra of his being there." — Ibid., vol. 
1, p. 224. 



Charles thought that when men proposed to 
be undertakers in plantations (in Ireland) he 
might " pleasure servants in that way with doing 
himseW rather good than hurt," he says — Ibid., 
vol. 1, p. 252. 



1634. The Council of Ireland "grant it un- 
deniable in all reason and justice, after so long a 
peace and our estates so much improved under 
the happy government of your Majesty and your 
royal father, that this kingdom should defray it- 
self without any further charge to your crown 
of England."— Ibid., vol. 1, p. 264.' 



They speak of " great annual disbursements 
continually issued for the good and quiet settle- 
ment of this kingdom alone." — Ibid. 



A wise refusal to one of Mr. Attorney's (Noy) 
proposals that laws might be passed without cer- 
tifying them first to the English Government. — 
Ibid., vol. 1, p. 269. 



" This the Irish have transcendently," says 
Strafford, "to be the people of all others loth- 
est to be denied any thing they desire, be it with 
or against reason." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 281. 



1634. " Acts past for restraining the barbar- 
ous customs of ploughing by the tail, of pulling 
the wool off" living sheep, of burning corn in 
straw, and barking of standing trees, of cutting 
of young trees by stealth, of forcing cows to give 
milk, and of building houses without chimneys." 
—Ibid., vol. 1, p. 291. 



1634. "Just at this present," says Straf- 
ford to Laud, " I am informed that my Lord 
Clanricard hath engrossed as many parsonages 
and vicarages as he hath mortgaged for 664000 
and <=£80 rent : but in fai*h have at him, now this 



STRAFFORD. 



141 



parliament is well past, and all the rest of the 
ravens : if I spare a man among them, let no 
man ever spare me. Howbeit I foresee this is 
so universal a disease, that I shall incur a num- 
ber of men's displeasures of the best rank amongst 
them. But were I not better lose these for God 
Almighty's cause, than lose Him for theirs?" — 
Ibid., vol. 1, p. 299. 



Dublin College. 
" Above all things I would recommend that 
we might have half-a-dozen good scholars to be 
sent us over to be made fellows, there will be 
room for so many once in a year ; and this en- 
couragement I will give them, cseteris paribus I 
will prefer them before any but my own chap- 
lains, which I assure you are not many. But to 
make my offer no better than it is, the most 
spiritual livings in my gift are not above c£lOO 
a year, or thereabouts. But I purpose to hook 
into the crown again as many advowsons as I 
can, so abominably do I find them abused where 
they fall into other hands." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 299. 



" There is a want of good houses in this 
kingdom, which may be an occasion they take 
not that delight in their abodes in the country as 
otherwise I am persuaded they would, found 
they at home decency and handsomeness to en- 
tertain them. I confess this must be remedied 
by time and degrees ; yet if there were some 
strict course used to bring them in this town to 
a good order in building, the example might stir 
up an emulation through the whole kingdom to 
intend and accommodate their own dwellings 
much more than now they do. Certainly the 
proclamation you have in England might be of 
good use here." 1634. — Ibid., vol. 1,' p. 306. 



Even in 1634 the Commons of Ireland speak 
of a population such as it now is, " duly weigh- 
ing the want of industry in the inhabitants, in- 
creased by the want of manufactures and trades 
in fhis kingdom, wherein the common sort of 
people, vagabonds and beggars, sound of limb 
and strong of body, that swarm among us, might 
be profitably employed." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 311. 



1634. Strafford says, "I should advise the 
pianter should pay a rent for ever of a full half 
■ of what the land is worth at an improved value ; 
as if the land will give two shillings an acre I 
should reserve twelve pence an acre rent, which 
considering the covenants of building, of main- 
taining horse and foot on the land for your maj- 
esty's service, and such like, I take to be sudi- 
cient. Nor would I advise there might be any 
greater proportions allotted to any one man than 
1000 acres. For I find where more have been 
granted the covenants of plantation arc never 
performed, nor doth it bring in half so many 
planters to undergo the public service of the 



crown, to secure the kingdom against the na- 
tives, or to plant civility, industry and religion 
amongst them, which are indeed the chief and 
excellent goods the plantation hath wrought in 
the kingdom." — Strafford's Letters, vol. 1, p. 
341. 



" Certainly the Irish here are the least sen- 
sible of the dignity and state which ought not 
only inwardly to attend the services of great 
kings, but also to appear to the people in the 
outward motions of it, that ever I knew. And 
the reason is very plain ; they would have noth- 
ing shew more great or magnificent than them- 
selves, that so they might, secundum usum Sarum, 
lord it the more bravely and uncontrolably at 
home, take from the poor churl what, and as 
they pleased." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 348. 



" It may seem strange that this people should 
be so obstinately set against their own good, and 
yet the reason is plain ; for the Friars and Jes- 
uits fearing that these laws would conform them 
here to the manners of England, and in time be 
a means to lead them on to a conformity in re- 
ligion and faith also, they catholickly oppose and 
fence up every path leading to so good a pur- 
pose. And indeed I see plainly, that so long as 
this kingdom continues popish, they are not a 
people for the crown of England to be confident 
of. Whereas if they were not still distempered 
by the infusion of these Friars and Jesuits, I am 
of belief, they would be as good and loyal to their 
King, as any other subjects." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 
351. 



Strafford says of Dublin, " this town is the 
most dangerous for corrupting the disposition of 
youth that ever I came in." — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 362. 



The rebellions, and dLsorders and loo.seness 
of the war, had almost as much ruined them in 
civility and the paths of virtue, as in their estates 
and fortunes. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 366. 



Strafford advises the re-cstablishmcnt of the 
mint, which had been discontinued during the 
troubles in Elizabeth's time. " Very little of the 
foreign coin brought into this kingdom ever comes 
to the Tower of London to be minted, but is 
transported back into France, much into the Low 
Countries, and much back into Spain itself. And 
considering that it is most evident, the exporta- 
tion of this kingdom exceeds the importation at 
least c£200,000 a year, it doth necessarily fol- 
low that great (piantitics of coin is brought in to 
baiimcc the trade yearly, which if the Mint was 
once settled amongst them, would in a great 
part be coined here, and be so considerable a 
profit to the crown, beside an excellent means 
to increase the trade of this kingdom which is 



142 



STRAFFORD. 



now all lost, aiid hindered exceedingly for want 
of it."— Ibid., vol. 1, p. 366. 

The friars and seminaries must have been the 
means of drawing from Ireland tire money which 
would otherwise have been plentiful here. 



1635. "The proportion we were guided by 
was to rate every c£lOOO a year at c£40 pay- 
ment to the King for each subsidy, which in it- 
self is no great matter, nor would indeed seem 
so, but when they compare it with the rates of 
England : wherein this is to be said more than in 
their case, that it is now above twenty years since 
they here gave a subsidy, where the other have 
been in yearly payments all that while. That 
in these late contributions the nobility in a man- 
ner, wholly laid the burthen upon the poor ten- 
ants, most unequally freeing themselves, and 
therefore it is reason they should pay the more 
now. As for example my Lord of Cork, as sure 
us you live, paid towards the c£20,000 yearly 
contribution, not a penny more than 6s. 8d. Irish, 
a quarter.'" — Strafford's Letters, vol. 1, p. 
407. 



Laud writes to Strafford, 1635. "I have 
lately understood of some practising on the 
Queen's side about portions of tithes, to keep 
them still alienated from the Church ; I am bold 
to give your Lordship notice of this which I 
hear, that if there be any such thing you would 
be pleased to make .stay of it, till his Majesty's 
pleasure be farther known, whose royal intend- 
ments I make no doubt are alike gracious touch- 
ing the portions of tithes as the impropriations 
themselves." — Ibid., p. 431. 



" — I HEAR they have sent over agents, for- 
sooth, into England, to what intent I know not ; 
but I trust they will be W'clcomed as they de- 
serve ; it having been anciently the chief art of 
this nation, by the intervention of these agen- 
cies to destroy the services of the crown, and 
strike thorough the honour and credit of this 
state and the ministers thereof. But I trust they 
will find this receipt to fail them now, and the 
temper of their constitution better understood 
than that such physic as this shall be longer 
thought to be proper to recover them forth of 
that superstition and barbarism which hath hith- 
erto been the reproach almost of the English." 
—Ibid., vol. 1, p. 473. 



Strafford calls the army " an excellent min- 
ister and assistant in the execution of all the 
King's wTits, the great peaee-raaker between 
the British and the natives, betwixt the Protest- 
ant and the Papist : and the chief securer, under 
God and his Majesty, of the future and past 
plantations." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 18. 



' A quarter was 120 acres, but whether tine or measure 
be meant in this passage, I am not sure. 



1637. He writes: — "Yet mcthinks some- 
thing begins to appear amongst us, as if this na- 
tion might in time become a strength, a safety, 
and without charge, to that crown ; a purpose 
the English have long had, but hitherto never 
effected. Their trade, their rents, their civil- 
ity, increase daily ; and together with them, the 
King's revenue doth in some measure grow upon 
us, so as we shall be presently able to defray 
ourselves, which at my coming fell short near 
thirty thousand pounds a year." — Ibid., vol. 2, 
p. 80. 



It was Strafford's advice that the King should 
not permit gunpowder to be made in Ireland. — 
Ibid., vol. 2, p. 87. 



Strafford recovered or purchased the cus- 
toms, which had been usurped or alienated. 
Upon asking authority to purchase back the 
grant of those of Carrickfergus, he says : — "And 
then are all the customs thorough the kingdom 
entirely the King's, as in all reason of .state they 
ought to be, and so preserved ; for when they 
are in several hands, each labouring to improve 
the profit of his own port, and by favouring mer- 
chants, to draw them thither, hinders the King 
far more in other places, and consequently in a 
great part impairs the revenue itself." — Ibid., 
vol. 2, p. 91. 



" As for the Archbishop of Ca-shell, I know 
him to be as dangerous and ill-affected a person 
as is in the kingdom, and know also he is a pen- 
sioner of Spain. You would little imagine, per- 
haps, that the titular bishoprick should be worth 
above two thousand pounds sterling a year, yet 
it is no less." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 111. 



" For the Cathedral of Down, if it shall be 
thought fit (as stands with reason in my opinion), 
there should be an act of state enjoining that 
whole diocese to contribute their several propor- 
tions of the charge it shall be estimated at, and 
to be raised upon the abler sort, not upon the 
poor people. I assent it with all my heart, — 
neither for that alone, but for all the Cathedrals 
throughout the whole kingdom. For, mcthinks, 
it is somewhat strange that all the public works 
should be barely put upon the crown, the subject 
the whilst be at no charge, who hath all the ben- 
efit by it."— Ibid., vol. 2, p. 120. 



1637. "If we be foreborne awhile at the 
first, till we have invited over and settled the 
English in these plantations now on foot, this 
kingdom will grow not only to itself, but to the 
increase of his Majesty's revenues exceedingly 
above what is expected from it. But it seems 
there are some envious against so great a good, 
and have sent us over a new book of rates, and 



STRAFFORD— LORD NORTH. 



14.' 



tkereby laid such a burden upon trade as will af- 
fright all people to touch upon our coasts. All 
this, forsooth, under a pretence of raising the 
King's revenue. I know not the workman ; but 
be it who it will, I am sure he undertook either 
more than he understood, or more than he meant 
any good unto." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 121. 



"Remedy sufficient would be found here to 
help the church to her own, if we might be let 
alone : but being carried hence to delegates in 
England, we have no more to say, further, than 
that by this means two poor vicars have been 
undone, through the charge of prosecution, and 
now as near an end of their cause as when they 
begun. Indeed, m}^ lord, if there be way given 
to such appeals as these in an ordinary way of 
proceeding, this clergy shall sue for no tithes 
but the recovery of them shall cost infallibly 
more than they are worth, how good soever the 
success can be; and so the chancery and your 
civilians there, under colour of enlarging their 
jurisdiction over Ireland, bring the greatest op- 
pression upon this poor clergy that ever was. 
And yet I will not say, but in some emergent oc- 
casion it may be fit such appeals be procured ; 
bat in truth, it is too strong a medium to be ap- 
plied as an ordinary and safe cure for all dis- 
eases." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 138. 



1638. " The old bishop of Kilfanova is dead, 
and his bishoprick one of those which when it 
falls, goes a begging for a new husband, being 
not worth more than fourscore pounds to the last 
man : but in the handling of an understanding 
prelate might, perchance, grow to be worth two 
hundred pounds ; but then it will cost money in 
suits." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 172. 



Strafford. " It is very truth there is some- 
thing further touching confession in these canon.s, 
than are in those of England, and in my poor 
judgement mucli to the better. For howbcit 
auricular confession to the parish priest is not al- 
lowed as a necessary duty to be imposed upon 
the conscience, yet did I never hear any but com- 
mend the free and voluntary practice of it, to such 
a worthy and holy person as should be thought fit 
to communicate with it in .so serious and im- 
portant a business." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 195. 



Sir Arthur Hopton, from Spain, 1618. 

" — The two colonels that are here, Tyrone 
and Tyrconnel, would make them believe, that 
all the Irish that serve them, come for love of 
them, and witliout his Majesty's leave, which I 
conceive to be so prejudicial to his Majesty's 
service, both in regard of the honour of his sov- 
ereignt}^, and depriving him of the gratitude that 
is due unto him from this King, as I could wish 
there were a watchful eye had, that no soldiers 
be suffered to pass out of that kingdom but by 



his Majesty's order. Here they^ would esteem 
them in any kind, for it is the nation that hath 
their good opinion, and not the colonels who 
have done no service at all." — Ibid., vol. 2, 
p. 243. 



" — As the woods decay, so do the hawks and 
martins of this kingdom. But in some woods I 
have, my purpose is by all means I can to set up 
a breed of martins : a good one of these is as 
much worth as a good wether, yet neither eats 
so much, or costs so much attendance : but then 
the pheasants must look well to themselves ; for 
they tell me these vermin will hunt and kill them 
notably." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 249. 



A SILVER seal of one of the kings of Connaught 
found, and one of their bits of gold weighing ten 
ounces. — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 267. 



1678. "The affairs of this kingdom go on 
very prosperously, God be praised : and having 
honourably and justly bettered the revenue here 
since my coming to the government £50,000 a 
year, we are now able to bear our own charge 
with advantage, which this crown never did be- 
fore. The trade increaseth daily, and the land 
improves mightily. I dare say all men's rents 
a third part better than when I set first footing 
on Irish ground, and very clearly will still grow, 
if peace continue." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 270. 



No rebellion if Strafford had lived. — Laud's 
Troubles. 



The Papists in Ireland generally estimated at 
twenty to one, in many places more. — Claren- 
don Papers, vol. 2, p. 66. 



1627. Schemes for reducing Ireland under 
the Spanish dominion. The Spanish eraba.ssy 
required of the Pope that the Irish bishoprics 
.should be provided only in persons well affected 
and able to serve the Spanish .service ; and con- 
sequently such as were found affected to the 
King and state of England should be excluded 
from all preferments. — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 67. 



Jesuits' negociations with Cromwell. — Ibid., 
vol. 2, p. 509. 



Lord North (Parliamentary History, vol. 20, 
p. 1272-3) .said that "before the Restoration the 
Irish enjoyed every commercial advantage and 
benefit in common with England." Ccrtes thLs 
was not Strafford's policy. He supposes them 
to h.avc been introduced out of dislike to Or- 
mond. But see the speech. 



144 



PHELAN— CARTE. 



When the youn<T Earl of Desmond came to 
Kilmallock, the people threw wheat and salt 
upon him, accordin<i to the ancient ceremony 
used in that province (Munster). This was Sat- 
urday, next day they spat upon him when he 
came out of the Protestant Church. — Phelan, 
Policy of the Church of Rome in Ireland^ p. 169. 



Intent of Eowa iiiii's law (Iri.sh Parliamentary 
Debates, vol. 1, p. 155). ''It was thoufrht that 
when Lambert Simnel was crowned in Dublin, 
if there had been a Parliament sittin<T, that Par- 
liament would have acknowledged him as right- 
ful kin"." 



Carte's Cifc of ©rmonbe. 

V. Tradition (confirmed by an act of Parlia- 
ment Henry VI.) that the Ormonde family were 
heirs of Becket. 

be. The act says, " of whose blood they are 
lineally descended." 

xvi. Before 1641 the prisage of wine in Ire- 
land, granted by Henry II. to Theobald Walter, 
the first Butler of Ireland, was leased for £2600 
a year. 

xxix. How Kildare came improperly to have 
precedence of Ormonde. 

xxxiv. Richard Duke of York's good govern- 
ment. 

xlii. Edward IV. used to say of Sir John de 
Ormonde, the earl who died without issue in the 
Holy Land, 1478, "that he was the goodliest 
knight he ever beheld, and the finest gentleman 
in Christendom, and that if good breeding, nur- 
ture and liberal qualities wei"e lost in the world, 
they might all be found in him." 

It was the castom for the j'ounger sons of the 
nobility to take their fathers' titles for their sur- 
names. This continued as late as Elizabeth. 

xliii. Thomas Earl of Ormonde (Henry VII.) 
found after his brother James's death, £40,000 
sterling in money, besides plate, in his house in 
the Black Friars, London, — all which he carried 
to Ireland. 

Becket — or the Butler's — ivory horn, an heir- 
loom. See the passage for its description, &c. 
xlv. A daughter of Macmorough marrying a 
Bntler in Edward II. 's reign, she had a patent 
of denization, freeing and acquitting her and her 
issue by this marriage from all Irish servitude. 

1. Piers Earl of Ormonde (died 1539) brought 
out of Flanders and the neighbouring provinces 
artificers and manufacturers, whom he employed 
at Kilkenny in working tapestry, drapery, Tur- 
key carpets, cushions, &c., some of which were 
in Sir R. Rothe's time remaining in the ©rmonde 
family. 

5. Abbot neglected j^oung Ormonde when 
placed under his care. Carte gave a just hard 
character of this archbishop. 

12. Elizabeth cut the sinews of Tynne's 
strength by issuing base money in Ireland, which 
was worth nothing abroad, so that he could pur- 
chase no supplies from other countries. 



13. Excellent intention of James I. Evil 
which he abolished. 22. 

14. The commission and surrender of lands 
was a gracious as well as politic measure. It 
gave estates in fee instead of life estates, which 
was the utmost they who held by tanistry' could 
pretend to before. 

15. In Ulster the Irish undertenants and serv- 
ants were exempted from the oath of supremacy 

16. The British there forbidden to marry or 
foster with the Irish, and they were planted sep- 
arately, the contrary system having been unhap- 
pily tried in Munster. 

17. James's care of the church in Ulster. 

19. Parliament of 1613, the first full, fair 
free parliament, and how did the Romanists 
abuse the King's goodness in calling it ! 

20. The Puritans on that occasion " censured 
the government, either of weakness in not know- 
ing how to govern that unruly people ; or of pu- 
sillanimity, in not daring to rule them as they 
ought." 

20. Lord Chichester's hopes from a mild 
course. 

26. Abuses in the plantations. 

26. Defective titles ; and then let loose the 
lawyers ! 27. 

27. It was an age of adventures and project- 
ors ; the general taste of the world ran in favour 
of new discoveries and planting of countries ; 
and such as were not hardy enough to venture 
into the remote parts of the earth, fancied they 
miiiht make a fortune nearer home by settling 
and planting in Ireland. 

28. Sir William Parsons was a knave of the 
first water. 

32-3. Act of uniformity, and penal laws. 
This is very clearly stated, 35. 

34. A little more vigour in Lord Chichester's 
time would have rooted out the Romish tares. 

35. Act of supremacy, universally received 
at first. 

39. Sir J. Davies's speech, shewing the old 
law concerning the king's prerogative in eccle- 
siastical matters. 

43. Lenity of the government. 

Education of wards in the Protestant faith 
neglected. 

44-5. Low state to which James let the army 
be reduced, — a consequence of his prodigality. 

46. Impolicy of encouraging them to enlist 
in foreign services. 

53. The Recusants erected Convents, — and 
founded an opposition University in Dublin. 

Prelates' oath to the Pope. 

62. Taxation, how levied in both countries. 

67-8. Carte supposes Bishop Athcrton to have 
been accused unjustly, and that he was a victim 
to Lord Cork's resentment. 

77-8. Usher's errors. 

85. Introduction of flax. 

Reason for not allowing the clothing trade in 
Ireland. 

87-8. A good view of the rise of the troubles 



1 On this law or custom in Ireland, see Wabe's ylrui- 
qnitates Hibirnica, c. viii. J. W. W. 



GUILDFORD— DODD—BARLOTOCEI— BARROW— NAL SON, ETC. 145 



in Scotland, and of the part taken by France in 
fomenting them. 

89. When the Roman Cathohcs raised contri- 
butions for Charles, 1639, the Pope sent express 
orders to his Nuncio to enjoin them to desist. 

97. Burnet accused of cooking up a fine speech 
for Bedel, — no such speech having been spoken. 

101. Some ecclesiastical customs, "such as- 
Saint Patrick's ridges, soul money, anointing 
muttoas, holy water, clerk, and Mary gallons, 
had been in many places introduced in the times 
of Popery, and were by custom raised into a con- 
stant revenue." 

115. The first application ever made from 
Ireland to an English House of Commons, was 
the infamous remonstrance against Strafford. 

134. Parliament would not allow the disband- 
ed troops in 1641 to enter into foreign service; 
consequently these troops became the strength 
of the rebellion. 

140. The practice of finding verdicts contra- 
ry to the evidence began when the penal laws 
against Recusants (Papist) were put in execution. 
From that cause it soon extended to others. 

155. Among the old Irish no one could lay 
claim to any particular lands as their inheritance, 
by their own laws, but all of a sept thought they 
had a general right to the whole. 

221. What Ireland suffered by being govern- 
ed by strangers. 



Lord Keeper Guildford used to say (Life, 
vol. 2, p. 54), speaking professionally, that "pas- 
sion had a credit with him ; for wherever it ap- 
peared, he commonly fomid honesty lay." 

Knavery is generally cool. 



I 



It was a good saying of Cardinal Allen's 
(DoDD, vol. 2, p. 53), " That for a man to do 
great things, it was necessary to be both rich, 
and a despiser of riches." 



" Nihil ardet in Inferno nisi propria voluntas," 
is a saying which Jeremy Taylor quotes from 
Saint Bernard. Nothing burns in the eternal 
flames of Hell but a man's heart, nothing but his 
wUl. 



" The Jews of the Holy Land when they vis- 
it in pilgrimage the graves of the ancient Rab- 
bis, repeat over the grave those proverbs which 
the Rabbi who is there interred used most fre- 
quently to inculcate to his disciples." — Barlo- 
TocEi, vol. 1, p. 9. 



"The same word in Hebrew which signifieth 
to prai.se or applaud, signifieth also to infatuate, 
or make mad." — Barrow, vol. 3, p. 213. 



"Religion," says Sir Benjamin Rudyard, 
K 



" was first and best planted in cities. God did 
spread his net where most might be caught.'" — 
Nalson, vol. 2, p. 298. 



" ScANDERBACH, bou Jugc Bt trcs expert, avoit 
accoustume de dire, que dix ou douze mille com- 
battants fideles, devoyent baster a un sulfisant 
chef de guerre, pour garantir sa reputation en 
toute sorte de besoing militaire." — Montaigne, 
torn. 6, p. 345. 



Lord Conway says to StraflTord, " You were 
so often with Sir Anthony Vandyke, that you 
could not but know his gallantry for the love of 
Lady Stanhope, but he is come off' with a cogli- 
oneria, for he disputed with her about the price 
of her picture, and sent her word that if she would 
not give the price he demanded he would sell it 
to another that would give more." — Strafford's 
Letters, vol. 2, p. 48. 



" A hard task it is," says Strafford, '• to do 
good for them that are obstinately set to do ill 
for themselves." — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 257. 



"Unconstancy," says Bishop Womack, ''I 
confess is sometimes culpable ; but may we not 
say so too of constancy. Many times ? Which 
is therefore resembled (somewhere) to a sullen 
porter, who keeps out better company oftentimes 
than he lets in." — Examination of Telenus, p. 
10. Nichols's Calv. and Arm. 



Puritans ! " If they abhor idols, they tliink 
it tolerable enough to commit sacrilege and se- 
dition; and if they be not drunk wi(h wine or 
strong drink, they think it no matter th(ju<rh the 
spirit of pride and disobedience stagger them into 
any schism or heresy." — Ibid., p. 31. 



" He that denies all freedom of will to man, 
deserves no other argmiieiit than a whip or a 
cudgel to confute him. Sure the smart would 
quickly make him find liberty enough to run from 
it." — Ibid., p. 36. 



" C oke's comment upon Littleto n ought not^ 
to be read by siudents, to whom it i.s, at least, 
unprofitaljle ; for it is but a common-place, and 
much more obscure than the bare text without 
it. And to say truth, that text needs it not ; for 
it is so plain of itself, that a comment, properly 
so called, doth but obscure it." — Roger North, 
Life of Lord Keeper Guildford, vol. 1, p. 21. 

This no doubt was the Lord Keeper Guilij^ 
ford's opinion. 

Dr. Brady's history is "compiled so religious- 



WHITTAKER— JEREMY TAYLOR— KEITH— BARROW. 



146 

ly upon the very text, letters, and syllables of the 
authorities, especially those upon record, that the 
work may justly pass for an antiquarian law- 
book."— Ibid., vol. 1, p. 25. 



" The last of the Tempests, an ancient family 
in Craven, devised by his will, ten days only be- 
fore he died, the manor of Bracewell and stock 
to John Rushworth his cousin, ' in requital of all 
the love he hath showed in all my extremities in 
England, and in redeeming me out of a sad con- 
dition in France, when all other friends failed.' 
Rushworth, the author of the Historical Collec- 
tions, was a Puritan, but much in the confidence 
of several Catholic families whose estates he 
saved from confiscation by his interest with the 
governing powers. He had, however, the ad- 
dress to save Bracewell for himself. But it did 
not prosper in his hand ; for (mark the end of 
such men) the Puritan Rushworth died of dram- 
drinking in a gaol By this iniquitous will, the 
sura of .£2500 was bequeathed to Mrs. South, 
the daughter and heiress of the testator, and with 
that exception, an estate then estimated at dfiTOO 
a-year passed to a stranger." — Whitaker's His- 
tory of Craven, p. 81. 



according to their own maxims."^ — Clarendon 
Papers, vol. 1, p. 101. 



Mistified, a word lately brought into use, in 
the French sense, is used by Roger North. — 
Life of Lord Keeper G., vol. 1, p. 149. 



Orage. — Ibid., vol. 1, p. 170. Oragon, hur- 
ricane. 



" In her family his lordship was next to a do- 
mesticy — Ibid., p. 292. i. e. he was like one of 
the family. 



The Norwegians complained that they could 
very seldom get any wine into their country, and 
when it did come, it was almost vinegar or vappe. 
— Jeremy Taylor, vol. 13, p. 54. 



Stonyhurst was Usher's uncle, and took no 
small pains after he became a Catholic to bring 
over his nephew. After his wife's death he went 
to Flanders and took orders. The Archduke 
Albert made him his chaplain and procured him 
an honourable subsistence till his death, which 
happened at Brussels, 1618. Dodd describes 
his translation of Virgil as in English blank 
verse! — vol. 2, p. 385. 



" We need not walk along the banks and in- 
trigues of Volga if we can at first point to tho 
fountain." — Ibid., vol. 13, p. 131. 



Here again thou hypocrizest. — G. Keith's 
Rector Corrected, p. 227. 



Fuller was able to make use of any man's 
sermon that he had but once read or heard. — 
Mus. Thoresby, Appendix, p. 148. 



When James thought of making Cpk e Chan- 
cellor, Bacon WTOte to him, " If your Majesty 
take the Lord Coke, you will put an over-ruling 
nature into an over-ruling place." — Cabala, fol. 
29. 



What Montaigne says of the French WTiters 
"in his age, is applicable to some of our own. 
'• lis sont assez hardis et desdaigneux pour ne 
suyvre la route commune ; mais faute d'inven- 
tion et de discretion les perd. II ne s'y voit 
qu'une miserable afl'ectation d'estrangeto ; des 
desguisements froids et absurdes, qui au lieu 
d'eslever, abbatent la maticre. Pourveu qu'ils 
se gorgiasent en la nouvellete, il ne leur chant 
^de I'efficace."— Tom. 7, p. 349, lib. 3, c. 5. 



To redargue and coargue common in J. Tay- 
lor's age, though I do not remember that ho uses 
the latter word : it signifies to imply logically. 



" Was't not rare sport at the sea-battle, whilst 
rounce robble hobble roared from the ship sides." 
— Marston's Antonio and Mellida, p. 129. 



" He would thwart and violence his o^\ti con.^ 
science." — Barrow, vol. 3, p. 162. 



Phantastry. — Ibid., p. 341. 
Abitrariously. — Ibid., p. 344. 



I 



" Mating and quelling the enemies of man's 
salvation." — Ibid., vol 3, p. 395. 



Olivabez once said to Hopton, " No ay grat- 
itud en reyes," " which doubtlest," says H., "is 



" We have some letters of Popes (though not 
many), for Popes were not then very scribatious, 
or not so pragmatical." — Ibid., vol. 6, p. 188. 



"By how many tricks did he proll money from 
all parts of Christendom ?"— Ibid., vol. 6, p. 309. 



— "These things are only passed over as 



BRIAN WALTON— RACKET— BURLEIGH— STANHOPE. 



147 



precedaneous to the constitution, or ordination." 
— Ibid., vol. 6, p. 376. 



— " Puffed up with that little umbrctile knowl- 
edge." — ^BaiAN Walton. 



.say.s, " if she shall intend any evil to the Queen's 
Majesty, my sovereign, for her sake I must and 
wLU mean to impeach her : and therein I may be 
her Unfriend^ or worse. 



" When all the stuff in the letters are scanned, 
what fadoodles are brought to light." — Bishop 
Hacket. 



Speaking of Mary Queen of Scots, Burleigh 



A play upon words is called an Oxford clink 
by Leicester. — Strafford's Letters^ vol. 1, p. 
224. 



If he were ungone, for not gone. — Sir Ed. 
Stanhope. Ibid., vol. 2, p. 239. 



Note referred to at p. 104. 

Clarendon's words should by all means be attended to, Book xi. 

" This unparalleled murder and parricide was committed upon the thirtieth of January, in the year, according to 
the account used in England, 1084, in the forty and ninth year of his age, and when he had such excellent health, and 
so great vigour of body, that, when his murderers caused him to be opened (which they did, and were some of them 
present at it with great curiosity), they confessed and declared ' that no man had ever all his vital parts so perfect 
and unhurt; and that he seemed to be of so admirable a composition and constitution, that he would probably hare 
lived as long as nature could subsist.' " — History of the Rebellion, vol. 6, p. 241. J. W. W. 



SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE 
LITERATURE. 



Gongora. JSrusselas, 1659. 

Latinisms, — yard-and-half-long words. The 
pedantry of Pagan mythology — violent meta- 
phors, and more violent hyperboles. 

Sonnets, ix., p. 47 ; xiv., p. 52 ; Ixv., p. 179. 

'■ Cloris was combing her haii* in the sun with 
an ivory comb and with a fair hand. The comb 
was not seen in her hand, as the sun was ob- 
scured in her hair. She gathered together her 
tresses of gold, and they sent forth a second 
greater light, before which the sun is a star, and 
Spain is the sphere of its radiance." — Son. iii., 
p. 41. 

" My nymph gathered flowers from the green 
plain, as many as her beautiful hand pluekt, so 
many her white foot made grow." — Son. xviii., 
p. 56. 

Description of a lady. " Sacred temple of 
pure modesty, whose fair cement and elegant 
wall of white pearl-shell and hard alabaster was 
built by the divine hand. The little gate is of 
precious coral, and ye bright windows have force- 
fully usurped the pure green from the emerald. 
The golden covering of thy supei'b roof adorn 
the sun with light, and crown hun with beauty." 
— Son. xxii., p. 59. 

The tomb of Queen Margarita he calls "the 
dark shell of a pearl." — Son. ii., p. 92. Spain 
was to her a little footstool, and the heaven a 
scanty canopy. — Son. iii., p. 93. 

"Your Gongora," says D. Fr. Manoel, "foy 
tentado de se metter com Estacio Papinio, seu 
Matalotc, que ganhon mais nome pelas sombras, 
que pelas luzes." 

The prose of Sir T. IJ'-'yt"" and sometimes 
of Johns on bears an affinity to ^onirora's lan- 
irnage. R , ons ard had something of it : the 
French folly is ridiculed in Rabelais. A ro- 
mance (Eliana, I think,) carried it to its utmost 
length. I found several words there utterly un- 
known to me. There is a great mistake in this 
affectation of naturalizing Latin words, more par- 
ticularly in poetry, which is designed to be pop- 
ular ; but the more intelligible the more popu- 
lar. This is Burger's merit — he uses the very 
phrases of the people. The excclleneo of the 
(j erman language is its independence ; its com- 



pound words being like the Greek, self-ex- 
plained. 

Gongora is the frog of the fable, his limbs are 
large, but it is a dropsy that has swollen them. 
You read him, and after you have unravelled the 
maze of his meaning, feel like one who has tired 
his jaws in cracking an empty nut. The spider 
oars himself along the river, but woe to him if 
he be entangled in its froth. 



Jorge de Monte Mayor. ,• 

'■ I WAS lately," says Don Francisco Manoel, 
"in one of the principal places of the realm, and 
one of its most respectable inhabitants came to 
visit me. After the usual compliments, he shew- 
ed me a deci'ee of his majesty, in which three 
persons, my visitor being one, were ordered to 
give their opinion of a book, which had been 
written in imitation of George of M. Mayor's 
Diana, and if they thought it superior, they were 
to give an affidavit to the Corregidor da Comar- 
ca, who should immediately put the author in 
possession of a Quinta worth two thousand cru- 
zados, which some persons had publicly proposed 
as a reward to whoever should write a better 
book than the Diana." 

1561. He perished in Piedmont by a violent 
death, which is not mentioned by Barbose. There 
is a most miserable sonnet of puns upon his 
mountain connection and death, by M. Fancy 
Sonsa. 



In a MS. Dithyrambic, where the cup is fill- 
ed to the literary heroes of Portugal, the rene- 
gade ]Monte-Mor is thus alluded to : — 

" Outro va igual 
Ao Corte Real, 
Que ao Monte Maior 
Nao hei-de brindar. 
Guarde la sua Diana 
Para a gente Castelhana, 
Se escrivera em Portuguez 
O brindara desta vez. 
Mes deichar o doce e pure 

Abundante 

Elegante 

E brilliante 
Idioma Lusitano 
E porquem ? pelo Hispano. 



FR. MANOEL— D. JORGE IMANRIQUE. 



149 



Nao o sofro, nem aturo 

Nem Apollo aturaria, 

Porque bera que costiimado 

A soltar sua harmonia 
Na riquissima Argiva lingoagera 
Que de todas as mais tern ventagem. 

Na Latina e Italiana, 

Quando falla a Lusitana 

E no Pindo nella canta * 

Da Memoria as filhas encanta." 

Were the Portugueze wise who wrote in 
Spanish ? The difference of language can con- 
tribute but little to national dislike. It is but 
a different dialect, less diiferent than the jargon 
of Catalonia, or the original Biscaian. It is not 
a corruption : they are sister streams from the 
same fountain. 



Juan de Tar sis, Conde de Villa Mediana. 
This poet, grafted in Italy, had a most un- 
natural swelling. He loved the pomp of words. 
He was like a tree all leaves and no fruit — you 
read and read and find nothing to remember. If 
the two counts (they said in Spain) Sallinas and 
Villa M. could have their talents mingle, each 
would be a good poet ; for Sallinas was all de- 
scription and no ornament, Villa M. all ornament 
and no thouffht. 



¥r. Manoel. 
He was born in Lisbon, 1580, and at the age 
of forty-four, killed by a musket-ball, having but 
time to clap his hand upon his sword and say, 
"It is done!" The Conde de Salinas epitaph- 
tzed him : — 

" Fatigado peregrino ; 
Nido breve, urna funesta, 
Es la que contemplar esta 
Decretada del dcstino. 
Yaze aqui un Cisne divino; 
Llega y lastimoso advierte 
En tan desertrada suerte, 
Que con la violcnta herida 
Como canto tanto en vida 
No pudo centar en rauei'te." 

In the D. de Lafoen's library (which was that 
of the Cardinal de Sonsa) is a MS. second vol- 
ume of his volumes. His fame is gone by, or 
rather he is become the proverbial example of 
ill taste. 

He was sent over to congratulate James I. on 
his accession, and conducted himself so well as 
to lay the foundation of the peace between Franco 
and Spain. — Mariana, p. 769. 



D. Jorge Manrique. De la profession que fizo 
en la orden del Amor. 

" PoRQUEL tiempo es ya passado, 

y el ano todo complido, 

despues aca que ove entrado 



en orden de namorado 

y el abito recebido ; 
Porque en esta religion 

entiendo siempre durar, 
quiero hazer profession, 
jurando de corafon 

de nunca la quebrantar. 

" Prometo de mantener 

continiiamente pobreza 
dalegria y de plazer, 
pero no de bien querer 

ni de males ni tristeza ; 
Que la regla no lo manda, 

ni la razon no lo quiere, 
que quien en tal orden anda 

'se alegre mientra biviere. 

" Prometo mas obediencia 

que nunca sera quebrada, 
en presencia ni en ausencia, 
por la muy gran bienquerencia 

que con vos tengo cobrada ; 
E quelquier ordenamiento 

que regla damor raandare, 
aunque trayga gran tormento, 
me plaze que soy contento 

de guardar mientra durare. 

" En lugar de castidad 

prometo de ser constanta, 
prometo de voluntad 
de guardar toda verdad 

que ha de guardar cl amantc : 
Prometo de ser sugeto 

al amor y a su servicio, 
pi-ometo de ser secreto, 
y esto todo que prometo 

guardallo sera ma oficio. 

" Fin sera de mi bivir 

esta regla por mi dicha, 
y entiendo la assi sufrir 
que espero en ella morir, 

.sino lo estorva desdicha : 
Mas no lo podra estoi-var 

porque no tcrna poder, 
porque poder ni mandar 
no pueden tanto sobrar 

que yguale con mi querer. 

" Si en esta regla estuviere 

con justay bucna intencion, 
y en ella permanecicre, 
quiero saber si muriere 

que sera mi galardon : 
Aunque a vos sola lo dexo 

que fuistes causa quentrasse, 
en orden que assi me alexo 
de plazer, y no que me quexo 

porque dello nos pesasse. 

Cabo. 
"Si mi servir de sus pcna.s 



' In this hitter half of the copla there is a line wantiDg : 
-but thus it stands in the Cancionero of 1540. 



150 



CANCIONERO. 



algun galardon cspera, 
venga agora por estrenas 
pues mis cuytas son ya llenas 

antes que del todo muera : 
E vos reeebi por ellas 

buena o mala csta hystoria, 
porque viendo mis querellas, 
pues que soys la causa dollas 

me dedes alguna gloria." 

Cancionero General, ff. 71. 
Sevilla, 1540. 



Coplas que hizo Suero de Ribera sobre la Gala. 
" No teniendo que perder, 
y pensando de la gala, 
escrevi, si Dios me vala, 
lo que se deve hazer 
el Galan qual ha de ser 
estremo, claro, distinto, 
segun aqui vos lo pinto 
a todo mi parecer. 

" El Galan persona honesta 
deve ser, y sin renzilla 
no yr solo por la villa 

y ser de buena rcspuesta : 

tener la malicia presta 
poi* fengir de avisado, 

cavalgar luengo tirado 

como quien arma ballesta. 

" Ha de ser maginativo 
el Galan, no dormidor, 
donoso motejador, 

en las poquedades bivo; 

con gran presuncion altivo, 
dissimulanda la risa, 
y mostrarse en toda guisa 

a los grosseros esquivo. 

" Hade ser lindo lofano 

el Galan a la mesura, 

apretado en la cintura, 
vestido siempre liviano; 
muy bien caleado de mano, 

pero no traer peales. 

hazer los tiempos yguales 
en invierno y en verano. 

" El Galan flaco amarillc 
deve ser, y muy cortes ; 
razonar bien del arnes, 
y no curar do vestillo : 
cavalgar troton morzillo, 
o haca rucia rodada, 
nunca en el freno barvada, 
el manto corto senzillo : 

" Capelo galochas guantcs 

el Galan deve traer, 

bien cantar y componer 
en coplas y consonantes : 
de cavalleros andantes 

leer hystorias y libros ; 

la silla y los estribos 
a la gala concordantes. 



" El Galan en ningun dia 

deve comer de cozido, 

salvo de fruta y rostido 
que quita malenconia; 
pero cenar toda via 

esto poco no muy basto, 

no tomar cuenta del gasto 

ques modo de grosseria. 

" Flautas, laud y vihuelas 

al Galan son muy amigos, 
cantares tristes antiguos 
es lo mas que lo consuela : 
no calcar mas de una espuela, 
ni requerir el establo, 
de aquestas cosas que hablo 
deve se tener escuela. 

" Damas y buenos olores 

al Galan son gran holgura, 

y dan^ar so la frescura, 
todo herido de amores : 
al fiestas con amadores 

no dexar punto ni hora,. 

y dezir que es su senora 
la raejor de las mejores. 

" El Galan muy mesurado 

deve ser en el bever, 

por causa de bien oler, 
de toda salsa quitado ; 
por hazer mayor estado 

deve ser gran jurador, 

que Dios al buen araador 
nunca demanda pccado. 

" Todos tiempos el Galan 

deve hablar podcroso, 

y fengir de grandioso 
mas que el Duque de IMl an ; 
eacador de gavilan, 

que es manera de hidalgos ; 

y no eurar de los galgos, 
porque gastan mucho pan. 

" Tome prestados dineros 

el Galan de buena mente, 

y pague por acidente 
a sastres y yapateros ; 
y tenga sus compaiieros 

en poco donde posaren, 

y sino le comportaren 
los puede Uamar grosseros. 

Fin. 
" Al Galan son todos dias 
yguales para tomar 
plazeres y desechar 
enojos malenconias : 
sostener grandes porfias 
a la fin mmca vencido, 
y dezir que ha comido 
faysanes y gollorias." 

Cancionero General. 
SevUla, 1540, ff. 41. 



GERONIMO DEL RIO— LOPE DE VEGA— GABRIEL PEREIRA, ETC. 151 



Geronimo del Rio. 

Al Virgin. Villancico. 

" Ptjes distes mate al Diablo, 
dama del Roy que Dios es, 
dad nos su gloria despues. 

" Se que algo ha de aprovechar 
dar mate a tal jugador, 
que aun para el mas pecador 
se pudo el juego ganar ; 
pues tal OS quiso criar 
dama del Rey que Dios es 
dad nos su gloria despues. 

" La gloria que el precio fue 
que en tal juego jugamos, 
con las obras la ganamos 
y no por sola la I'e ; 
por ellas yo apostare, 
dama del Rey que Dios es 
que nos la dareys despues. 

" Como dama fuistes hecha 
en el tablero bendito 
fue firmado el fin y quito 
de la culpa satisfecha 
pues cantemos por deshecha 
dama del Rey que Dios es 
dad nos su gloria despues." 

Cane. Gen., ff. 192. 



Lope de Vega. 

The Spaniards say that he first reduced Com- 
edy to something like a regular length and shape. 

One of his admirers told an Italian that he was 
so great a poet, that in order to oblige a friend 
he wrote in one night a Comedy, with a Loa y 
Entremezes, the Italian smiled and replied, " Sir, 
if this was the case, you have proved that he was 
a good friend, but not a good poet." 

Ericio Puteano, who succeeded to the chair 
of Lipsius at Louvaino, translated some of Lope's 
comedies into Dutch, and wished for long life 
enough to translate them all. Don Franc. Man- 
oel de Mello met a son of this Ericio Puteano on 
the way from Spain to Flanders, who gave hira 
an open letter from his father, a man whom he 
only knew by his works, it was addressed to the 
learned and noble men of the world, — stated that 
his son was set out to see the courts of the dif- 
ferent princes in Europe, and that he had sent 
him out with no other means of living than this 
letter requesting all those to whom it was ad- 
dressed to welcome and assist him. 

They called him the Potosi of rhymes. Could 
we, says D. Fr. Manoel, but cure him of his 
looseness, — sua grande facilidade, — it is better in 
English. 



Tome de Burguillos. 
Sonnets. 
6. Describe un monte, sin que, ni para que. 



9. A un peyne. 

43. Egloga sin iraitacion. 

44. Tlie Culto roguery. 

46. How great men should reseat little insults. 
57. To a Rat. 

In his Gatoraaquia it seems that cats have only 
seven lives in Spain, p. 135. 

There is an odd passage, as if he had read 
the De Rege of Mariana, 

__ II iiiiiii ,7 II ' 

^Y quereis que le mate con veneno ? 
Esa es muerte de Principes y Reyes 
Con quien no valen las humanas leyes. 

P. 142. 



Gabriel Pereira de Castro. 
The Franciscans at Porto had a dispute about 
the right of some water. The poet, as corregi- 
dor, was judge, he knew their claim was right, 
but could find no witness to prove it, and sen- 
tences and supersentences were given against 
them. One night as he was in bed, a Francis- 
can appeared to him, drew the curtains, ex- 
claimed. Water ! Water ! and disappeared. In 
consequence he made another search on the mor- 
row, and found at the bottom of a chest, a record 
which decided the cause in their favour. 



Bernardino Ribeyro, 
I KNOW not where Murphy got his story. Bar- 
bose says, "that he was madly in love with the 
Infanta Beatriz, daughter of K. Emanuel, and 
that he wandered whole nights among the woods 
in amorous lamentation." But he married D. 
Maria de Vilhena, and loved her so as never to 
disturb her memory by a second marriage. 



Barros. 



The forcible use of popular words is noticed 
as one of his excellencies. 



Coplas del Conde de Paredes a Juan Poeta en 
una perdonanga en Valencia. 

" Juan Poeta on vos venir 

en cstas santas pisadas, 

muchas eosas consagradas 

dun ser en otro tornadas 
las hezistes convertir. 
La bula del Padre sancto , 

dada por nuestra salud, 
metida por so vuestro manto 
se torno con gran qucbranto 

escritura del Talmud. 

" E la muy devota yglesia, 

solo por la vuestra entrada, 
fue luego oontaminada, 
en este punto tornada 
casa sancta de ley vieja. 



•152 



CONDE DE PAREDES. 



y el cucrpo do rcdcmptor 

que llagastes vos con hierro. 
del vuestro puro teraor 
sudando sangre y sudor 
se toriio luego bezerro. 

" El bulto de la Seiiora 

la virgen nuestra abogada, 
por mejor ser adorada 
y de vos mas acatada 

hizose una rica tora. 

El caliz del consagrar 
se quiso hazer archillo, 

para vos circuncidar, 

otra vez, y recortar 

un poeo mas del capillo. 

" No dexemos la patena 
a que la boca llegastes, 
que luego que la besastes 
se dize que la tornastes 

ca9uela con berengena. 

El ara que es consagrada 
y de piedra dura y fina, 

de vuestra mano tocada 

en un punto fue tornada 
atayfor con adafina. 

" Los corporales tornastes 
solo por vuestro mirado, 
en un lenfuelo delgado 
con orillas orillado 

con que la faz cobijastes. 

Ya sabcys como lo usays 
segun manda vuestra ley, 

quando la tora sacays, 

y cantando la Uevays 
para recebir al ray. 

" La vestimenta bendita 

en tavardo se bolvio, 

el pueblo todo lo vio, 

mirad quanto hizo el dio 

por \-uestra gente maldita 

Hizose el agua gramaya 

tocada de vuestro dedo, 
de las de maestre Samaya 
que vos Juan sobre la saya 
vos vestistes en Toledo. 

" Tomose el estola chia, 
y el amito capirote, 
no vos lo digo por mote, 
canto luego el sacerdote 

la guaya por alegria. 

Por la vuestra gran potencia 
hizose el latin ebrayco, 

y sin otra detenencia 

i'asta que toda Valencia 
se torno pueblo judayco. 

"El obispo quo dezia 
la missa devotaraente, 
en estar vos de presente 
delante toda la gento 
en Aaron se convertia. 



E fueron vuestras ofrendas 

dos tortillas y un dinero, 
y tornastes a sabiendas 
las tortas palomas duendas 

y la moneda cordero. 

" Luego el viernes de la cruz 

entrastes por el asseo, 

desfrafado sin arreo, 

con menudillo meneo, 
como christiano marfuz ; 
E con pura contricion 

publicando vuestras dudas, 
hezistcs con devocion 
los nudos de la passion 

hechos al nombre de Judas. 

"El sabado no os vi 

que estuvistes encerrado, 

en oracion ocupado. 

presumiendo de letrado 
enfingendo de Rabi ; 
Disputando todo el dia 

en fechos de Daniel, 
diziendo que vos dezia 
que no fue virgo Maria, 

y que fue sancto Samuel. 

" En el domingo siguiente 

salistes como galan, 

broslado en el balandran 

aquel mote de Abrahan 
que habla de su simiente ; 
Do sin duda vuestra aguela 

diziendo de en tranco en trance, 
hasta dar en el escuela 
muy escura sin candela 

dando pena al doctor Franco. 

" Posistes vos de partida 
en esse lunes primero, 
haziendo mucho el romero 
una chapa en el sombrero, 

muy redonda, bien cosida : 

Dizese quera destaiio, 
ved que milagroso feeho, 

ella se torno de pano 

Colorado muy estrano 
y saltonos en el pecho. 

Fin. 

" Yo vos librare en Castilla 
el dinero de escote, 
en camino de Sevilla, 
ado perdio la capilla 

vuestra pixa del capote." 

Cancionero General, ff. 181- 



1 



Coplas del Conde de Paredes a Juan Poeta, quart' 
do le captivaron los Moros de Fez. 
" SiNo le quereys negar 
como negays el salterio, 
publicar quiero el mysterio 
Juan de vuestro captiverio, 
Juan de vuestro navegar, 



CONDE DE PAREDES. 



153 



Si de Moros fuistes prcso 
ordonolo Dios muy bien, 

vuestro ardid era Judea 
la faraa Hierusalem. 

" Sacaros de la prision 

ado estavades en Fez, 

a Dios fue cosa raez, 

como fizo la otra vez 
de poder de Faraon. 
Mas aquesta vez que digo 

hizolo como pariente 
agora como a enemigo 

de vos y vuestra simiente. 

" Quando vistes que la mar 
por carreras no se abria, 
dizque dexistes un dia, 
como varon que tenb. 
nuestra fe en el calcanar, 
Con esperanfa muy seca, 
biva biva Mahoma ! 
mas vale casa de Meca 
que no la corte de Roma. 

" Pedistes circuncision, 

todo el pueblo fue venido, 
y con muy gran alarido 
truxeron carbon molido, 

tigeras y navajon : 

y vos que enesto en gran estrecho 
dexistes con gran plazer, 

sabe todos que esta fecho 
esto que quereys hazer, 

'■ Sacaron vuesti'a razon 
de las bragas encogida, 
de cuero corto vestida, 
del trage corte y medida 
daquel justo Simeon, 
Que de vuestra ley primera 

fue cl mejor f^astre que avia, 
alomenos de tigera, 
que daguja no sabia. 

" Dizque dixo el Alfaqui 
escusado es mi trabajo, 
pues de reves, ni de tajo, 
no hallo en este retajo 

que pucda cortar daqui ; 

Si lo hizo algun Rabi 

Dios le de buena ventura, 
y si lo hizo Natura, 

mayor fecho nunca vi 

" Que OS llamasscn Reduan 
vos fuistes el demandante, 
por amor del consonante 
daquel nombrc del Infante 

que Uamaron Roboan. 

y aqui bien assentara 
jiqueste refran remoto, 

senores quicn sacara 
a la pica9a del soto. 

" Luego entrastes en el bano, 



salistes con desonor, 
preguntando con dolor 
por el alfaqui mayor 

para quexar vuestro dano : 

El qual OS hizo saber, 
quel fino moro marcado 

tres cosas ha de tener, 
puto, cornudo, afotado. 

" Assi Juan que vos ganastes 
desta forma la primera, 
la segurida y la tercera 
no passo semana entera 

que luego no las cobrastes ; 

Porque viernes os casaron, 
y en la noche encornudastes, 

y el sabado os afotaron 

sabiendo que le guardastes. 

*" Como tienen el querer 

en hazernos siempre guerra, 
aquella gente muy perra 
preguntaron en que tierra 

era mas vuestro saber ; 

Para la de promission 

no busquedes mejor guia, 

especial do la passion 
fue del hijo de Maria. 

'■ Yo me ofrezco en un momento 
daros passo en el Jordan, 
por do passe con afan 
a los hijos d' Abraham, 

y al area del testamento ; 

Por en par de un cerrejon 
alto fuera de compas, 

donde el agua de Cedron 
en el val de Josafad. 

" E pornemos la celada 
en un huerto que yo se, 
donde a Cristo destroco 
la noche que lo alcance 

questava dando cevada ; 

Huyeron le sus criados 
y el solo no espero, [?] 
y de un mote que nos die 

fuimos todos derribados. 

" Tocaran los ariafiles, 

saldremos por im sendero, 

atajaremos primero 

el hato del carni(!ero 
y las cabras concegiles ; 
Y en tanto aduramente 

y muchos Moros con el, 
correran monto Olivete 

robaran a Belfaged. 

" Saldra su cavalleria 

a tomar un passo estrecho 
questa cabe un alqueria 
de Joseph Abarimatia, 

do haremos un buen hechoj 
Hazer como que corremos 

fuyendo con el fardage, 



154 



CONDE DE PAREDES. 



quif a los alongarcmos 
fueia dc su peonage. 

" AUi los podeys matar, 

y seame Dios testigo, 
pero deveys castigar, 
dc nadie no se apear, 

mirad bicn esto que digo ; 
IVIas tened las riendas antes 

que Ueguemos a un meson, 
que tiran passabolantes 

del templo de Salomon. 

" Grande estrago se fara 
si Ventura lo endereja, 
si el alcance no cessa 
que me corten la cabefa 

si liombre dellos se va : 

AUi vereys Adonay 
dezir todos los caydos, 

y las mugeres guay guay 
por los hijos y maridos. 

" Pero al tiempo del bolver 
veda el escararaucar, 
ques liecho para estorvar 
a los que ban mucho de andar. 

por hazeros los detener. 

Alia buelta los despojos 
todos los recogeremos, 

Mas por llenos de piojos 
he miedo que los dexemos. 

" Quedaran con su fortuna 
con sus llantos y dolor, 
dormiremos sin temor 
en aquel monte Tabor 

hasta que saiga la luna. 

Mas es cosa nccessaria 
para bolver sin pelea 

passar de noche a Samaria 
a Bethania y Galilea. 

" No me ayays por verdadero 
si por donde digo entramos 
todas sus guardas hurtamos, 
si por caso no topamos 
cacador o ballcstero : 
porquc sigucn mucho alii 

en el tiempo del Abrama 
Don Ysaque y Benjami 
ballesteros de gran fama. 

" Bolvereys todos con bien, 
partireys la cavalgada, 
dareys mi parte doblada 
y otra bien acrecentada 

para santo almohacen. 

Mas hazeme quadrillero, 

aunque no sepa el lenguage, 

o alomenos pregonero 
que me viene de linage. 

" Quando ovistes acabado 
quedaron todos gradosos, 
pero con todo dudosos, 



algun tanto sospechosos 
no fuesse trato doblado. 
Dieron vos un rocin raanco 

diziendo con gran plazer, 
guala estar hombre del campo 

aunque no lo parecer. 

" Preguntaron de que trato 

tu quicres vivir aca, 
sobre aver pensado un rato, 
dexister her un fapato 

que el Rey se le calfara. 
Ved en que paro el arded 

fidencul y que escudero 
entrastes por adalid 

salistes por japatero. 

" Nos ahogueys en poca agua 
por oyr vuestros aferes : 
no por grandes menesteres 
marido de tres mugeres, 

Marina, Jamila y Axa. 

Aimque estan agora en calraa 
sobre vos dcbatiran, 

y a la fin sobre vuestra alma 
cruz, y tora, y alcoran. 

" De como vos Uamaran 

dexares fama y renombre, 
no seyendo mas dun hombre 
cada qual della su nombre 

Juan, Samuel y Reduan. 

Moro por ser muerto, 

Christiano por mas valer, 

pero Judio es lo cierto 
a lo que puedo saber. 

" Por quitar costas y mal 
en el tal pleyto travado, 
pienso que sera mandado 
lo que hazen al ganado 
que se mire la serial : 
Como vos mejor sabeys 

aqui puede aver un yerro, 
que Mahomad y Moyses 
entrambos hazen un fierro. 

"E pues va ya fuera Christo 
en aquesta gran quistion, 
hagamos aqui mincion 
que tiene muy gran aucion 

eneselma el Antechristo : 

Y aqueste vos llevara 

en el fin de vuestros dias, 

y de vos se ayndara 

contra Enoc y contra Helias. 

" A vos Juan de votadios 
quiero hablar a mi guisa, 
en coplas de la gran sisa, 
como dizen Rey en frisa, 

que soy trobador en vos. 

Recebid esse cal9ado 

y entended bien la figura, 

y esse jubon retajado 

segun la ley de escritura. 



JUAN ALVAREZ GATO. 



155 



Fin. 
" Perdonad la detenencia 
perdonad si me tardado 
en lo que os ove librado, 
yahudi desventurado 
en las coplas de Valencia : 
Sino aveys desesperado 
a cabo de tantos dias, 
es por ser aoostumbrado 
del esperar del Mexias." 

Cancionero General, ff. 183. 

Juan jlivarez Gato. 
Regimiento que fizo a su amiga que eslava mat. 
" VuESTRO mal segun excede 
de lo que sentir soleys, 
presuncion tomar se puede 
que del corafon precede 

la passion que posseeys. 
Quen mirar vuestra prescncia 

tan turbada y tan sentida, 
por conocida esperiencia 
conozeo vuestra dolencia 
de qual humor es nacida. 

" Porque vista la serial 

que descubre vuestro gesto. 
por razon muy natural 
la causa de vuestro mal 

me fue clara y manifiesto : 
Quen hallaros qual halle 

en la color alterada, 
aun quel pulso no mire, 
yo se bien como y con que 

vos aveys de ser curada. 

" Aunque vuestra ingratitud 

haze ser triste mi vida, 
usar quiero de virtud 
en cobrar vuestra salud 

que teneys toda perdida. 
Porende no deys lugar 

a sufrir tal acidente, 
que si del quereys sanar, 
nos cuesta sino guardar 

el regimiento signiente. 

" Con cuchar de mi pa.ssion 

tomareys de quando en quando 
almivar de compassion, 
con que vuestro corafon 

de duro lo torno blando. 
E porqucl grave tormento 

quo me days mas no me ofenda, 
tomad en el pensamiento 
aguas do arrepentimicnto 

tibias con fuego demmienda. 

" Tomad mas un violado 
dc acordaros cadadia, 
quanto bivo apassionado, 
porque con este cuydado 

sabran de vuestra porfia 
E de que fuere cessada, 



luego tomad una yerva 
daficion que mes negada, 
de la qual con fe mezclada 

mandareys hazer conserva. 

" Mandareys con piedad 

hazer un preparative 
que de vuestra voluntad 
aperte la crueldad 

con que muerto siempre bivo. 
Y para el humor contrario 

de vuestro desconocer. 
es senora necessario 
que toraeys un letuario 

que se llama gradecer. 

" Los xaropes seran tales 

que purguen vuestros desdenes, 
con desseos y seriales 
de poner fin a mis males, 

dando comienfo a mis bienes. 
E despues con tal uncion 

untareys vuestro sentido, 
que OS raueva la condicion 
a la paga, y galardon 

de quanto tengo servido. 

" Despues que la sanidad 

venfa los malos humores, 
passada la enfermedad, 
purgada la voluntad 

de me dar mas disfavores : 
Porque de no recaer 

tengays mayor confianya, 
Sangria aveys raenester 
para nunca adolecer 

de la vena de mudanf a. 

" Para llevar esta cura 

mas acabada y perfecta, 
vencereys la calentura 
de querer me dar tristura, 

siempre comiendo dicta: 
Que seran por no daiiar me 

las amendras socorerme. 
las manfanas consolarme, 
las granadas alegrarme, 

con afucar de quererme. 

" E para quedar vencido 

vuestro mal con mas victona, 
no bevays ques defcndido 
agua cruda dellolvido 

mas cozida con memoria. 
E aveys mucho de mirar 

en esta regla que manda, 
que no gusteys cl manjar. 
destraiiar y desquivar 

porques daiiosa vianda. 

Fin. 
" E vos en esto mirando 

do vuestra salud sc gana, 
mis consejos no miulaiido, 
los contraries olvidando, 
quedareys del todo sana. 



156 



DIEGO NUNEZ. 



Ante quel dano se alargue 

luego tencd cste medio, 
poitjuo no duele y amargue, 
que si days lugar que cargue 

sera dudoso el remedio." 

Cancioncro. ff. 81. 



El Nunca por Diego Nunez de Quiros. 
" Nunca vi descanso cierto 
en esta vida doliente ; 
ni vi mayor desconcierto 
que bivir entre vil gente ; 
ni vi tan cierto pariente 
quanto el verdadero amigo; 
ni vi mayor enemigo 
([ue hombre rico y avaro ; 
iii vi que hombre muy claro 
por ser tal enrriqueciesse ; 
ni hombre que no leyesse 
de dulce con\X5rsacion ; 
ni otra mayor passion 
que bivir enamorado ; 
ni hombre mas esmerado 
que el discreto Palanciano ; 
ni otro mayor villano 
que. el hcdalgo sin virtud ; 
ni mas mengua de salud 
que hombre sin crianja ; 
ni vi bienaventuran^a 
sino la de parayso ; 
ni otro menor aviso 
que creer muy de ligero; 
ni vi peor cavallero 
que el buen ginete couarde 5 
ni buen hombre que se guarde 
de acometer ventura ; 
ni vi mayor desventura 
que temer y osar por vicio ; 
ni vi mas alto exereicio 
que leer en cosas altas ; 
ni vi otras gentes faltas 
sino las que no leyeron , 
ni horabres que se perdieron 
sino los disacordados ; 

ni vi hombres mas honrados 

que los que por si son buenos ; 

ni vi plazercs agenos 

que al tristo no pongan pcna ; 

ni copla (jue fuesse buena 

que no loassc a su duerio ; 

ni vi hombre de muy gran sueno 

sino el de poco cuydado; 

ni vi hombre tan loado 

que lo suyo scle diesse ; 

ni vi quien bien cscriviesse 

que no errasse de atrevido ; 

ni escrivano tan polido 

quanto aquel que escrive en ciencia : 

ni grande ser muy querido 

sin usar magnificencia ; 

ni hombre de gran prudeneia 

que fuesse gran hablador ; 

ni necio buen trobador 

aunque tocasse de loco ; 

ni hombre que sepa poco 



que se conozca en su yerro ; 

ni otro mayor destierro 

que bivir hombre entre necios ; 

ni poder comprar por precios 

virtuosa condicion ; 

ni hombre tan sin razon 

que no lo pongays en ella; 

ni otra mejor donzella 

que aquella que casan presto; 

ni vi hombre muy honesto 

que fuesse de desechar ; 

ni \i mayor imperar 

que del rico villanage; 

ni otro mejor \aage 

que yr a Hierusalem; 

ni vi nunca mayor bien 

que tener al mundo en nada : 

ni cosa mas ordenada 

que aniar y servir a Dios ; 

ni gran engaiio entre nos 

sino morir por amores; 

ni vi tan dulces errores, 

ni los supe arrepentir ; 

ni otro mayor morir 

que riquezas dessear; 

ni otro mejor holgar 

que del nuevo desposado; 
ni otro mejor ditado 

que alcanfar buena muger ; 

ni otro mejor perder 
que muger de divisiones ; 

ni niejores estaoiones 

que en su casa la matrona ; 

ni otra mejor corona 

que buen seso en tal lugar ; 

ni tan gentil motejar 

que merceiesse loor ; 

ni vi hombre escarnidor 

que sobrasse de prudente ; 

ni vi otra mejor gente 

que los hombres no sobervios ; 

ni vi mejores proverbios 

que los enxemplos de Christo ; 

ni vi hombre tambien quisto 

quanto el rico liberal ; 

ni vi otro ma3"or mal 

que pobreza en el hidalgo ; 

ni ay otro hijo dalgo 

sino el bien acosturabrado ; 

ni iiudo peor atado 

que el casado descontento ; 

ni vi mejor casamiento 

que las personas conformes] 

ni vi cosas mas o ynormes 

que los de la beodez ; 

ni aborrecible vegez 

en el viejo virtuoso ; 

ni pareeer mas hermoso 

que la honesta mancebra ; 

ni vi peor compania 

que barvas en la muger : 

ni cosa de aborrecer 

sino el hombre ques sin ellas ; 

ni vi peores querellas 

que las de malos amigos ; 

ni mayores enemigos 



D. JUAN MANUEL. 



157 



que los malos pensamientos ; 
ni cortos entcndimientos 
que sufraii mueho la sana ; 
ni desventiira tamana 
que yguale al poco saber ; 
ni vi pobre carecer 
en parte de aborrecido ; 
ni otro saber veneer 
sino averse a si veneido, 
el que por si combatido 
pueda mas que su querer 
ha querido." 

Cancionero General, AT. 171. 



Romance de D. Juan 3Ianuel. 

" Gritando va el cavallero 
publicando su gran mal. 
vestidas ropas de luto 
aforradas en sayal, 
por los mantes sin camino 
con dolor y sospirar, 
llorando a pie descalfo, 
jurando de no tornar 
adonde viesse mugeres, 
por nunca se consolar 
con otro nuevo cuj'dado 
que le hiziesse olvidar 
la memoria dc su amiga, 
que murio sin la gozar. 
Va buscar las tierras solas 
para en ellas abitar : 
en una montana espessa 
no cei-cana de lugar 
hizo casa de tristura, 
ques dolor de la nombrar, 
duna madera amarilla 
que Uaman desesperar, 
paredes de canto negro, 
y tarabien negra la cal ; 
las tejas puso leonadas 
sobre tablas de pesar ; 
el suelo hizo de plomo, 
porque es pardillo metal ; 
les puertas chapadar dello 
por su trabajo mostrar ; 
y sembro por cima cl suelo 
secas hojas de parral, 
que ado no se csperan bienes 
esperan9a no ha de estar. 
En aquesta casa escura 
que bizo para penar, 
haze mas estrecha vida 
que los frayles del paular; 
que duerme sobre sarmientos, 
y aquellos son su manjar ; 
lo que llora es lo que beve, 
aquello torna a Uorar, 

^ no mas duna vez al dia 
por mes se debilitar. 
Del color de la madera 
raando una pared pintar ; 
un doser de blanca scda 
en ella raando parar, 



y de muy b.anco alabastro 
hizo labrar un altar, 
con canfora beturaado, 
de vaso bianco el frontal ; 
puso el bulto de su amiga 
en el para le adorar. 
el cuerpo de plata fina, 
el rostro era de cristal ; 
un brial vestido bianco 
de damasco singular, 
mongil de bianco brocado 
forrado en bianco cendal, 
sembrado de lunas llenas, 
senal de casta final ; 
en la cabaca le puso 
una corona real, 
guarnecida de castaiia.s 
cogidas del castaiial : 
lo que dize la castaiia 
es cosa muy de notar, 
las cinco letras primeras 
el nombre de la sin par. 
Murio de veynte y dos alios 
por mas lastima dexar, 
la su gentil hermosura, 
quien que la sepa loar 
ques mayor que la tristura 
del que la mando pintar, 
en lo qual passa su vida 
es en la siempre mirar ,- 
cerro la puerta al plazer, 
abrio la puerta al pesar. 
abrioli para quedarre 
poro no para tornar." 

Cancionero, ff. 104. 



' I suspect that tliese two lines are misplaced, and 
should precede the two preceding ones. 



Eomance fecho por el Bachiller Alonso de Peraza, 
en loor de la Ciudad de Valencia. 
" Valencia, ciudad antigua, 
Roma primcro nombrada, 
primeramente de Roma 
y de su gente habitada : 
gran tiempo Cartagincnses 
hizieron en ti morada ; 
despues del pueblo Romano 
colonia fueste nombrada, 
nunca sierva ni peehera, 
siempre libre y franqueada ; 
en las aguas batismales 
primero regencrada, 
por los nobles fuertes Godos 
de quien fueste conquistada ; 
al fin con toda Espaiia 
de Alarabes ocupada ; 
bien vengada por el Cid : 
mas despues mal defensada, 
que por su muerte tan presta 
a Moros fueste tornada, 
hasta que cl primcro Jaymc, 
rey de gloria bicn ganada, 
te gano para tenorto 
siempre noble y sublimada 
casada con Aragon, 
como reyna coronada. 
con corAa/le nobieza 



158 



D. JORGE MANRRIQUE. 



por mano real pintada, 

podcrosa, pref'ulgente, 

sobre todas ensaljada; 

tan querida de fortuiia, 

de fortuna tan aniada, 

que jamas bien repartieron 

de que te negassen nada. 

Debaxo del mejor clinia 

eres puesta y situada, 

de amigables influencias 

de los cielos muy dotada; 

en mejor suelo del mundo 

en mejor signo fundada ; 

de rios, fuentes. lagunas, 

destanques y mar ccrcada, 

como Venecia la rica 

sobre aguas assentada. 

Ni te combate gran frio 

ni calor demasiada, 

mas una templaiifa medida, 

ima raezela muy templada 

del parayso terrenal 

solo a ti comuaicada ; 

de ap'es sanos. claros, frescos, 

sotiles purificada ; 

toda la ciudad dentro y fuera 

noble, gentil, alindada ; 

ni muy grande ni pequena, 

para ser mas acabada ; 

de todo estado de gentes 

muy continua y muy poblada ; 

palacio donde se afina 

la finor mas afinada ; 

madre de cavalleria, 

clara, antiqua, muy honrada, 

toda escuela de virtudes, 

y de sabros yllustrada ; 

de grandes mercaderias 

y viquezas abundada ; 

toda jardin de plazeres 

y deleytes abastada ; 

de damas lindas, hermosas, 

en el mundo mas loada ; 

de mas y de mas polidos 

galanes la mas preciada ; 

enxemplo de polideza, 

corte contino llamada, 

piadosa justiciera, 

bien regida y governada ; 

toda casa de oracion. 

toda santa y consagrada. 

rico templo donde amor 

siempre haze su morada." 

Villancico suyo en oracion. 

" PuES que Dios te hizo tal, 
noble ciudad de Valencia, 
guarde te por su clemencia. 

"Hizote cavallerosa 
sobre todas quantas son, 
noble, rica, generosa, 
muy polida y muy hermosa, 
dechado de perfecion, 
pues te dio con^^gou 



corona por excelencia 
guardate por su clemencia. 

' Guardate mas con los dos 
sant Vicentes tus patrones, 
con sant Jorge, y vos con vos 
sagrada madre de Dios j 
de malas persecuciones, 
y de barbaras naciones, 
harabres, guerras, pestilencia, 
librete por su clemencia." 

Cancionero, ff. 107. 



Un combite que fizo D. Jorge Manrrique a su 
madraste. 

" Senora muy acabada 

tened \Tiestra gente presta, 
que la triste ora es llegada 

de la muy solene fiesta. 
Quando 3-0 un cuerno tocare 

movereys todas al trote 
y a la que primero llegare 

daqui le suelto el eseote. 

" Entrara vucstra merced 

porques mas honesto entrar, 
por ciraa duna pared 

y dara en un muladar. 
Entraran vuestras donzellas 

por baxo dun alboUon, 

ballareys luego un rincon 
donde os pongays vos y ellas. 

"Por remedio del cansancio 

deste salto peligroso, 
hallareys luego un palacio 

hecho para mi reposo. 
Sin ningun tejado, y cielo 

cubierto de telaratias, 

hortigas por espadaiias 
derramadas por el suelo. 

" E luego que ayays entrado 

bolvereys a manizquierda, 
hallareys luego un estrado 

con la escalera de cuerda : 
Por alcatifa un estera, 

por almohadas albardas, 

con hilo bianco bordadas, 
la paja toda defuera. 

'■La caraa estai'a al sereno 

hecha a manera de lio, 
y un colchon de pulgas Ueno 

y de lana muy vazio : 
Una savana, no mas ; 

dos mantas de lana suzia, 

una almohada tan suzia, 
que no se lavo jamas. 

" Assentaros heys en un poyo 
mucho alto y mu)' estrecho, 
la mesa estara en un hoyo 

porqueste mas aprovecho. 
Unos manteles destopa, 



JUAN ALVAREZ GATO. 



159 



por panos panos raenores, 
serviran los servidores 
en cueros bivos sin ropa. 

" Yo entrai-e con el raanjar, 
vestido daqueste son, 
sin camisa, en un jubon 
sin mangas y sin collar : 
Una ropa corta y parda 
aforrada con gardunas, 
y por pestarias las urias, 
V en el ombro un espingarda. 

" Y Unas calf as que de rotas 
ya no pueden atacarse, 

y Unas viejas medias botas 
que ravian por abaxarse, 

tan sin suelas que las guijas 
rae tienen quitado el cuero, 
y en la cabe^a un sombrero 

que un tiempo fue de vedijas. 

'' Verna luego una cnsalada 
de cebollas albaiTanas, 

con raueha estopa picada, 
y cabefuelas de ranas ; 

Vinagre buelto con hiel, 
V su azeyte rosado, 
en un casquete lanjado, 

cubierto con un broquel. 

'• El gallo de la passion 

verna luego tras aquesto, 

metido en un tinajon 

bien cubierto con un cesto ; 

E una gallina con polios 
y dos conejos tondidos, 
y paxaros con sus nidos 

cozidos con sus repoUos. 

" Y el arroz fecho con grassa 
dun collar viejo sudado, 

puesto por orden y tassa 
para cada una un bocado. 

Por afucar y canela 
alcrevite por ensomo, 
y delante el mayordomo 

con un cabo de candela. 

" Acabada ya la cena 

verna una pasta real, 
hecha dc cal y arena, 

guisada en un ospital : 
Hollin y ceniza en sorao 

en lugar dc cardenillo, 
hecho un emplasto todo 

y puesto en el colodrillo. 

" La fiesta ya fcnccida, 

entrara luego una duena, 

con una hacha encendida 
daquellas de partir lena : 

Con dos velas sin pavilos 
heehas dc cera de orejas, 
las pestarias y las cejas 

bien cosidas con dos hilos. 



" Y en el un pie dos chapines, 

y en el otro una chinela, 
en las manos escarpines, 

y taiiendo una vihuela. 
Un tocino por tocado, 

por sartales un raposo, 
el un brafo descoyuntado 

y el otro todo velloso. 

Fin. 
" E una saya de sayal 

forrada en peiia tajada, 
y una pescada cecial 

de la garganta colgada : 
y un balandran rofagante 
hecho de nueva manei'a, 
las faldas todas delante, 
las nalgas todas de fuera." 

Cancionero Gen., ff. 181 



Juan Alvarez Gato. 
Desafio de Amor, que hizo a su amiga. 

" PoRQUE crecen mis tormentos 

con aquexado gemir, 
y mis tristes pensamientos 
doloridos sentunientos 

me combidan a morir ; 
E jamas, cedo ni tarde, 

en mi raal poneys desvio, 
por no ser dicho couarde 
sin que mas danos aguarde 

yo Seiiora os desafio. 

" E pues en pena tan fuerte 

OS plaze tornar mi gloria, 
quiero aventurar mi suerte 
al peligro de la muerte 

por cobrar nueva victoria. 
Que vos al trance venida 

no puedo quedar vencido, 
porque si pierdo la vida 
pues ya la tengo perdida, 

sera perder lo perdido. 

" E pues me days tal fatiga 

que me ofende y me debate, 
vos me soys tan enemiga 
que justa razon rae obliga 

venir con vos a combate. 
Porende escogcr deveys 

luego campo despoblado, 
en el qual mc hallarcys 
al tiempo que mandareys, 

en esta manera armado. 

" Llevare por condicion 

un cavallo de firmcza, 
ensillado con passion, 
y coraras de alicion 

guarnecidas en tristeza. 
Un capacete y bavera 

de fuerte metal Ibrjados, 
ques lealtad vcrdadera, 



160 



JOSEPH DE ANCHIETA. 



memoria finnc y cntcra, 
estofada con cuidados. 

" De servicios ha de ser 

la guarnicion de nils brafos, 
bordada del padecer, 
que me days sin merecer 

en peuas de mil pedafos. 
Falda y gocetes seran 

los desseos de serviros, 
porquc son de jazeran 
que nunca se mudaran, 

guarnecidos en sospiros. 

" Los quixotes seran tales 

del afan que nunca afloxa, 
las correas de los quales 
son dolores desiguales 

con hevillas de congoxa. 
Un espada llevare 

en vayna de pensamiento, 
de muy limpia y clara fe, 
que con vos siempre terne 

no mellada del tormento. 

" Tengo de Uevar por lanf a 

una porfia tan dura 
que no le ponga mudanfa 
ninguna desesperenya 

que rae deys, ni desventura. 
E por mejor defensar 

mi fraciencia en este trance, 
adarga quiero Uevar 
de paciente soportar 

do \aiestros tiros alcance 

" Con las amias que he contado 

OS espero en el camino, 
y por ser mejor guardado, 
al querer desordenado 

llevare por mi padrino. 
E con denuedo amoroso, 

esfuerfo porne en mi fuerja 
dun amor tan poderoso 
que no vaya temeroso 

de vuestros golpes ni fuerfa. 

" Pucs sabeys quantas y quales 

son mis armas y denuedo. 
para que estemos yguales 
llevareys tantas y tales, 

porque yo menos no puedo. 
Ma.s ay que tengo temor 

que dexeys la piedad, 
para me herir mejor 
con lanfade disfavor 

y espada de crueldad. 

'■ Mas pienso triste hallaros 
a cavallo de bondad, 

del qual no pueda mudaros, 

ni venceros ni forparos 
a querer mi voluntad. 

E temo que si coraienpa 
este trance peligroso, 

que nunca passe ni venja 



las corayas de verguenfa 
guarnecidas en reposo. 

" Otras armas ofensivas 

gran temor tengo que sean 
desdenes sanas esquivas, 
respuestas tristes altivas, 

virtudes que vos arrean. 
E acrescientan mi passion 

ver su fuerfa y fortaleza, 
que tienen por guarnicion 
con saber y discrecion 

gracia, beldad, gentileza. 

" Mas rccelo que tomeys 

por padrino en esta guerra 
honestad con que venceys 
quantos vencidos teneys, 

para dar comigo en tierra. 
Aunque si viere poner 

contra mi las fuerj as della, 
alii terne mi querer 
con esfuerf o y con poder 

que se combatan con ella. 

" Pues fuerfa damor me aquexa 

provar quiero sus victorias, 
por no tener de mi quexa, 
que el que los peligros dexa 

nunca goza de las glorias. 
E pues que jamas olvida 

el morir a los humanos, 
a mi que ya me combida 
mas lo quiero que tal vida 

si muriere a vuestras manes. 

" Con pura premia del fuego 

de mis llamas enccndidas, 
este desafio os ruego 
que se acepte para luego, 

o dad las armas rendidas. 
E senalad el lugar 

do vamos ambos a dos, 
que si quercys dilatar 
pensad que os he de buscar 

pai'a batallar con vos. 

Fin. 

" Porende siempre despierta, 
estareys en lo mas alto, 
que de mi vos hago cierta 
si dormis a puerta abierta 
que verne de sobresalto." 

Cancionero, ^c. 



Joseph de Anchieta. 

The life of a poet is usually uninteresting and 
uneventful, but Anchieta's was the life of a Jes- 
uit ; its events fill a folio volume, and such are 
their importance, that one of the reverend Li- 
censers, in his official permit, declares that the 
attempt to embellish his action by any beauty of 
style, is like giving light to the sun ; and anoth- 
er saysj while the publication is withheld, so long 



JOSEPH DE ANCHIETA. 



161 



Rre the righteous deprived of advantage, and God 
himself deprived of glory. 

Joseph was born in the island of TenerifTe, 
1533. He was an early poet, and therefore they 
called him at Coimbra the Canary Bird. At an 
early age he made a vow of virginity, and at 
seventeen profes.«ed in the company of Jesus, and 
commenced hostilities with the devil. The devil 
attacked his weak part, it was the os sacrum. 
Anchieta used to attend eight masses every day 
at lea.«t : the fatigue of kneeling was dreadful, 
and the young devotee argued badly when he 
imagined that what was so agreeable to his soul 
could not be injurious to his body, the converse 
of the proposition might have convinced him of 
his error. A contraction of the muscles follow- 
ed which made him awry for life. Other ac- 
counts say the fall of a ladder which struck his 
sides occasioned this leaning ; the biographer is 
not decided as to the occasion, but he is certain 
the devil was the cause. 

War being then declared, Anchieta volunteer- 
ed upon active service, and in 1553 embarked 
for Brazil. Praise be to the honest intrepidity 
of fanaticism ! Brazil was inhabited by savages, 
fierce in war, cruel in conquest, — the missionar)' 
was astonished at his own happiness in being 
chosen by God to undertake the difficult and dan- 
gerous enterprize. At midnight the sailors saw 
him follow his enthusiasm by gazing on the shore 
and the ocean, and they heard his frequent ex- 
clamation. Who am I that the Creator of these 
should have selected me to serve him ? 

Six other Jesuits were with hira ; on the voy- 
age he was their servant, nor to them alone did 
he confine his attendance, he behaved to all the 
crew as if they had been brethren, and his man- 
ner and his piety so \\Tought on them all, that 
the ship appeared like a College of Penitents. 

After perils by sea and by land, and a few 
trifling miracles, he was settled at Piratininga, 
in what comfort his own letter to the general of 
the Order, Ignatius the founder himself, well de- 
scribes. It was WTitten in August, 1554. 

" A Januario usque ad pra3sens, nonnunquam 
plus vigiuti (simul enim pueri CatechisttE dege- 
bant) in paupercula domo. Into et lignis contexta, 
paleis cooperta, quatuordecem passus longa. de- 
cern lata mansimus. Ibi schola, ibi valetudina- 
rium, ibi dormitorium et cEenaculum, item et co- 
quina et penus simul stmt, nee tamen amplarum 
habitationum quibus aliqui fratrcs nostri utuntur, 
nos movet desiderium ; siquidem Dominus noster 
J. C. in arctiore loco positus est, cum in paupere 
prsesepi, inter duo bruta animalia voluit nasci, 
multo vero arctissimo cum in cruce pro nobis 
dignatus est mori." 

Here they learnt the needful trades of barber- 
surgeon to supply the few neighbours, and taught 
Latin. Joseph wrote out the necessary books 
for the pupils, iot copies were scarce, and at the 
same tune learnt the language of the savages so 
well as to make a grammar and vocabulary-that 
has been the foundation of those who came after, 
and a catechism for the use of the natives. 

Joseph poetized in four languages, — the cous- 
L 



in-dialects, Spanish and Portuguese, — his Priest- 
Latin, — and his missionary Brazil. Of all these 
languages he travestied into holy hymns the pro- 
fane songs in use, so successfully, that along the 
roads the sweet songs of Joseph were sung by 
the travellers. 

In Latin his greatest work was the life of 
Mem. de Sa, third governor of the province, it 
was in hexameters. At St. Vicenti he wrote 
comedies to supply the place of less decorous 
ones that scandalized : one of them was called 
Pregafam Universal, because it was in the lan- 
guage of the country, and in Portuguese that all 
might understand it. It was first acted out of 
doors, sub Dio. A heavy cloud hung over the 
spectators, — a tremendous cloud. Joseph bade 
them sit still to see the corned}-, and behold for 
three hours that the play endured, not a drop 
fell, — and as soon as the spectators got home, 
there was the terriblest storm of rain, thunder, 
hghtning and hail, that ever was seen in that 
country. 

As a schoolmaster, Anehieta's practice was 
singular. The children of the natives he taught 
to read, write, say the catechism, &c., and sing 
hymns : they were soon enabled to assist him by 
teaching the younger pupils. Every morning 
they sung when school was over as Ladainhas 
dos Santos, every evening the hymn to the Vir- 
gin. On Saturdays the boys were always to 
flog themselves with cords made of the wild 
thistle ! poor bo}'s ! 

In the midst of these prosperous emplo)Tnents. 
an infectious disease broke out among the na- 
tives, the Jesuits say it was owing to the devil, 
the heathens said it was the Jesuits' fault, a 
judgment for their apostasy and toleration ; the 
nature of the disease is not mentioned, nor is this 
of importance, as Joseph's pi-escription savours 
more of the monk than the physician, nine pro- 
cessions in honour of the nine orders of angels, 
in which all the uninfected walked with wax 
lights in their hands, and all the children bear- 
ing a cross upon their sides flogged themselves 
till they bled beneath the stripes, but it was 
judged expedient to bleed for the body as well 
as the soul, and there were no lances ; Joseph 
sharpened his pen knife, his scholar followed his 
example, they bled the Indians, the disease ceas- 
ed, and the nation agreed that the devil had giv- 
en them the infection and the Jesuits cured them. 

But better anecdotes may be found of Anchi- 
eta and his associates. They cried out against 
their countrymen i'or enslaving the Indians, — and 
these precious Christians by every endeavour 
thwarted their attempts to convert the natives. 
They represented the Jesuits to them as men 
who had entered the church because they were 
cowards and skulked from war ; — this was a se- 
rious obstacle. It was diflicult, also, to make 
their converts abstain from wine, women, and 
human flesh. A tribe whom they had convert- 
ed took a prisoner in battle, and in the bravery 
of conquest determined, in honour of the nation, 
to dress and eat him opposite the Jesuits' door. 
The prisoner was bound, the fire kindled, the 



162 



JOSEPH DE ANCHIETA. 



fathers sallied out, tlelivered the prisoner, ex- 
tinguished the fire, and prevented effectually the 
crime ; the Indians falling at the feet of the fa- 
thers and confessing their guilt. 

In one of his letters to Portugal he speaks of 
his own health and manner of living ; as we have 
no aperients here, says he, or regalos de enfer- 
maeri?, it has often been necessary to eat boiled 
must3.rd leaves, and the pulse of the country, 
and such food as you may conceive. I instruct 
three different classes, and frequently when I am 
sleeping they disturb me with their questions. 
By acting thus as though I were not an invalid, 
I have begun to recover. As a proof, you know, 
I used to eat meat during Lent, — and now I fast 
during the whole forty days. At Piratininse I 
served as physician and barber to the Indians, 
Lleedmg them, and cm-uig them, when I had no 
hope of their recovery. Here at St. Viccnti, I 
have learnt another trade, which necessity taught 
me, to make alpergatas — (a sort of shoe made 
of packthread or rushes, used by the Moors, and 
formerly by the poor mountain people in Spain.) 
I am a good workman, and have made many for 
the brethren, for it is impossible to travel over 
these mountains with leather shoes. He should 
not have signed this letter Pauper et Inutilis Jo- 
seph ! 

In 1556, partly by the mstigation of the 
French adventurer, and partly irritated by the 
oppression of their Portuguese masters, the Ta- 
moyos and Tupis took arms. Nobrega and An- 
chieta went among the Tamoyos to persuade 
them to peace, the savages knew them to be 
good men, friends to the Portuguese, but father- 
ly to the Indians, they received them hospitably, 
and listened to them ; under a tree they made a 
chapel with palm leaves, poor indeed, but clean 
and decent, and here was the first mass cele- 
brated, — the Indians attended with respect and 
awe. The tidings that these Jesuits were there 
employed soon spread among the alhed Indians, 
and one of their chiefs, Aimbire, iimnediately set 
out to counteract them and destroy them. Aim- 
bire had been attacked by the Portuguese and 
fettered : he had leaped over the boat in which 
they were carrying him captive, and escaped by 
swimming. To the Portuguese, therefore, he 
had personal hatred, and was by nature cruel ; 
one of his twenty wives offended hmi, he cut her 
open and tortured her till she died. This man 
called a meeting, and immediately demanded of 
the fathers that three Indians who were with the 
Portuguese, and were the enemies of the allies, 
should be given up, that the allies might eat 
them. Joseph replied so well, addressing him- 
self to Pindobuf li, the old chief of the tribe, that 
no insult was offered him, he .showed the unrea- 
sonableness of the demand, declared it could not 
be granted, and referred the men to the Portu- 
guese. Anchieta took care to caution his coun- 
trymen, they refused to deliver the three Indians, 
and so treated the embassador that he returned 
their friend. The son of Pindobufu, deeply in- 
terested against the Portuguese, hastened home 
to kill these peace-makers ; they saw him in his 



canoe, and retired, suspecting his purpose, to the 
hut of their friend, his father ; the old man was 
absent, they had no asylum, and fell on their 
knees and began the vespers of the holy sacra- 
ment, (for it was the communion of the Body of 
God), the yoimg savage entered to kill them, he 
was awed by their appearance, their devotion, 
their courage, (perhaps this is one of the false- 
hoods of the biographer), he told them with what 
intent he came, and that now he was convinced 
such men could have no evil views. 

The continence of the fathers was what most 
surprised the Indians, and they asked why they 
refused their daughters and sisters who were so 
liberally proffered, and hoiv it was possible. No- 
brega pulled out of his pocket his cord of disci- 
pline, that he said was the antidote. To con- 
clude the peace it was necessary that one oi' 
these ambassadors should return, the Indians 
would not part with both ; Anchieta was there- 
fore left alone among savages and naked women. 
He was in the flower of his age, thirty years old, 
beset by snares, at war with his eyes, his ears, 
the flesh, the world, and the devil. In what 
land of Uz could a Job be more severely tried, 
in what Ur of the Chaldees could an Abraham 
have been more purified ! 

It is difficult to write the life of a monk and 
avoid indecency. By the aid of the Virgin he 
passed thi'ough this fire of Babylon, without feel- 
ing even its heat or its smoke. To this we owe 
his great Poem. He vowed to the Virgin to write 
her fife in verse — but how should he sing the 
songs of Zion m a strange land ? where he had 
neither books, nor paper, nor uik, nor pen. On the 
shore of the sea Anchieta composed his poem ; 
he wrote his verses upon the sand, and then com- 
mitted them to memory. The poem was con- 
cluded, and Joseph returned. His first care 
was to perform his vow by committmg to paper 
his verses. It was a wonderful effort of mem- 
ory. It was 4172 Imes. The dedication fol- 
lows — 

" En tibi quse vovi, Mater sanctissima, quon- 
dam, 
Carmina, cum saevo cingerer hoste latits : 
Dum mea Tamuias prsBsentia mitigat hostes 
Tractoque tranquillum pacis inennis opus. 
Hie tua materno me gratia fovit amore, 

Te corpus tutum, mensque regente fuit. 
Saepius optavi, Domino inspirante, dolores, 

Duraque cum sasvo funere vincla pati. 
At sunt passa tamen merito mea vota repul- 
sam; — 
Scilicet Heroas gloria tanta decet." 

In a subsequent revolt of the Indians, about 
the Rio de Janeiro, Nobrega and Joseph were ot 
advice that a fort should be buUt there, and Jo- 
seph accompanied the Portuguese army ; their 
success is attributed to his sanctity, and perhaps 
was produced by his wisdom. 

In 1569 he was chosen rector of the college 
of S. Vicenti. Joseph was so skilful a confess- 
or, so learned an expounder of .the Scriptures, 



ALONSO PEREZ— LUIZ DE SOUZA. 



163 



so admirable a preacher, so acute a theologian, 
and so fine a poet, that it was suspected his wis- 
dom was more than human. " What I myself 
think," says his biographer, " is this, that though 
his understanding was very strong, and his gen- 
ius excellent, so that without a master he read 
the works of many others, yet, the readiness and 
the cleai-ness and the certainty of his replies in 
difficult cases, and the variety of his composi- 
tions, in which he illustrates every kind of knowl- 
edge, appears more than human." It was a 
conunon beheve that God inspired his speech. 
And Father Gaspar Sampares, a Jesuit, swore 
that when Joseph was preaching on Trinity Sun- 
day, he saw a bird, like a Canary bird, pitch on 
his left shoulder, and though Joseph drove him 
away, still he returned, so that it seems probable 
that this was something not natural but divine. 

1578 he was removed to Bahia, and chosen 
Provincial. In 1586 he became too infirm for 
the office, and resigned it ; at the time of his 
death he was settled in the Aldea Reritigba, 
where lie had been superior; it took place in 
1597. 

Joseph has been called the second Thaiima- 
turgos, and the second Adam, deservedly, for 
never man worked so many miracles, and so 
easily; and, like Adam, he was innocent, and 
had the dominion over all things, over the earth 
and all its living creatm-es, the sea, the rivers 
and fountains and all that are therein, the rains 
and the winds and the fii'e ; he could remove 
pain ; for fevers, abscesses, sore throats, the 
toothache and sore eyes, he was infallible ; and 
when he was called in in desperate cases as 
man-midwife, he never lost a patient. Man was 
subject to hun, wholly and in all his parts, the 
head, the eyes, the teeth, the mouth, the throat, 
the breast, the ribs, the entrails, the hands and 
the feet; life and death obeyed him; he had 
power over the body and the soul. There is not 
a miracle in scripture which he did not famil- 
iarly practise, and sometimes improve ; he turned 
water into wine, not once only, as Jesus Christ 
did, but many times, says the biographer ; and 
when he wanted a shade from the sun, the cloud 
that covered the Israelites did not satisfy him, he 
called the birds to form a canopy over his head, 
which was certainly more elegant and in a bet- 
ter taste. 



Diana. 



As the chivalrj'-roraances are all battles, so 
this new breed are all love : they are as inarti- 
ficial in structure, — a multitude of stories hooked 
and eyed together clumsily. 

In the absence of Sireno, Diana has forgotten 
hira, and married an old flame ; he returns very 
iiiserable, and associates with Sylvano, who loved 
Diana also ; and though his love was never re- 
turned, is as miserable. A .shepherdess and a 
njinph, who shoots admirably well whh a bow, 
for at different times she kills three savages and 
two knights, joins them, also unhappy in love, 
and they go. invited by three nymphs of Felicia, 



to Felicia for her aid : on the way they find an- 
other disconsolate shepherdess. Felicia cures 
by a wonderful water the love of all those whose 
love is hopeless. The rest are fortunate, and at 
the end a general marrying takes place ; only 
Sireno is left a light-hearted batchelor, and Di- 
ana little pleased at the jealousy of her husband 
and the care of both her lovers. She does not 
appear till the latter part of the volume. A sec- 
ond part is promised, to contain what happened 
to Sireno and the result of the loves of two per- 
sons who have just made their appearance. 



Segimda Parte de la Diana, por Alonso Perez. 

He speaks of George of Montemayor. " Let 
him," he says, "undeceive himself who shall 
think to equal him in facility of composition, in 
sweetness of verse — y equivocacion en los voca- 
blos — had he but known Latin — had he not dis- 
dained to consult with men learned in that lan- 
guage and in poetry. But I suspect that his 
books went to the press before they were sent to 
the hands of hombres doctos, else he had left all 
our prose and verse authors far behind him." 

Of his own work he says, " casi en toda esta 
obra no ay narracion ni platica, no solo en verso, 
mas aun en prosa, que a pedafos de la flor de 
Latinos y Italianos hurtado, y imitado no sea." 
He would have kept his book ten j'ears, had he 
not feared that another second part might come 
out first, becaitse it was a thing so much desii'ed 
by all. 

George of Montemayor had talked over his 
plan for a second part with Alonso Perez. His 
design was to make Sireno marry Diana, when 
her husband was dead, but the ingenious friend 
observed, that this would be shutting the door 
upon himself and finishing the .story ; whereas 
if he made Diana sued b)^ many lovers at the 
same time that Sireno renewed his love, there 
would then remain agreeable matter for a third 
part. The advice which George lived not to 
follow, he himself put in practice : and the whole 
matter connected with the former volume Ls — 
that Diana's husband dies, and Felicia gives Si- 
reno another glass of water to set hira loving 
again. 

P. 7. Salt put for the sheep to lick. 



JFV. Luiz de Souza. 
The Historian of the Dominican Order. 
In the world his name was Manoel de Souza 
Coutinho of high family, born at Santarcm. At 
Coimbra he distinguished himself, and left the 
University to take the order of Malta ; but on 
his voyage thitherwards the Moors captured him 
and carried him to Algiers, where he found Cer- 
vantes in slavery. Their friendship is eternized 
in Persilis and Sigismundo. At liberty, he re- 
turned through Catalonia, where he was stripped 
by banditti. He married Dona Magdalena de 
Vilhena, of Almada. There he was colonel cf 
700 foot and 100 horse, and instituted an acad- 
emy of literary men in his own house. In 15C>y 



1G4 CASPAR DE VILLAGRA— GARCILASO DE LA VEGA, ETC. 



a pestilence raged in Lisbon, and the governors 
removing to Alniada, chose to usurp his house, 
he objected in vain, and irritated at being thus 
turned out of his own house, set fire to it and 
fled to ^Madrid ; there he \sTote this epigram, 

" Invide quid nostris insultas jedibus ? aut quid 
Exilio causas nectis, absque moras '? 
Molii-e, expone, implora, miuitare, reposce, 
Vindictani, laqueos, jura, pericla, neccm. 
Conjurent tecum fortuna, occasio, leges, 

Longo alio nobis lis derimenda foro est. 
Quos flamma absumpsit redolet mihi fama 
Penates, 
Ponet, et aeternum non moritura domum." 

There he edited the Latin poems of his friend 
Jayme Falfao. His brother invited him to Pan- 
ama to engage in lucrative commerce ; he went 
and did not succeed. The death of his only 
daughter made him return to Portugal, and there 
he received the certain tidings that D. Joal de 
Portugao, his wnfe's first husband, who was sup- 
posed to have fallen in the battle of Alcazar — 
was still living in captivity. On this informa- 
tion he entered into religion at Bemfica — and she 
at the same time took the habit of the same or- 
der as Sister Magdalen of the Wounds. Here 
his whole ardour was directed to religious feel- 
ings — he wrote his history of the order, prayed 
and fasted, and admitted a beggar to share his 
food in the same plate. 



Historia de La Nueva Mexico, del Capitan Gas- 
jmr dc Villagra. 1610. 

A PALPABLE and paltry imitation of the Arau- 
cana, in the verso suelto. 

P. 91—2. Striking fanaticism. 

120. Ceremony of taking possession. 

170-2. A dreadful anecdote of the author for 
famine killing his dog. 

176. Soldierly requisites. 

These are the pearls of the dunghill. 

Each canto ends with a rhyme-tag. 

'Tis a hateful metre, our worst tragedies ap- 
proach nearly to its monotony. 



Mansinho de Qucbedo. 
He was poor in fortune and rich in knowledge. 
It seemed as if the fate of his hero Aflbnso V. 
adhered to the poet. — Fn. Mangel. 



Garcilaso de la Vega. 
His father was the favourite of Fernando, a 
man of celebrated prowess. I believe the Bal- 
lad Hero, he was born at Toledo. 

" La fuente de Batres que tanto celebraron 
despues los Poetas, priraero corrio por la frente 
dc Garcilaso; desde donde la passo por con- 
ductos de marmola sus Jardines." 

He was intimate with S. Fr. de Borga then 
Marques de Lombay. Garcilaso was skilful at 
the Harp and Vihuela, to which he would sing 



his o-wn verses. This was another tie between 
the friends. 

Of his three sons the eldest was slain in de- 
fending Ulpiano against the French, at the age 
of twenty-five. The second, D. Franc. Guzman 
de la Vega, left the order of Calatrava for that 
of Domingo, and for his learning was considered 
as the rival of Fr. Luis de Leon. Lorenzo the 
younger inherited liis father's talents, was ban- 
ished to Oran for a satire, and died on the way. 
His daughter married the eldest son of the Conde 
de Palma. 

At Tunis he was wounded in the tongue and 
in the right hand. Envy attacking the two in 
struments of his glory. 

In attacking the Torre de Muey, four miles frorr. 
Fregiux, in Provence, he was mortally wounded. 
A general ciy was set when the Spaniards saw 
him fall. Charles V. m revenge hung the whole 
fifty arquebuseers who defended the town and 
raised it. 

He sundved seventeen days. Borja constantly 
by him, showing him the crucifix and affording 
the last consolations of religion. — Cardinal Gen. 
Jucgos. Vita de S. Fr. de Borja. 



Juan de Jauregui y Aguilar. 

I HAVE read the five Cantos of his Orfeo, he 
adds nothing to the mythological story. 

Canto 4. St. 15, 16, 17, his song and music 
well described. 

23, 26, 28, its powers and effects burlesquely 
imagined. It is undoubtedly the work of genius. 

With Grecian mythology much may yet be 
done. If we have heard only the same tunes it 
is because the musicians have learnt no more, not 
because the instrument is confined in reach. 

It is striking and honourable to Lucan that no 
other poet has had such good translators, at least 
men of such original powers. May, Brebeuf, 
Jauregui. Of Rowe the less we say the better. 
Marmontel I know not. But how they fail in 
the great passages ! 

Of his Orpheus, Nic. Ant. says, " quod Poe- 
matium nulli eorum cedere, quae magis inter nos 
celebrari solent, non indocti aut ineruditi hom- 
ines arbitrantur." 

He was a good painter. When one of his 
comedies was damned at Madrid one of the aud- 
ience cried out that if Xauregui wished to have 
his comedies applauded he must paint them. 
Nic. Ant. 



JBoscan . 
" BoscAN era poco horabre para crear una 
Poesia nueva. 

" Casi toda la Poesia del siglo 16. es una pura 
iraitacion." — Preface to the Romancero. 



Bosca/n. 
" Cargava el crude invierno cada dia, 
y cargava el dolor d'esta senoraj 



BOSCAN— JORGE MANRIQUE— HIERONYMO CORTE-REAL. 165 



no alcanfando remedio en sii desseo 

sino aquel que en poder d'el viento estava. 

Si algun descanso alguna vez tenia, 

era subirse a lo alto de su torre, 

y a su plezer de alii mirar Abido, 

y en tanta multitud de tantas torres, 

luego le dava 1' alma en la primera, 

si seria la de Leandro aquella, 

y empefava sin mas a contemplalla. 

Vido una tarde desde su ventana 

Unas pisadas de hombre en el arena, 

y luego imaginando entre si misma, 

O si estas, dixo, fuessen las pisadas 

que aqui dexo Leandro quando vino ! 

rauchas noches dezia, esta fue la hora 

que aqui llego mi bien, y assi empefava 

por orden a pensar lo que passaron, 

mas luego la memoria s'encogia, 

que no es manjar de ti'istes lo passado, 

quando de lo presente es tan contrario. 

Otras vezes andando la mar alta, 

y estando en mayor fuerca la fortuna, 

se le antojava que abonava el ticmpo, 

y entonces se alegrava, pero luego 

tornava a la verdad y a su tristeza. 

Otro dia despues le parecia 

que, la noclie passada, bien pudiera 

aver puesto su lumbre, y que Leandro 

pudiera aver venido sin peligro, 

y mientras qu'este antojo le durava, 

era el morir, y el fuerte congoxarse, 

era el darse rail culpas, y el reiierse, 

era el quedar quexosa de si sola, 

sin tener que dezir contra los vientos, 

y era el determinar con grandes fuer9as 

de no hazer otro tanto essa otra noche ; 

mas despues que la noche era venida, 

viendo la tempestad toda en su fuerja, 

midiendo, la presente y la passada 

via su proprio error abiertamente." 

Hero atvl Leander. 



Boscan. 



" Andava assi passando su miseria, 
contemplando la mar y aquel camino, 
como si en el quedara rastro alguno. 
Eran sus exercicios ver cl tiempo, 
y entender las raudanyas de la luna, 
y saber de los signos y planetas 
las asperas y blandas inipressiones ; 
y esto no lo aprcndio por las escuelas 
de a([ucllos que interpretan Ptolomeo ; 
minca piloto en golfo navegando 
desde su popa estuvo tan atento 
a escudrinar pronosticendo el cielo, 
como ella estava desde su ventana, 
puesta en miliar el sol si se ponia 
escuro, o claro, o si al salir la luna 
deva senal.de viento, o de bonanza." 

Hero and Leander. 



Jorge Manrique. 
JoAM IL one night after he had got into bed, 
asked Garcia de Resende if he could say the 



Trovas of Jorge Manrique, beginning " Re- 
corde el alma dorraida." Resende repeated them 
to the king's great pleasure, who said it was as 
necessary for a man to know those Trovas as to 
know the Paternoster. 



Ballads. 
" Hemos dicho que estas composiciones eran 
la Poesia del vulgo, y no con intencion de men- 
ospreciarlas. Desnudos verdaderamente del art- 
ificio y violencia a que precisaba la imitacion, 
cuidandose poco sus autores de que se pareciesen 
a odas de Horacio, o canciones de Petrarca, com- 
poniendose mas bien por instinto mas que por 
arte, los Romances no podian tener el aparato y 
la elevacion de las odas de Leon, Herrera y Ri- 
oja. Pero, ellos fueron propiamente nuestra poe- 
sia lirica : en ellos empleaba la musica sus acen- 
tos : ellos eran los que se oian en los estrados, y 
por las calles en el silencio de la noche, al sou 
del harpa o la vihuela : ellos Servian de incentivo 
a los amores, y tal vez de fiechas a la satira, y la 
venganza : pintaban felizmente las costumbres 
Moriscas o las Pastoriles ; y conservaban tam- 
bien la memoria del Cid y otros heroes seiiala- 
dos. En fin mas fiexibles que los otros generos 
se plegaban a toda chase de asuntos, se atavia- 
ban de un lenguage rico y natural, se pintaban 
de una media tinta amable y suave, y presenta- 
ban por todas partes aquella facilidad, aquella 
frescura, propias solamente de un car^cter ori- 
ginal, sin violencia y sin estudio." — Preface to 
the Romancero. 



Succcsso de Segundo Cerco de Diu, j)or Hicroyiy- 
mo Corte-Real. 

This writer has used the verse solto here and 
in his Naufragio de Scpulveda. Nor is it in me- 
tre only that he has imitated Trissino, tediously 
minute like the Italian, he drawls over needless 
descriptions, even more impertinently. I never 
elsewhere saw epithets strung together with such 
profuse tautology. 

That he wi'ote badly was his own want of 
genius. Antonio Ferrara and Diogo Bernardez 
praised his poetry. These winters know better, 
and must be stigmatized for meanness of adula- 
tion : they never praised Camoens. But in the 
description of Don Joao de Castros' cruelties, of 
men, women and children butchered along the 
whole coast, of prisoners hacked in iiiccos in cool 
blood (p. 220, 237, 245, 251), we discover a na- 
tional barbarity worthy of all abhorrence. Corte- 
Real wrote according to the feeling of his con- 
temporaries, and ho butchers wiiolc towns as 
coolly and circmnstantially as he puts the Vice 
Roy to sleep. 

P. 324 contains a passage of incomparable 
personification. Don Joao is in bed, and Sleep 
thinks it a good opportunity to put liim to sleep. 
341, an odd exploit of Portuguese gallantry. 
358, a story of a Moor rescuing his mistress. 

He has a simile of a swarm of fire-flies, 273, 
the first I have seen. 



166 



D. FILIPO DE LENCASTRE— BOTELHO DE MORAES. 



There is an appearance of the Virgin, 299, 
which in the hands of a man of genius might 
have been very striking. 

143, 289, atTord me a good quotation for Ma- 
doc. 

The poem is a mere history of the siege, with 
a vision at the beginning and another at the end. 

The Royal Professor Bent. Jose de Sousa 
Farinha, who re-edited this, seems to have had 
a passion for all bad poetiy. Without note or 
preface he contents himself with printing this 
trash : there is no unnecessary elegance of ty- 
pography, no superfluity of paper or fineness: 
all is coarse and crowded; that others should 
read these books is very strange. I have an ob- 
ject sufficient. I have a piece of ground on Par- 
nassus, and appropriate the dunghills in its vi- 
cmity for manure. 



He was of high birth, and distinguished him- 
self when Capiteo Mor of the fleet, 1571. His 
Quinta was near Evora, the Morgado de Palma : 
there, on a rock smiamit commanding the countiy, 
was his Parnassus where he composed his Le- 
panti poem, which he dedicated to Philip II. who 
returned an honorary letter of lying compliments 
— or rather courtly and inevitable equivocation, 
'■ you have displayed in it the genius and judg- 
ment and other good parts with which God has 
gifted you." In music and in painting he was 
eminent. He wrote a poem upon the fate of 
Sebastian, which was never printed, nor is any 
intimation <riven of the existence of the MSS. 



D. Filipo de Lencastre. 
BoRx\,1435, daughter of the great Infante D. 
Pedro. She fixed her abode in the Cistercian 
convent at Odivollas, where though she did not 
profess, she so educated her niece Joanna as to 
make her a saint. She performed the pilgrim- 
age to Santiago on foot, all the way liberal in 
alms. With religious fortitude she bore the bat- 
tle of Alfarrobeira. She died at the age of fifty- 
six. Of her works two were printed. 

" Nove Esta9oens, ou Medita9oens da Paixao, 
muy devotas para os que vizitao as Igrejas quinta 
feira de Endoenfas." This was printed during 
Sebastian's minority. 

" Concclho e voto da Senhora Dona Filippa, 
fJha do Infante D. Pedro sobre as Tercarias e 
Gucrras de Castclla. 1643." This was published 
by Brandam, with a biographical sketch. 

Of the following MSS. there is only the title, 
" Practica feita ao Senado de Lisboa em tempo 
que receava algum turaulto." 

From the Latin she translated " Tratado da 
vida solitaria composto por S. Lourenfo Justini- 
ano." From the French, " Evangelhos e Ho- 
milias de todo o anno." This in her own -writing 
is preserved at the convent of Odivellas. At the 
end are these her verses : — 

" Non vos sii-vo, non vos amo, 
Mas dezejovos amar, 



De sempre vossa me chamo 
Sem quem non ha repouzar. 

vida, lume, e luz, 
Infinito Bem e inteiro, 
Meu Jesu Deos verdadeiro. 

Por mini morto em a Cruz, 

Se mim mesma nao desarao 
Non vos passo ben amar. 

A me ajudar vos chamo 
Para saber repousar." 



El Alj)honso — de Franc. Botelho de Moraes y 

Vasconcelos. 

The foundation of Portugal. 

The obscure and conceited poem of a man of 
genius, — puzzled in plan, difficult in construc- 
tion, extravagant in metaphor — yet its monstrous 
combinations could have been the work of no 
common talents. 

Perhaps this poem exhibits the most degrad- 
ing proof of sei-vility that the annals of literature 
can record. The author had written another 
poem — its title El Nuevo Mundo — its hero Osiris, 
and subject the Atlantis of Plato. It was told 
him that John V. had expressed a wish to see 
the two poems moulded into one ; — the obsequi- 
ous subject obeyed — and thus it went through 
four pirate editions. He found out that it had 
not been the king's wish, and separated the 
poems again. 

Another proof of the loose plan is, that the 
two editions of Paris (a false date, for it is mani- 
festly Italian printing) and of Salamanca differ 
completely in arrangement : what begins the 
first being in the middle of the corrected and 
avowed edition : but such parts may as well be 
last as first — they are like the ten' cats — the 
three legs of the Mank's heraldy, quocunquo 
jaceris stabit ; his episodes are the heterogene- 
ous materials of a squab pie, but unhappily not 
so good in themselves. 

One incident it contains beautifully fanciful. 
Cydipe is with her looking-glass — Cupid steals 
the mirror and fixes upon it the perfect picture, 
book 7, St. 20 {Salamanca Ed.). With far lesa 
propriety is the portrait of Aquimo stolen from 
a fountain. 

The dwelling of Sleep is represented as all 
ice — philosophical — ^but the blanket-feeling of 
Sancho is nearer nature. Among the many ex- 
ecrable miracles of the poem in the last action 
is one supereminently ridiculous : the Moorish 
weapons when in the air are turned into birds, 
beasts and serpents that all recoil upon the in- 
fidels — and some are half and half ! 



Fran. Botelho de Moraes y Vasconcellos. 
His " El Nuevo Mundo^'' was published 1701, 
Barcelona, in ten cantos, then incomplete, the 
Author of twenty-six years, and the completion 
promised. Its subject was Columbus ; in 1716, 
it was printed at Madrid, also unfinished. At 
the end of the Italian edition of his Alphonsb, 
which bears the impress of Paris, a complete 



FR. FRANCISCO DE SANTO AGOSTINHO MACEDO. 



167 



edition of the first poem is announced as forth- 
coming, in ten books also, but with great altera- 
tions, which, as lord and master of his own works, 
the poet was authorized to make. Its subject 
now is " The Triumph of Osiris at the court of 
Atlantis." 

Of the Alphonso I have two editions, the 
Italian, and the first Salamanean. The Portu- 
guese version was never published. At Luca, 
1716, a double-columned quarto edition was 
published, in a mutilated state, contained sixteen 
cantos, and part of another. 



Fr. Francisco de Santo ^gostinho Macedo. 

Born in Coimbra, 1596. At eleven, he could 
repeat the Eneid, and composed verses, which 
not only imitated, but exceeded Virgil — to the 
astonishment of all, that before he knew the 
quantities of syllables, or the precepts of poetry, 
he could so pei'fectly compose both in his own 
language and in Latin. After having made the 
fourth vow among the Jesuits, he quitted the 
order to exculpate himself from some alleged 
crime, " in which," says Barbosa, "creduhty was 
more concerned than malice." He then enter- 
ed the reformed Province of S. Antony, but was 
called by John IV. to political labours, visiting 
with the several embassadors, Rome, France, 
and England. At Rome he was nominated 
Mestre da Controversia in the College de Prop- 
aganda Fide. Here he forfeited the high fa- 
vour of the Pope, by refusing to expunge a word 
in an epitaph ^viitten for one of his holincss's fa- 
vourites. At Venice he disputed de omni scibili 
for three days. Bold of this, another Atlas, but 
without Herculean aid, he sustained the weight, 
for eight days, of the celebrated dispute (con- 
clusoes), called Leonis Sancti Marci rugitus lit- 
terarii. They commenced Sept. 26, 1667, in 
this order : — 1 . Doctrines, versions and interpre- 
tations of the Holy Scriptures, old and new. 2. 
Series, succession and authority of the popes and 
councils. 3. Ecclesiastical history, fi'om Adam 
to Christ, from Christ to the then day. 4. Doc- 
trines and history of the fathers, Greek and Lat- 
in, and more particularly Augustin. 5. Moral 
and speculative philosophy and theology, accord- 
ing to the three schools of S. Thomas Aquinas, 
Scotus, and Sacres of Granada. 6. Canon and 
civil law, and Greek, Latin, and Italian history, 
chiefly of Venice. 7. Rhetoric. 8. Poetry, and 
the modes of versification among Greeks, Latins, 
Italians, Spaniards, and French. To all his op- 
ponents he replied readily and without embar- 
rassment, correcting their misquotations, and con- 
founding their argument, and crowned the labour 
by reciting a thousand extempore verses, and an 
epigram in praise of the city of Venice, which 
the republic ordered to be written under his pic- 
ture, and placed in S. Mark's library. This liv- 
ing encyclopajdia could repeat the whole of S. 
Augustin's works, and with such accuracy, that 
whenever any forged passage was repeated to 
him, however accurate in unitation, his memory 
instantly detected it. He died 1681, aged 85. 



He disputed upon some Grace point with 
Cardinal Henrique de Noris, and as they were 
both forbidden to publish more upon the subject, 
Macedo challenged him to a verbal controversy. 
By what unpardonable ignorance this has been 
construed into a challenge at arms I know not, 
for the cartel is thus : — 

" Libellus provocationis ad certamen littera- 
rimn in causa Gratis et Augustini missus a P. 
Fr. Francisco S. Augustini Macedo Observante 
ad P. Fratrem Henricum Noris Eremitam Au- 
gustinianum. 

Causa Duelli. 
" Studium defendenda? doctrinje Gratioe Chris- 
tianns, et Axigustinianee ab erroribus et calumniis, 
quod est antiquissimum : — Macedo. 

Occasio. 
" Dictum Noris de Macedo in Vindic. August, 
cap. 3, vers. 2, pag. 26. Pater Macedo mihi 
autor fuit, ut tum Historiam Pelagianam, turn 
hasce vindicias evulgarem. Non potuit Macedo 
suasor esse operis in quo cum plurlma sunt a 
veritate aliena, tum nonulla adversa GraticS et 
Augustino. 

Jus. 
" Quando non licet per Superiores quidqtiam 
mandare typis, reliquum est, ut certamine de- 
cernatur. 

Materia. 
" Tredecim propositiones Noris pugnantes cum 
doctrina Gratiao et Augustini. Errores tres inde 
pullulantes. Decem injuriae illatse Augustino. 

Modus. 
" Propositiones suis uti sunt in libro Noris con- 
ceptJB verbis perspicue afferentur. Errores fideli- 
ter adducentur ; Augustini injuria^ manifeste ex- 
ponentur ; obsignatis libellis, productis tostirao- 
niis, ut negari nequeant. 

Finis. 
" Veritas ct honor Augustini. 

Eventus. 

"Noris prosvaricator et descrtor Gratiae et 
Augustini. 

" Macedo, utriusque defensor et vindex ap- 
parebit. 

Lex. 

" Noris quibuscumque armis et sociis velit uti, 
licitum esto. 

" Macedo, vel cum rainimo provocat, in uno 
Augustino omnia sunto. 

Ero BononijE." 
The Cardinal declined the challenge. 

I SHALL be well excused from transcribing 
the titles of one hundred and six printed, and 
thirty-one MSS. works. Biography, and mar- 
t3Tology, and theology, and goncalogj', dcifica- 



168 



CRISTOVAL DE VIRUES— LUYS PEREYRA, ETC. 



tions, and orations, and disputations. A Latin 
version of Canioens is of the most important of 
his MSS., the work of nine months. Neither 
abortive nor mishap, but a thnely and perfect 
birth. Besides the printed and catalogue MS. 
works, he recited fifty-three panegyrics, sixty 
Latin orations, thirty-two funereal poems, and 
I'orty-eight epic poems ; and he wrote one hund- 
red and twenty-three elegies, one hundred and 
fifteen epitaphs, two hmidred and twelve dedi- 
catory epistles, seven hundred familiar epistles, 
two thousand six hundred heroic poems, one 
hundred and ten odes, three thousand epigrams, 
four Latin comedies, and one Spanish satire. 



jE^ Monserrate del Capitan Cristoval de Virues. 
1609. 3d impression. 

This is one of the poems which Cervantes 
mentions with praise. There is no want of pow- 
er — but it is wretchedly directed. 

The story of Garin, whom the Devil tempted 
to commit rape and murder, and how he became 
a brute beast in penitence and was miraculously 
pardoned. A battle with the Moors, clumsily 
introduced by driving the ship in which he era- 
barks for Rome to the African coast. 

I have three extracts from this poem, one a 
well-imagined discovery of a death in battle by 
the sight of the armour. One resembling my 
own tempest in Madoc, the other short, but the 
most masterly picture possible. 



Elcgiada of Luys Pereyra. 
A POEM altogether worthless, made of mate- 
rials more heterogeneous than the statue in Dan- 
iel, and yet all rubbish ! No eye for painting — 
no ear for music — bare, bald, beggarly narra- 
tive, hobbling upon crutches. Li the first book, 
Sebastian loses himself in a wood, and finds a 
hermit, who tells him the history of Portugal. 
In the sixth, somebody tells him of the shipwreck 
of Manoel de Sousa; miserable man so to die, 
and so to be commemorated by Pereyra and 
Corte-Real ! The tenth is upon the actions of 
the Portuguese in Monomotapa. In the twelfth 
is a description of Africa — not quite so enter- 
taining as that in the Geographical Grammar. 
The thirteenth is the history of the siege of Goa. 
The fifteenth, the siege of Chaul ; and at the 
conclusion of one of these very important and 
pertinent episodes — Pereyra says — and now that 
he has finished his story, it is proper that I 
should go on with mine — 

" Onde pois tem a estoria ja acabada 
Bem he que tome a minha comecada." 

Cant, xi., p. 214. 

Nor are the remaining books of the eighteen all 
employed in the action of the poem. The siege 
of Mazagam — the accession of Sebastian to the 
thi'one — a plague and a famine — and the destruc- 
tion of the fleet — these eke out the volume — and 
the devil also has some part, and Proteus, the 
favourite of the Portuguese. 



To find one characteristic merit would be im- 
possible ; but lines like these that follow, are, I 
believe, rarely to be found elsewhere. 

" DiJa cisterna so bebia a gente, 

Mas quanto mais gastava e mais bebia, 
Mais se acreeenta a agoa melagrosa, 
Cousa [se foy assi) maravilhosa." 

P. 39. 

"Ne qual — segundo entad se verifica" 

P. 42. 

" Cavallo que o pae de Italia e a mae d'Espanha 
[Como era comum voz da gente) teve." 

P. 104. 

" Outros a nado a terra indo saindo." 

Observe his modesty — 

" As vergonhosas partes encobrindo." 

P. 118. 

Sepulveda and his wife were stripped of every 
thing by the negroes — gold, amber, jewels. 

"vestido que traziam, 
Que inda cem mil cruzados valeriam." 

P. 137. 

"outro militante 
Esta nao menos duro e esforf ado 
Que todos, que le Mendofa e Joao chamado.' 

P. 297. 

Nor was there braver man the host among. 
Than he who was Mendoca called and John 

P. 336. Number of the enemy. 
Brave deeds in the battle. 

" E por isso nao posso tratar delles 
Por nao aver tambem papel parelles." 

P. 389. 



'''' Estos oyto trovas fez Alvaro de Brito Pestana 
a el Rey D. Fernando nas quaes meteo o sen 
name, e lense de tantas manheyras que se fazem 
sesenta e quatro. 

" Forte fiel faf anhoso 
fazendo feytos famosos 
florecente frutuoso 
fundando fiis frutuosos 
fama fe fortalezando 
famosamente florece 
fydalguyas favorece 
francas franquezas firmando. 

" Exalfado excelente 
ensynados estimando 
espritual evidente 
eresyas evitando 
Em Espana esmerado 
espelho esclarecido 



DE LUIS D-AZEVEDO A MORTE DO IPANTE DOM PEDRO. 



especial escolhydo 
estremado em estado. 

" Rey rreal rreglorioso 
rrefoi-fando rreceosos 
rreal rrey rremuneroso 
rrelreando rrevoltosos. 
Rycos rregnos rrecobrando 
rrycamente rresprandece 
rredoLrado rremerece 
rrealissimo rreynando. 

" Noteni Dotoryamente 
nestes notados notando 
nooto iiestas novamente 
notem no noteficando 
Notefique no notado 
necessaryo nacydo 
nobrecente nobrecido 
nobre noma nam negado. 

Alto alto aumentado 
alta alitor avondoso 
alto amante araado 
alto auto anymoso. 
Anymo angelical 
altas altezas avendo 
alto altos abatendo 
aalexandre aanybal. 

'• Merece raaximo mando 
manyfico mayoral 
maiores mandos mandando 
mauno modesto moral. 
Mostrase merecedor 
merece mais melhorias 
merecendo monarchyas 
merecente mandador 

" De d's dom deliberado 
dominante dadivoso 
de d's dino doutrinando 
dominando dereytoso. 
De desejo devinal 
desconparos defendendo 
diabruras deflazendo 
de dominius doutrinal. 

Fym. 
" Onores ofecyando 
obsoluto ofecyal 
ofieciaes ordenando 
onrrador on3rversal. 
Ousado ordenador 
onestando ousadias 
orenlhe oras omilias 
o onrrado onrrador." 



" De Luis d'Azcvedo a morte do If ante Dom Pe 
dro que morrco w Alfarrouhexjra, e vam em 
name do I/ante. "^ ' ^"' ^'^ 



169 



" PoLA morte de mym soo 



e dalgus vossos parentes 
vos outros que soes presentes 
todos deveys fylhar iloo 
Os que tinheis era mini noo 
e lolguays com miuha morte 
antre todos lanjay sorte 
qual sera mays cedo poo. 

" E do mal que me fyzestes 
entam sereys la lerabrados 
e daquestes mens criados 
que matastes e prendestes. 
Empero todos perdestes 
em mym hua nobredoa 
sobre todos fuy coroa 
segundo todos soubestes. 

" Nom foy outro no oriente 
tam perfeyto em saber 
ja em mym foy o poder 
descusar o mal presente 
nunca usey em meu talente 
de fazer consa crrada 
mas esta morte foy fadada 
pare mym e miiiha jente. 

"Eu cryey em gram alteza 
hum soo rrey e sen irmao 
semprc Ihe bayjoy a mao 
e rresguardey ssa rrealeza. 
■t uy en IVol da jentileza 
e na minha mocydade 
usey sempre de verdade 
e amey mujto franqueza. 

" Quando eu ante vos era 
todos massy esguardaveys 
e assy me adoraveys 

como se vos eu fyzera. 

Aguora ja menhi espera 

rreceber de mym merces 

antes me avorrefes 

como hua besta fera. 

" Nam ha rreynos e cristaos 
que em todos nam andasse 
e que sempre noni aehasse 
nos rrcys deles dofes maos. 
lydalguos e cydadaos 
me .serviam lealmente 
e agora cruelraente 
me matarao meus irmaos. 

'• Eu andey por muytas partes 
e por outras boas terras 
muyta paz e ta be guerras 
vy tratar per muytas artes. 
Mas aquesta dia martes 
foy infeles pera mym 
o meu sangrc me deu fim 
e rrompeo meus cstendartes. 

"Naturays de Portuiral 
contra m3'in annas fylhastes 
eertamciite muyto crrasfes 
que vos nam mereecv tal 



170 



ANTONIO DE MONTRO— LUYS FREYRE. 



Roubastes meu arrayal 
toda minha artelharia 
grande inveja c perfya 
ordenon todo este mal. 

" Mal Tos lembra as merces 
que vos fez el rrey meu padre, 
com a rra3'nha minha raadre 
du melhores des^edes. 
En nam ssey que guanhares 
por minha destruifam 
se o fezestes rem rrezara 
desto vos nam lavareys. 

" IMuyto trabalho levon 
meu padre por vos criar, 
mm^o mays por vos li^^•ar 
e lejTcar corao le}'xou 
Se vos ele acrefentou 
em mentres quele viveo 
nera per mpii nam faleceo 
quanto meu tempo durou. 

" E vos fostes OS cnlpados 
causadores de meu dano 
que ja passa de huii ano 
que andays a consselhados. 
E com rrostros desva}Tados 
me falaveys cada dia 
mas de vos nam me tem}^a 
porque ereys meus criados. 

" Natureza nam devera 
conssenturos tal crueza 
bera mostrara jemtileza 
algi-iri que me vida dere. 
Mas no ano desta era 
tays pernetas ssam correntes 
que amyguos e parentes 
todos andam por derrera. 

" A morte tenho passada 
c o medo ja perdido. 
pero levo gram sentido 
da infante lastimada. 
e da rrajTiha muj'to amada 
6 meus filhos orfaos leyxo 
deste todo me aqueyxo 
que da mortu nam do nada. 

" Ora la vos temperay 
o melhor que ja poderdes 
pero sse ssyso tenerdes 
ssempre vos bem avysay. 
Cada dia espcray 
rreceber por v me distes 
a que ora de mym vistes 
quando vos vier tomay. 

Cabo. 

" Todos fostes muy ingratos 
e de pouco conhecer 
bera quisestes parecer 
OS do tempo de pylatos." 



Extraordinary Impiety of the old Poems. 
There is one by Anto?jio de Mon'tro in 
praise of Isabel, Queen of Castile. It is blotted 
out by the Inquisitor more successfully than usu- 
al j but the burden is still legible. 

" De vos el hijo de Dios 
resubiera carne humana." 

There follows an answer by Alvaro de Brito. 
He says, 

"polo qual vos onsaria 
de dizer por esta vie 
CO que tenho de vos visto, 
crerdes pouco em Jhesu Christo 
menos em sancta Maria. 

* * * 

"tentando como diabo 
a rraynha tam em vao. 

* * * 

" Mas se vos disere3'^s tal 
nos rreynos de Portugal 
logo foreys dom rroupeyro 
cum barafo dazeytero 
hoc fogo de Sant barfal. 

" Vos na ley soes ome velho 
da cabeca ate os pes 
muy amyguo de mousees, 
y novo no evangelho." 

The Condell Moor says, 

" Dios al buen amador 
nunca demanda pecado." 

This also is scrawled out. 



Do Macho rrugo de Luys Freyre cstando para 
morrer. 
" PoYS que vego que Deos quer 
deste mundo me levar ^ 

quero bem encaminhar 
a minha alma sse poder. 
Em -quanto eston em meu syso 
a morte dando me guerra 
mando alma ao parayso 
de sy o corpo aa terra. 

" E mando loguo primeyi'O 
era quanto vivo me sento 
que deste raeu testamento 
seja meu testamente3'ro 
Meu irraao o de barrocas 
que eu raays que todos amo 
por serapre fugir a trocas 
a servyr muy bemssen amo. 

" qual me fara levar 
con muy grao solenydade 
ao rross}"o da trindade 
hu me mando enterrar. 
Poys me daly governey 
gram parte de minha vyda 
a carne que levarey 
aly deve sser comyda. 



I 



DEL KEY D. PEDRO. 



171 



"E vaao cantando diante 
a de braria e dafonsso 
hum tal solene iresponsso 
que todo mundo sse espante. 
A estes ambos ajude 
o macho de gomes borges 
o qual leve o ataude 
a bytalha e os alforges. 

"Rogo aos cortesaaos 
quanto Ihe posso rroguar 
que todos me vam om-rar 
com seus cirios nas maos 
E poys eram espantados 
de passar vyda tarn forte 
devem sser de mym lembrados 
dandome omra na morte. 

" Item me levem doferta 
dous ou tres cestos de palha 
que poys custa nemygalha 
nam deve daver rreferta. 
Tambem me leve hu alqueyre 
de farelos ou cevada 
poys na vyda Luys Freyre 
disto nunca me den nada. 

" Inf3mdos perdoes pedy 
as pousadas e pousey 
dalguydares que quebrey 
gamelas que rrody. 
E nam me devem culpar 
delhe fazer tantos danos 
poys que de palha fartar 
nunca me pude em 20 anos. 

" Item pe90 as verceyras 
muytos enfyndos perdoes 
e tambem nos orteloes 
dos danos das ssalgadep-as. 
Que a boo fee sse me soltava 
fome tal me combatya 
que qualquer cousa cachava 
todo muy bera me solya. 

" E que meu amo agravos 
me desse com amarguras 
deyxolhc tres ferraduras 
que na te mays de dous cravos. 
E pero dele me queyxo 
de males que me tern dados 
dous ou tres dentes Ihe leyxo 
que mam de fazer endados. 

" Nam Ihe posso mais leixar 
quelle nunca mays me deu 
rroguo Alvaro dabren 
que o queyra accompanhar. 
Roguo tanto qu6 sse doa 
dele tanto meu irmao 
que o ponha cm lixboa 
en-edor de ssam gyam. 

Fym. 
" Sobre minha ssepoltura 
depoys de sser enterrado 



se ponha este ditado 
per sse ver minha ventura. 
Aquy jaz o ma3's leal 
macho rrufo que naceo 
aquy jaz que nam comeo 
a sseu dono hu soo rreal." 



Del Rcy D. Pedro. 

" Mays dyna de ser ser^ida 
que senhora deste mundo 
vos soes o meu deos segundo 
vos soes meu bem desta vida. 

" Vos soes aquela que amo 
por vosso merecymento 
com tanto contcntamento 
que por vos a my dcsamo. 
a vos soo he mais devyda 
lealdade neste mundo 
pois soes o meu deos segundo 
6 meu prazer desta vyda. 

" Honde acharaao folguanf a 
meus amores. 

honde meus grandes temores 
seguranpa. 

" Tristeza nam daa luguar, 
menos conssente rreceo 
temor me faz sospirar 
mudan9a faz que na creo. 
Doutra parte espex'anfa 
daa favores 

sem a ver em meus amores 
seguranfa. 

" Buem deseo me enbya 
cometer vyda estranha 
soledad me acompanha 
des que supe que partia 

" Sobre todo penssamiento 
no se quyer partyr de myra 
dizendo syempi'e a que fym 
hazes tal apartamyento. 
To penssamiento be\ya 
y sento )'ssym tristeza 
yo respondo gentileza 
es aquelha que me guaja. 

" Ho desejosa folguanf a 
e fazem pausa meus males 
nom es em vano esperanfa 
se mo vales. 

" Se me vales tornaraa 
todo meu mal em prazer 
a meus trabalhos daraa 
gualardam meu merecer. 
Mais podcraa Bonfyanfa 
qu'e todos meus tristes males 
morrera dcscsperanfa 
se me vales." 



172 



PEDEO I.— FERNA DA SILVEIRA. 



From the MSS. Cancionciro of P. Pedro Ribei- 
70, Barbosa has extracted this poem by K- 
Pedro I. 

"Ado hallara holganja 
^Nlis amores : 
Ado mis graves temores 
Seguranfa : 
Pues mi siierte 

De una en otra cumbre llevantado 
Llcgome a ver d'elado tu hermosura 
Despues la frente para frente a frente 
Vi en blando accidente amortecide : 
I'assome el sentido tan adentro 
Que ha llegado al centro do amor vive : 
Mas como no recibe mi razon. 
Tu fiera condicion entre las manos 
Desechos mis deseos 
De un sobresaltado 
El alma has arrazada ; 
Los monies echos llanos 
Do toda mi esperanja era fundada : 
Si esto das por vida, que por muerte 
Dar Senora podea pecho tan fuerte." 

This is the earliest specimen of Moorish metre, 
and by the wa)' in which the beginning is print- 
ed, I suspect neither the MS. collector nor Bar- 
bosa understood it. 



Trovas de Ferna da Silveira coudel moor, a scu 
sobrinho Garcya de Melo de Serpa, dado Ihe 
regra per a se saber vestyr e tratar o pa^o. 
" PoYS vos taeham de cortes 
sobrinho gentil cunhado 
sobralto alvo delgado 
nanr ha mays em hua franyes 
E qua barba tenhaes pouca 
poys bem vestir vos alcgra 
rregeuos por esta rregra 
que fundey vyndo darouca. 

'■ A qual po3's em sy he boa 
e geeralmente vem bem 
que fara ao que tern 
bora corpo boa pessoa 
E poys tendes estas ambas 
tendes quanto aves mester 
se o vaao damor vos der 
per lugar que cubraas chabas. 

" Mas eu perdoado seja 
se falar hu me nam chamam 
poys que sam dos que vos araa 
que mays vosso bem deseja. 
Cunhado nam duvideys 
(}ue isto trago porley 
c por isso me fundey 
descrever £ls que lereys. 

'■ Duas cousastcpie nam calo 
ha no pafo de seguir 
hiia he saber vestir 
a outra saber tratalo 
As quaes ponho por escrj'to 



em estylo verdadeyro 
e falo logo primeyro 
no vestir ja sobredito. 

" Capatos de basylca 
pontylhas so bolo mole 
as calfas tyrem de fole 
rroscadas como obrea. 
Tragam sas de marear 
forradas dyrlanda parda 
ca cousee que muyta larda 
pera gram bomborrear. 

'■ Que trouver porta dolada 
camisa trazer nam cure 
menores porem ature 
porque nam penda aa banda. 
O gybam de qualquer pano 
na barriga bem folgado 
dos peytos tam agastado 
que seu dono tragou fano. 

'■ De pelote se guarneca 
pouco menos do artelho 
seja de branco e verraelho 
que sam cores de cabefa. 
Pardylho deve mantara 
sobrele trazer cuberto 
polas ilhargas aberto 
ventaes pola cabefam 

" Deve trazer cramynhola 
nam menos de tres batalhas 
tam fyna que tomas palhas 
comaa dalvaro meola. 
capelo ande no ombro 
feyto comoo do syntrao 
tragoo cabo em Ima mao 
e na outra huii cogombro. 

"Luuas dhufi soo poleguar 
feytas de pele delontra 
galante que as encontra 
nam Ihe devem descapar. 
Estas taes de meu conselho 
loda via auelas ha 
e item ma3's trazeraa 
balver que em huii goalho. 

" Traga f inta de verdugo 
pejada com capagorja 
ca tal par sabee que forja 
huii valente patalngo. 
De grandes bugalhos traga 
ho pescofo huii bo(5 rramal 
porque escusa fyrmall 
e a bolsa nam estraga. 

" O que for assy aposto 
nam he galante de borra 
nem deos queyra que se corra 
perolhe corram de rrosto. 
Calguiis sam ja conhecidos 
e poder sam nomear 
que trazem por pafejar 
motejar dos bem vestidos. 



FERNA DA SILVEIRA. 



173 



" Pero quern for no serao 
polo modo dyto encima 
apupar alto Ihe riyma 
e aas damas da la mao. 
e falar fagueyramente 
aos outros derredor 
e se ouuyr nom seor 
acodyr muy rrygamente. 

" Na outra parte segunda 
}K)vs ja dey fym a prymeyra 
sobrinho nesta maneyra 
a tenfam minha se funda. 
Pero o pafo se trautar 
estas man has se rrequerera 
e nos que elas couberem 
na corte sani de prezar. 

" He muy bom ser alterado 
e ser gram desprezador 
e he bom ser rryfador 
mas raelhor ser desbocado. 
Outrossy he bom doufano 
em todo caso tocar 
mas melhor he ja gabar 
e mentyr de macha mano 

'■ He muy bom buscar punhadas 
emeter nysso parceyro 
mas nam ser odianteyro 
par reguardo das queyxadas. 
Noos arroydos da vyla 
acodyr ser muy desposto 
mas salguem tyver o rosto 
avelos pees ala fyla. 

"Item manha de louar 
he jugar bem o malham 
6 ho jogo do pyam 
fovor selhe deve dar. 
Ne sey porque mays vos gabe 
ser gram pescador de nassa 
mas jugar a badalassa 
em qualquer galante cabe. 

" Saber bem o pego chuna 
e ho cubre bem jugar 
sam duas pcra duedrar 
galante contra fortuna. 
Nem saber ya a huii fylho 
escolher milhor conselho 
se nam que jogo fytelho 
jaldeta cunca sarylho. 

" Quern estas manhas tjver 
que ja dise inteyramcnte 
poda ver ao presente 
quanto Ihe fyzer mester. 
(.'a hu sele dcscobrir 
qual sera e tam sol'mda 
que Ihe logo nam acuda 
e Ihe de canto pedyr. 

*' Mas que diga sayba sayba 
jugar despada e broqueli 
porcpie dentro no bordel 



como fora dole cayba 
e se Ihe vyesse a mao 
poder sya meleter 
quem ajudasa ssoster 
seu andar scmpre loufiio 

" Regalo deve mostrar 
que nam leva em coIo duas 
e que todas cousas suas 
sam muy dynas de prezar 
Item mays falar em tudo 
e aprefiar sem raedo 
e oos olhos hyr codedo 
e fyngyr de muy agudo. 

" Falar nos feytos da guerra 
as duas partes de dia 
esta manha louuarya 
poys o leva assy a terra, 
e tomar mays outro sj' 
ho caso sobre seu peyto 
mas na concrusam do feyto 
o fazer buscay por hy. 

" Item nam. he manha fea 
quem achar da moo escuro 
estar quedo e muy seguro 
e bradar pola candea. 
Nem he menos verdadeyra 
que a outra do fytelho 
mostrar ser gra dominguelho 
6 pegar pola primeyra. 

" Eyxa aquy outra stamboa 
nem menos para notar 
sempre o pafo yr demandar 
antra bespora e nona 
porque nam desacotoe 
com ombradas o pardilho 
cassy fazia ofilho 
daquele que deos perdoe. 

" Tambem vos quero avysar 
nam vades como pataao 
se Ventura no seraao 
com damas vos forropar. 
Da boca pedes dyzer 
mas a mao sempreste queda 
e tocalhe na moeda 
lesse poode correger. 

" E per esta mesma guysa 
sabe delas toda vya 
que rrecado se daria 
a se bem tyrar a sysa 
E fallalhe no ou tono 
e nos outros temporaes 
ca coestas cousas taes 
podes escapar ho sono. 

'■ Leyxem vossa descryeam 
as que leyxo dcscrover 
assy como quer dyzer 
luytar polo tavascam. 
Da sacalinho de dentro 
podes tyrar so quyserdes 



174 



FRANCISCO DIAS G03IES. 



esse dor myr nam poderdes 
socorre vos ho coentro. 

Fim. 
"Boas sam getyl sobrinho 
as manhas nam douydes 
e vos me nomeares 
se levaes este caminho. 
E poys estas as melhores 
sam seas podes cobrar 
podem vos todos chamar 
huu rrevolvelhas damores. 

"Dezia o sobre escryto destao porque hyam 
cerradas em forma de cesta. 

" que vos vay na presente 
sobrinho vos apresento 
cuua vontade contente 
porque de vos me contento. 
O podre Ihe lanjay fora 
guard ae pera vos o saao 
e de sy beyjae a mao 
ho senhor e a senhora." 

Resende. CancioncrOj fol. 19.* 



Francisco Bias Gomes. 

V/as born at Lisbon in 1745, the son of a 
petty ti'adesman. His parents were good peo- 
ple, careful of theh* children's moral education. 
Francisco was designed for the law. He pass- 
ed through the previous studies in the schools da 
Congregafao do Oratorio. Rhetoric and Poetry 
he studied under the royal professor Pedro Jose 
da Fonseca, selecting with imcommon judgment 
for his age, the best-esteemed masters. He had 
hardly commenced his legal studies at Coimbra, 
when the micle, whose name he bore, and whose 
opinion swayed the family, altered his destina- 
tion. This man was really desirous to promote 
the welfare of his relations, and thought the quiet 
profits of trade a better establishment for young 
Francisco than the practice of an uncertain pro- 
fession, honourable, but often profiting the fortune 
little, and the moral character still less. 

Fructuoso Dias, the fathei-, who was as igno- 
rant as his brother, except in the world's com- 
mon wisdom, was persuaded, and the yomig 
student was ordered iiiunediately to quit the 
University. The thread of his studies was thus 
broken for ever. The uncle had accompanied 
his advice with an offer to assist his nephew in 
opening a shop in his father's trade, and Fran- 
cisco found himself settled in a huckster's busi- 
ness, where his talents were to be exercised 
thi-ough life in the lowest branches of calcula- 
uon ! where, unless they possessed an unusual 
resisting force, a strong vital principle, they must 
perish, or vegetate in miserable barrenness, like 
the ill-planted tree which in a better soil would 
have been beautiful with blossoms and rich with 
:Vuit. Thus vras the genius of Francisco Dias 



1 In tlie MS. some portions of this are marked " inked 
over," — others '• blotted,"— go that it is probably incorrect. 
J. W. W. 



blasted in the bud. He did not, indeed, lose 
ground, but he never advanced. His under- 
standing was chained down to a common, and 
low, and worthless pursuit. In the imwhole- 
someness of this shade, the tree might, indeed, 
exist, but could not possibly flourish. His talentt-- 
were like a hale-constitutioned child pining upon 
the scanty food of poverty. The young man felt 
his situation and struggled against it. He read 
assiduously ; poetry was his favourite pursuit ; 
it was his passion. He acquu-ed taste, extens- 
ive knowledge of the subject ; but he lost orig- 
inality, his head was crowded with the ideas of 
others, and it is always easier to remember than 
to invent. 

" I have constantly obser%'ed, in the course of 
my hfe and studies,'' says his biographer, '"that 
men of much learning are rarely men of origin- 
ality." Imitation is the imiversal talent of the 
human race, or rather a constant disposition with 
which nature has endowed us in place of the in- 
stinct which she has implanted in animals. It 
ma}', with some propriety, be called the instinct 
of rational beings. Accustomed as we are from 
the first moments of existence to obey this law 
of nature, and every day more habituated to obe- 
dience, now A^illingly, now compelled by some 
unskilful instructor, only strong and gifted minds 
can swen'e from the ti'ack in which they are per- 
petually impelled. 

This perpetual contrast between his mclina- 
tion and his mode of life, prevented him from 
rising either in talents or in fortune. Francisco 
could never attain in his circmustances even to 
decent mediocrity. But what other late could 
be expected? Tradmg in a mean and petty 
business from necessity, and v^-riting poetry from 
inclination, without leisure to uuprove his talents, 
without applause to stimulate them, it was im- 
possible that he could ever be a rich merchant 
or an original poet. But he was just in his deal- 
ings, and unwearied in polishing what he wTote ; 
and has left the character of a pure and correct 
writer, and of an honest man. 

The obscurity of his situation, and his natural 
modesty and reserve, hid him from the knowl- 
edge of his contemporary men of letters ; some 
few, however, were among his friends. In all his 
difficulties he presei^ved the most complete inde- 
pendence, his cares and disquietudes were hidden 
in his own breast, so that it was difficult for his 
friends to discover his distresses, and still more, 
to prevail on him to accept their assistance in 
alleviation. His death may in some measure be 
ascribed to this excess of austerit}', " which I dare 
not" (says Stockier) "call virtue." An epi- 
demic fever attacked all his family in the spring 
of 1795. Francisco Dias would not beg assist- 
ance, and he was the nurse and the physician ol 
his wife and children. The disease infected him- 
self, he persisted m accepting no advice, and no 
attendance but that of his half-recovered family. 
The fever, therefore, destroyed him. On the 
thirtieth of September he died, dying with that 
resignation and constancy which he had ever 
manifested through a life of unceasing distress. 



FRANCISCO DIAS GOMES. 



175 



The Royal Academy came forward on this 
occasion, to perform an act of charity to individ- 
uals and of duty to the public. The present 
edition of his poems is published at their expense, 
for the benefit of his widow and three children, 
to whom the produce of his labour and watch- 
fulness rightly belongs. 






Analyse e combinagoes filosojicas sobre a elocu- 
fad, e estylo de Sa de Miranda, Ferreira, Ber- 
nardes, Caminha, e Camoes. por Francisco 
Dias Gomes. 

The Italians first recultivated poetry and per- 
fected the metres which the Provencals and Si- 
cilians had invented. Dante fixed the accents 
of the hendecasyllable line, the most essential 
metre in the Italian, Spanish and Portuguese 
languages. Poetiy entered Spain with the 
Moors ; the long wars of the peninsula kept the 
languages rude and barbarous ; they were both 
at the same tune attended to and perfected. 
Joao de Barros proved by his work that the Por- 
tuguese was the nearest descendant of the Latin. ^ 
The Portuguese is sweet and sonorous, and 
ever was so, not efTeminated like the Italian by 
too abundant vowels, not harsh and unpronounce- 
able with clotted consonants like the northern 
languages ; this is a predisposing cause of poet- 
ry ; but the early poems, those anterior to the 
fifteenth century, existing in the old libraries, 
those of King D. Diniz in the Convent of the Or- 
der of Christ at Thoraar and in the valuable Can- 
cioneiro of Resende, these will throw most light 
on the history of the country poetry. The Por- 
tuguese nation till the end of D. Fernando's reign 
lay in ignorance, solely employed in the cultiva- 
tion of their lands as much as was necessaiy for 
the internal consumption, and to keep up a mere 
shadow of external commerce, continually in- 
terrupted by the Moors who eternally infested 
their seas, living like exiles in the solitude of 
their fields, without police or communication ; 
they spoke a rude and unshaped language, full 
of harsh sounds with which the barbarous lan- 
guage had infected them, of difficult diphthongs, 
of awkward terminations, Mnthout syntax, with- 
out order, without harmony. 

The great revolution under D. Joao I. awaken- 
ed the nation, their barbarous Latin ceased to be 
the language of the forum. The conquest of 
Ceuta gave birth to great projects, and Portu- 
gal appeared suddenly a nation of heroes, unex- 
celled by fore or after ages. The language 
grew with the power of the state. The poetry 
of King Diniz and the first Pedro are in a jarjjon 
difficultly understandable ; in half a century the 
Chronicles of Fernao Lopez appeared, the most 
ancient and venerable historian of the country, 
written in a language so perspicuous and so dif- 
ferent from his predecessors that it might be 
imagined another Idiom. Still the language, 



1 — na qual quando imagina 

Cum pouca corrupgao era que he Latiua. 
Camoes and P. Vieira called the language the eldest 
daughter of the Latui. 



till the end of D. Joao II. 's reign, remained con- 
fused, and lawless, and poor. 

This was its state when Sa de Jliranda arose. 
Without models, save the example of the Itaiiaii 
metres, he subdued the savage language, tamed 
it to the infinite combinations of harmony, and 
fixed the pronunciation. The octonary verse 
was the common one ; he adopted the hendeca- 
syllable, and the seven syllable which with the 
former is the best lyric mixture, because of the 
concordant pauses. 

The sonnet which had been introduced by the 
Infant D. Pedro de Alfarroubeira, a celebrated 
poet, the most enlightened prince of his time, and 
the greatest man of the Portuguese nation, was 
perfected by Sa de Miranda and brought to th« 
state in which it has since continued. He taught 
his countrymen the structure of the Canfao, of 
the octave and the triad stanzas. 

The simple superlative, a mode so far more 
poetical than the compound, was the inventicri 
of this poet. 

Antonio Ferreira, — the Gower of the Portu- 
guese Chaucer,— only not inferior in genius, sec- 
onded Sa de Miranda. He perfected the Elegy 
and the Horatian Epistle which his friend anti 
predecessor had used, and introduced the Epi- 
gram, the Ode, the Epithalamium and the Trag- 
edy. Trissino's Sofonisba was the first regular 
Tragedy. Ferreira's Castro the second, and ii 
stiU remains the best in the language, notwith- 
standing its sin against the unity of place. Kt 
devoted himself to useful poetr}', and is the onJv 
poet of his nation who has left no baby pretti- 
nesses. 

Diogo Bernardes, less correct than Ferreira. 
is more harmonious. His Bucolics are reputed 
the best of the Spanish Pastorals. Lope de Vega 
expressly owns that from him he learnt to write 
Eclogues. 

Pedro de Andrade Caminha did nothing \>ut 
flatter his contemporaries and write worse than 
all of them. Camoes perfected the poetry- His 
Lusiada^ Is the first epic which was written m 
the octave stanza. 

Sa de Miranda writes with the simplicity char- 
acteristic of his governed and correct (moderate) 
genius ; a richer expression appears in Ferreira. 
Bernardes is still more copious. Camoes luh 
and perfect. In the two elder the frequent lauit 
occurs of ending one line with an adjective antl 
beginning the next with its substantive, a pci'i' 
and prosaic feature. 

* ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "" 



Gomes — 2. Essay. 
S.\ DE Miranda never kindles, never dazzh"-. 
never agitates ; but he enlightens, he enliven^, 
he pleases, he adapts him.self to the dim sight of 
the little knowing reader. Conciseness and per- 
spicuity characterize his style, — he endeav<'urs 
simplv to express his conceptions in ready, i.ur 
studied, language. The spirit of his ihoughtv 



i This must be mktakea. 



]76 



FRANCISCO DIAS GOMES. 



embodied itself in' the first shape that presented. 
It was iiidiflcrcnt to hiin whether he poured his 
wine into a golden goblet or an earthen cruise — 
the contents were the value, not the vessel — but 
the vessel was ever well sized and pure. He 
addressed the judgment, not the eye — willing 
rather to instruct the one, than to amuse the 
other. 

Of Antonio Ferreira, Horace was the favour- 
ite autiior. He devoted himself to useful poetry 
— the same severity of taste made him concise, 
and he ever attended less to harmony than to the 
brief expression of his meaning. His pictures 
Tire graves and somewhat rudely finished. Strong 
rather than sweet he is animated and full of that 
fire which elevates the spirit and moves the 
heart. Except Camoes Ferreira most enriched 
the language. His imitations of the classics are 
luauerous — the frequent conjunction he first used, 

" Suspire, e chora, e canea, e geme, e sua," 

— more correct, more flowing, more elegant, 
than Sa de Miranda, he gave that atticism to the 
language to which Camoes gave the last finish. 
Ferreira introduced the verso solto into the 
language, a metre which only Trissino in Italy 
had used before him. Some of his chorusses are 
in sapphics, these innovations manifested taste 
conducted by courageous genius. 



Gomes — 3. Essay. 

DioGo Bernardes is easy, natural, more har- 
monious, more fluent than Ferreira, whom yet 
he imitated and called his master — but less cor- 
rect and often negligent — yet gracefully. The 
.success of Camoes led him to imitate that better 
style, and this he did successfully. But Diogo 
Bernardes not content w^ith imitating the fashion 
of Camoes — sometimes stole his cloaths. His 
language is fuller than that of his predecessors 
— the stream flowed freer for its copiousness. 
D. Francisco Manoel says he is a poet of the 
land of promise — all honey and butter. 

Pedro de Andrade Caminha has the rust of 
ruder times with a few spots of polish where he 
had rubbed against his contemporaries ; his four 
Eclogues are valueless in thought, and cold and 
feeble in style, the soul of a driveller in the body 
of a paralytic. His epistles are better, and con- 
tain occasional passages of strong and bold mo- 
rality and manly freedom ; his funereal elegies 
are inartificial — not quite worthless; that to Sa 
(f.e M. on the death of Prince de Joao is not bad 
— to Antonio Ferreira on his wife's death is suf- 
lerable — on the death of Ferreira himself the 
best ; but they produce no effect, so clumsy the 
expression, so dead the style. Caminha struck 
the lyre with frost-bitten fingers ; his amatory 
elegies are dull and dry whinings, without fancy, 
without feeling, their sole merit is their shortness. 
His odes are his best production, either because 
not written in triads, or because they may have 
been touched by his abler friends, Sa de Miranda 
and Ferreira. His epigrams are seldom faulty, 
hi'* talents were only equal to an epigram — a 



steel workman who could only point needles. 
Caminha was a bad scholar.' 

To the shame of these four poets be it spoken, 
that while they commended each other, and lav- 
ished praise upon every rhymer of rank, thev 
never mention Camoes. Noble and opulent them- 
selves, they only praised the noble and the opulent . 
Camoes though well born, was far superior in 
talents, and he was miserably poor. Talents 
and poverty ! ever ever the object of envy and of 
contempt. They would not degrade their wealth- 
iness by condescending to notice genius in mis- 
ery, and genius in misery did not deign to notice 
them. 

Sa de Miranda painted strongly with few and 
poor colours. Ferreira flavoured with the spice 
of the ancients. Bernardes was more free, more 
bold, more abundant in images, more fanciful, 
more original ; but like the English Schakepccr, 
he produces the mo.st monstrous extravagancies 
by the side of the greatest beauties. 



[Poverty of Provencal Poetry.] 
" La Poesia Provenzal, la Gallega, la Portu- 
guesa, ocupadas siempre en amoreto.s, o en de- 
vociones, sin sublimidad, sin calor, enoueltas en- 
tre conceptos pueriles y questiones impertinen- 
tes, podian prestar poco al entusiasmo de la Cas- 
tellana, que en sus principios se formo de todas 
ellas." — Preface to the Romancero. 



Metre. 



The couplet is used by certain modern writ- 
ers in imitation of the French. Antonio das 
Neves Pereira (Ensaio sobre a filologia Portu- 
gueza por meio do Exame e comparajao da locu- 
cao e estilo dos nossos mais insignes poetas qui 
florecerao no seculo 16. Memorias de Littera- 
tura Portugueza. Tom. 5) blames this, as a mere 
afl^ectation of Frenchification, but he allows that 
the stanza often occasions languid and useless 
epithets, vain circumlocutions, and redundancies. 
Like FalstafTojj the stage, a paunch of a certain 
size cannot be always naturally full. 

Antonio das Neves says the ottava rima is the 
worst possible metre for epic narrative. 

Franc. Dias approves the couplet as easier, 
and as not compelling the sense to stop at cer- 
tain periods, so that it allows more liberty of 
pause and more variety. The ottava and terza 
rima, he says, are sand without lime, as Caligula 
said of Virgil. 

Vicente de Espinel introduced the Deeima, it 
was formerly called Esparsas, and of twelve lines, 
he altered it to its present state ; a delighful 
measure, says D. Fr. Manoa, in which we have 
an advantage over the Italians and French. 

Fernao Alvares used the trisyllable rhyme un- 
happily, this was in imitation of Sannazarius ; but 
the Portuguese" does not abound enough in these 



1 He often contracts three or four vowels, and even as 
many consonants. To read such lines is to set one foot 
in a quagmire, and hurt the other affainstaetumbling-stoue. 

2 This Dactylic three-legged rhyme exists in G. Monte- 
mayor's Diana, p. 1>". 



GONCALO ANNES BANDARPxA—PAREIRA— ANTONIO DINIZ. 177 



words to make them possible in poetry, the poet 
has therefore been obliged to eke them out with 
an annexed pronoun. 

The jNIoorish metre used by Garcilaso and Sir 
P. Sidney, is to be found in the old French poet 
GuJllaume Cretin. A similar middle rhyme is 
in the poem of K. Pedro. 

The Sylva admits rhymclin lines at the will 
of the writer ; some writers have used more blank 
than rhymed verses in a stanza. 

The Asonantes were not known by Garcilaso, 
Jlendoza, and Acuna ; other poets despised them, 
tlicy were left for Letrillas and Romances, for 
popular poetry. 

T. Burguillos calls the Decimas, Espinclas, 
from their Inventor. 

Stephen Hawes has the Moorish metre of Gar- 
cilaso, and the Welsh with even more gingle. 

The first epoch of P. Poetry said the Descm- 
bargador, is semi-Arabesque, for rhyme is of 
oriental family, and the constant subjects are 
also oriental — morals — or love fantastically met- 
aphored, and metaphysically refined — never dra- 
matic, never narrative. 

Rhj-me came not with the Goths. They have 
not their language, much less its fashion ; more- 
over, if the Scandinavian origin of Odin be true, 
the stirps would remain the same ; but the sub- 
jects rather characterise all nations in a semi- 
barbarous state, than any one : yet it may be 
doubted whether all pieces of this dull moral 
and low class are not of Provencal family. 



Gastam de Fox, Bishop of E\ora, whom Ad". 
Henriques sent ambassador to Rome, and who 
was killed by robbers on the way; wrote a trcat- 
i.se upon God and the immortality of the soul, on 
the concordance between the Sibylline oracles 
and the prophets, on eternal happiness, purga- 
tory and hell ; it was written in Arabic, the lan- 
guage then most prevalent in Spain. — Barbosa. 



Gon^alo Anncs Bandarra. 
The Prophetic Shoemaker of Trancoso. He 
mi-stook the power of rhyming for ihe gift of 
prophecy. The mob who loved his coarse, rude, 
jingling jokes, persuaded him to this belief; but 
the Intjuisition undeceived him, and he made his 
appearance in an auto da fe at Lisbon, 1541 . In 
1556 ho died. At the Braganza revolution, the 
old prophecies of Bandarra rose again ; that res- 
toration of the royal family was found to be there 
predicted ; the governor of Beyra made him a 
magniticent tomb with this inscription — 

Aqui gaz Gonf alo Anes Bandarra, que em sea 
tempo profctizon a Restaurafao deste reyno, 
c D. Alvaro de Abranebes Iha mandon fazcr 
sendo General da Beyra, anno de mil seis- 
centos e (piarenta a hum. 
The Marquis of Niza D. Vasco Luiz de Gama, 
printed them at Nantes, 1 644, when he wa.s am- 
bassador in France, the' of D. Joao de 



1 The blank is in the MS. and I am unable to fill it up. 
J. W. W. 



Castro also edited them ; but the Inquisition true 
to its own infallibility, prohibited them 1581 and 
1665. 



Paciecidos, Libra 12. Authore, P. Bartholomao 
Parcira, Soc. Jesu. Coinibra, 1640. 

P. 25. An odd personification of Amorvitae. 

It is a dull poem upon the execution of a Jes- 
uit in Japan, with no allusion to any rite or cus- 
tom of the country, save the names of the idols 
and the Bonzes. 

The hero and the poet were related, and they 
were both Jesuits. There are some good parts, 
or rather some seeds, which had they fallen upon 
good ground would have produced good fruit, 
here they are poor plants, and the thorns choke 
them. I read the vohune on my Algarve jour- 
ney, 'twas like the food we found, welcome foi- 
want of better. 



A Preciosa. 

Was written by Sor Maria do Ceo, a Francis- 
can nun, in the Esperanja convent; its false 
name was a lie of modesty. 

She was one of twins, so alike that they were 
undistinguishable but by voice. Of illustrious 
family, she at eighteen sacrificed her liberty upon 
the altar of obedience ; to what age she lived I 
know not, but her birth was 1658; in 1741 she 
pubii.shed, and Barbosa in 1752 docs not men- 
tion her death. The catalogue of her works it 
were useless to transcribe, only there is a life of 
Saint Catherine of the cat and wheel, and a sec- 
ond part of the Preciosa. 



Ilisopaida, by the Dczcmbargador, Antonio Diniz. 
MSS. 
JozE Carlos de Lara, Deao of the Cathe- 
dral of Elvas, to ingratiate himself with the Bish- 
op D. Lourcnco de Lencastre, used to attend him 
with the sprinkling hyssop whenever lie went to 
do duty. Afterward, from some disgust, he 
ceased this act of supererogation, which how- 
ever the bi.shop and his friends of the chapter 
comiiiaiided him to continue. He appealed to 
the metropolitan, but sentence was pronounced 
a second time again.st him. This is the action 
of the poem. The Deao's successor and nephew, 
after his death, tried the cause again, and ob- 
tained a reversal of the decree. This is given 
as a prophetic hope to the unsuccessful hero of 
the piece. 

JOighl cantos in verso suelto. Permission never 
could b(! obtained to publish this poem. Indeed 
it is surprising that it ever should have been ask- 
ed, the general satire is so undisguised. It wants 
all the merit of parody. I discover no learning, 
no allusions that excite a smile ; but of the cos- 
tume of Portugal there is much. 



Donna Bcrnarda Fcrreira De Laccrda. 
Born in Porto, 1595. She had every advant- 



178 BERNARDA FERREIRA DE LACERDA— GOMEZ— PIMENTAL, ETC. 



■d'Tc of birth and beauty. She spoke Latin, 
Italian and Spanish as with native fluency. She 
was charitable, daily bestowing liberal and reg- 
ular alms ; pious, for daily she recited the serv- 
ice of the Virgin, weekly communicated, and 
every six months made a full and general con- 
fession ; and her confessor affirmed that she had 
never sullied her soul with one mortal sin. On 
the Trinity she once delivered an hour-long speech 
before the most learned theologians, and they de- 
clared that .she had enlightened their weaker 
comprehensions. Her fame was such, that Philip 
III. wished her to become the preceptress of his 
sons ; a task which she modestly and with wis- 
dom declined, not that Bernarda wanted the due 
knowledge. I have yet to mention her profi- 
ciency in the philosophy of tlie times, of which 
she penetrated the mysteries : her skill in music, 
and on every instrument ; and her knowledge of 
the deepest mathematics. Her life was happy, 
but not extended: at the age of forty-nine she 
died, having survived, and suffered with due 
resignation, the death of a dear husband and of 
l)art of her children. Her epitaph is not inel- 
egant. 

" Fernao Correa de Sousa 

D. Bernarda Ferreira de Lacerda. 

Offerccem aqui mortos quotidiano sacrificio. 

E esperao o dia da immortalidade. 

Nacerao com honra, 

Viverao com applauso, 

JNIorrerao com exemplo. 

Felices singularmente ambos, 

EUe na sorte de tao insigne mulher, 

Ella nos dotes de huma alma tao sublime. 

Que sem igual na, idade presente venceo a 

fama das passadas. 

Sua erudi9ao, juizo, engenho, 

E a grandeza de seu espirito, 

Cantou com heroico estilo 

Hespanha Libertada. 

. Sua piedade, devofao e virtude para con 

Deos 

Desprezo, e esquecimento do mundo 

Repetem com saudosa e celestial arraonia 

Os eccos das Soledades do Bussaco. 

Seus escritos sao seu Retrato. 

Suas cinzas nosso desengano. 

Foy laureada no Paraizo de Ceo 

Em o primeiro de Outubro de 1644." 



Sanson Nazarcno, por Antonio Henriqucz Go- 
mez. Ritan, 1656. 
A VERY abominable poem, eternally fall of 
such classical allusions a.s a school boy can make 
from his Historj- of the Heathen Gods. Gongo- 
ra and Silveyra have been hi.s models. The vile 
and ununderstandable Machabeo he ranks w'ith 
Homer and Virgil and Tasso ! To read this 
trash requires great patience and a great mouth 
— exempli gratia — Basilinto, Dragolinto, Torba- 
lonte, Dalifagonte, Balibalonte, Tigarontc. Phil- 
ibonte, Tagarino, Palestine, Malaquino, Dragon- 
tino, a pretty nomenclature ! 



" De confusos y negros Aquerontes 

El Sol se adorna, en tumulos de nieve, 
Y en las espesas nieblas de los Brontes 

Reberverando rayos sombras beve. 
Diversos noches se introduzen montes 

Del Chaos formando monmnento breve, 
Quedando Apolo, por la linia vana 
Difunto entre los brafos de Diana." 

P. 134. 

There needs no larger pattern of this fustian. 

He calls Jonah coming out of the whale a sin- 
gular Phoenix. — P. 162. 

One speech of a Hebrew to the Philistines 
contains a line of noble pride — 

" Si presumis, con ira azelerada 

Devorar como barbaros Dragon&s 
De la casa de Dios la estirpe amade 
Ann viven en Juda fuertes Leones." 

P. 174. 

The Philistine who answers, 

'■ despliega al viento 
Un Torrente de voz." 

One of his giants he calls a mountain of Baby- 
lonian members. The broken lances shivered 
up so high, that they never came down again. 
There would be no end of picking weeds here. 

The anthor was an enormous scribbler. He 
says in his preface, that though he had no edu- 
cation, he has taken no small pains with him- 
self, and is in no .small degree indebted to na- 
ture ; and he refers you to separate works to see 
his proficiency in poetry, the drama, politics, 
theolog}", and philosophy. 

All semibarbarous people have their Samson. 
Hercules, The Cid, Guy of WarM-ick, Roland ; 
they are all of a family. 



Sor Maria Mcsquita Pimental. 
Espoused herself to the Holy Lamb in a Cis- 
terian convent at Evora, and every day recited 
the Psalter, for the good of the souls in Purga- 
tory. She wrote the Infancia de Christo, ten 
cantos in the octave rhyme. The second and 
third parts, which include the life and passion, 
exist in MS. at Aleobaca. 



[3fenasses Ben Israel.] 
Barbosa contends that Menasses Ben Israel 
was a Portuguese, not a Spaniard. Thus are 
they proud of a man whom they would have burnt : 
the Jew has left some verses of a tolerant creed, 
somewhat free in metre as in principle. 

"Cunctorum est coluisse Deum : non unias a^vi 
Non populi unius credimus esse piorc. 
Si sapunus diversa Deo vivamus amici, 

Doctaque mens pretio constet ubique suo. 
Haec fidei vox summa mets est, hsec crede 
Menasses, 
Sic ego Christiades, sic cris Abramides." 



CALDERON. 



179 



He went to England, and, under the protec- 
tion of old Oliver, printed three Hebrew Bibles 
in his own house. 



[Fr. Joze de Natividade.] 
Published Terremoto Destruedo, ou Esaido 
celestial contra os Tor remotes, Peste-Rayos, 
Trovoes e Terapestades. 1757. 



La Divina Semana. 
I HAVE not yet read this poem ; it must inev- 
itabl}' be worthless. The first chapter of Gen- 
esis will not bear a paraphrase ; it cannot be 
lengthened without exhibiting the minutiie ; it 
cannot be particularized without becoming ridic- 
ulous. 



Caldcron. El Arbol del Mcjor Fruto. 
"Who wrote this Auto?" says one of the 
characters in the Loa — the prelude. 

" Quien 
sabe, que no es errar 
errar por obedezer." 

Perhaps this was designed to apologize for the 
absurdities of writing a mystery. 



Psyche and Cupid, 
Old World has three daughters, Idolatry the 
eldest, married to Gentile, Emperor of the East. 
Synagogue the second, married to Jew the emi- 
grant, and Faith, a virgin. She the youngest 
and the most beautiful, is courted by Apostacy, 
King of the North, but her affections are given 
to one whom she has never yet seen. Love, the 
saci-amented God. Apostacy sa3's that he has 
this Love God in his breast, and threatens her 
on her rejecting him, for Old World her father 
favours his suit. As he is running after her and 
her servant Free Will to detain them, Cupid en- 
ters with a white veil on, to protect her; Apos- 
tacy struggles with him, and roars out in the tor- 
ments of an inward lire so as to alarm the family. 
Cupid avows himself to be God the maker of the 
world. Old World will not believe that Cupid 
made him, and advances to pull off his veil and 
sec him, but he is stopt by some unseen power. 
Idolatry and Gentile say that a God made the 
world, but that if it was him, he must be one of 
their deities. They get a little further than 
Old World and then stopt. Synagogue and Jew 
tiie emigrant say there is but one God the Cre- 
ator, and they advance beyond Idolatry and Gen- 
lile, but that Cupid is him they deny — they stop. 
Apostac}' confesses one God incarnate and pre- 
cedes all — he asserts that that God cannot be in 
body and spirit behind the white veil — and then 
liis power also ceases. As they cannot get at 
Cupid, they vent their anger upon Faith, force 
her into a vessel, set sail with her upon the sea 
of Tribulation, and turn her on a desert shore 



with only Free Will her attendant. Here comes 
the tale of Apuleius — a mountain opens and the 
palace of the New Jerusalem appears, where 
Faith — the Psyche of this Cupid — is hymned as 
mistress ; but no one is seen. Faith gives Free 
Will a candle to search about and find some- 
body. Cupid blows out the candle, and prom- 
ises Psyche that she shall for ever enjoy that 
palace and him, and that all the nations of the 
earth, yea Gentile and Jew and her sisters shall 
one day serve her, and that she shall have bread 
and wine for food if she will love him and never 
seek to see his face, for seen he will not bft. 
May she see her fathers and sisters ? Yes, Cu 
pid will even send doetoi-s and saints and preach- 
ers to invite them and impoi-tune them to see her. 
The ship is -wTCcked — Old World and his fam- 
ily escape by swimming and come to the pal- 
ace. They see their sister, hear of her happi- 
ness, envy and ensnare her. It is a serpent that 
is her Lord and love, and Synagogue reminds 
her of what tricks the serpent played in Gene- 
sis. Apostacy succeeds in tempting her to the 
trial, and she promises him if Cupid be not God 
to be his. Free Will brings the candle, the fatal 
light of enquiry. Cupid awakes in wrath — the 
palace is destroyed, and Faith left to her punish- 
ment, but she repents, confesses, and Cupid re- 
appears with the Fix and the Cup, the precious 
gift of his body and blood. 



Calderon has another Auto upon the same 
subject, the characters differently named, but 
with little variation of story. He says in his 
preface that in all his plays there is but one sub- 
ject and one set of characters. The more merit, 
then, if he resembles Nature, who with ej-es, nose 
and mouth, makes so many faces, and no two 
alike. 



In the General Indulgence is a scene between 
the Prince, Justice and Mercy. The prince asks 
his companions, though he says he has no occa- 
sion to be informed, what he ought to grant his 
subjects ; and by what means they might be best 
managed. Mercy says the subjects of a govern- 
ment ought to be born under it. Prince. They 
may be reborn — I give them baptism. Justice. 
Birth is not enough — they must be strengthened 
and grow up. I give them confirmation. Mercy. 
But if they feel sick some remedy must be pro- 
vided. I will give them the physic of Repent- 
ance. Justice. But even if they recover, some- 
thing is necessary to caiTy away the elTects of 
the sickness. I grant them extreme unction. 
Mercy. With all these. Lord, you have provided, 
nothing to eat. They shall jiartake the Bread 
of Life in the Communion. Justice. But there 
must be a Tribunal to govern them — I appoint 
an order of Priests. But with all these favours 
they will die away, one by one — they should be 
perpetuated. I institute Matrimony — and it is 
so important an institution — that 1 have just cho- 
sen a wife myself! 



180 



CALDERON— JUAN YAGUE DE SALAS. 



The Food of Man. 
Father oi the family to his son Adam. " Get 
out of my house, you villain !" Adam begs in 
vain lor himself, and his brother Emanuel begs 
as vainly for him, — he is stripped of his wed- 
dinir-garment — drest in vile skins awkwardly 
put together and turned out, and Spring, Sum- 
mer, Autumn and Winter, are all ealled in and 
ordered to give him nothing but what he works 
for. Adam thus desolate and adrift, complains 
bitterly — he gets upon an eminence and looks 
about him, and complains that he can see no- 
body, nor a village nor a house : as he is looking 
about his feet slip and he falls from a precipice. 
The Devil and an Angel run at once to catch 
him, and he falls into the arms of both, they 
quarrel for him, and the one calling Appetite 
and the other Reason to supply their places, both 
leave him. Adam soon quarrels with Reason 
and turns him ofi^ — and then he quarrels with 
Appetite because Appetite gives him nothing to 
eat, but he is much surprised that he cannot get 
rid of him as easily as he did of Reason. Ap- 
petite sticks to him in .spite, and advises him to 
go a begging. He begs of Spring, and Spring 
gives him a spade — of Summer he gets a sickle 
— of Autumn a pruning-hook — of Winter a shep- 
herd's staff, — sorry alms ! — and Appetite goes to 
hunt the fields for food, while poor Adam solilo- 
quizes upon his liard lot, when trees, and fish, 
and fowl, and beasts grow and live without care. 
Reason comes to explain the cause of this differ- 
ence, and with such cHect, that when Appetite 
returns with some wild herbs, Adam abuses him : 
they fight, and Adam gets the better and turns 
liim off Reason then advises Adam to go to law 
with his father, who, he says, is obliged to find 
him food. An Angel is retained for him — the 
Devil coimsel against the plaintiff, but Adam 
wins his cause and the father settles upon him 
Oil, Bread. Wine, and Lamb. Mount Olivet is 
to supply the oil, Emanuel the Lamb, the bread 
and wine is to be Emanuel's ow^n body and blood 
— a scene opens and shovi's the Fix and the Cup 
— and so ends the Mystery. 



Los Amantcs Je Teruel. Juan Vague dc Solas. 
Valencia, 1616. 

Verso suelto — but each paragraph ends with 
a couplet. 

Canto 1 . Four Franciscans mobbed at Genoa. 
Marzilla protects them. They relate the history 
of their Saint — somebody else the conquest of 
Spain by the Moors. 

2. The recovery of Sobrarbc and some account 
of the Kings of Aragon and tho families who peo- 
pled Teruel. 

3. Marzilla and the Friars embnrk. Ills men 
relate how Mar/ilia and Segura loved and were 
.separated — he going to seek his fortunes and she 
promising not to marry before .seven years shall be 
expired. He went to Jerusalem with Frederic H. 

4. History of the Jews and the wonders of 
Solomon's temple. 



5. Destruction of Jerusalem. Sifandino has 
now got it, and Marzilla takes prisoner his son 
Solipino. 

6. Sifandino yields up the Holy City in ex- 
change for Soliphino, and Frederic appoints Mar- 
zilla to the command of four gallies : and so ends 
the man's story. 146. A scandalous picture of 
Fame. 

7. The Devil — a council below- P. 178, 
some puzzling reasoning of the old angel. — What 
now frightens him is the Friars on board ; he had 
a great dread of a Franciscan establishment in 
Spain. P. 180, possibly seen by INIilton ''' all is 
not lost .'^' — Clumsy mixture, making Pluto his 
majesty who sends off Satan. 186, the Merlin's 
cave almo.st of Spenser. 

8. A storm, of course, and the Devil appears 
in angel's shape and orders them, Jonah-like, to 
throw over the Friars — which the pilot does be- 
fore IMarzilla has time to prevent it. Then the 
Devil laughs and prophesies much misery to 
Marzilla, and the marriage of Segura. The 
shipwreck. 

9. Marzilla and one companion enter a cave 
of banditti, when they deliver the four friars and 
a lady called Felicia, whose bridegroom has just 
been killed. He convoys her to her father and 
there relates what happened to him in and after 
the storm — which indeed was so extraordinary 
as to be worth relating, this gentleman meeting 
the very same adventures as L^^lysses had done 
before him. 

10. Felicia falls in love with him and talks to 
her nurse. On making the discovery she is com- 
pared to a mother fainting at the news of her 
son's death. It is the most comical of similes, 
describing in seventy-two lines the whole ana- 
tomical process of a fit — and how she recovers 
at hearing the news is false — how the neighbours 
crowd round her, and when she is well go about 
their o%vn business. Marzilla goes on with his 
history — his improvements upon the Odyssey arc 
all that need be noted. A hermit gives him some 
goat-skin bags. He comes into a sea where the 
vessel is becalmed among an army of sea-mon- 
sters that approach to eat the crew. Then he 
blows these skins full and hangs them at the 
prow. The great fish tug at them taking them 
for men, and so hawl on the vessel for four davs 
till it is out of danger — then he cuts the bags 
away. 

! 1 1 . He tells the Cyclops that his name is I 
myself, and the same foolish blunder is made by 
the giants. Here he leaves Homer and follows 
Luean. They arrive at the Syrtes. The Poet 

t is well informed, but never man so catalogued 
all his knowledge. He describes the Sand Col- 
umns, temple of Jupiter Amnion and a speech 

I of IMarzilla meant as an improvement upon Ca- 
to's. O dog-dog-impudenl beast brute I 

j 12. The serpents destroy his followers. An- 
other wTcck, which leads him to the cave and 
concludes the story. Felicia's love mcreases. 
The story then hops to Teruel : seven years are 

1 gone, and two months and more and Segura is 

1 urged to marrv. She earnestly longs to know 



JUAN YAGUE DE SALAS. 



181 



■what is become of Marzilla, and Axa, her maid, ' 
offers to show her. | 

13. All the crimes of Erictho are heaped upon 
this Arabian witch. First she shows all the de- 
scendants that are to be of Marzilla's family. 
Nothing was ever more quaintly absurd — Cap- 
tains, Hidalgos, Secretaries, Deans, Archdeans, 
Professors, Fiscals, Priors, Abbots, Provincials, 
&c., &c., &c., Bishops, Archbishops, and one 
Pope. Then pass the dead comrades of Mar- 
zilla; then the three survivors and he himself 
sick in bed of Felicia, to whom he gives a ring. 
Mad with jealousy, Scgura insists on being mar- 
ried. Afafra is her husband, and the ceremony 
is performed with all ill omens. 

14. Marzilla dreams of Segura, and determ- 
ines to depart. Felicia attempts to detain him. 
She says the given ring implies a promise of 
marriage. She prays — she imprecates upon him 
all the curses that have ever fallen upon man, 
enumerating as many as she can recollect in 
about 150 lines, from all authors, ancient and 
modern. 

" que era 
Felicia muy leyda en varios libros." 

She prays that all the curses in the 108th* 
Psalm may fall upon him — that he may die in 
his sin — like Bertram Ferrerio, and she explains 
it more broadly than ]\Ir. Shandy did — lastly, 
that he may be damned eternally — and so she 
dies : indeed the rumour of his departure had 
made her cataleptical, and when she saw the 
dust of his horse's heels, all was over. 

15. At that time when — we have fifty-four 
lines to say at what time — Segura was prepar- 
ing for her marriage. She is working the sto- 
ry of Ariadne — p. 405, perhaps Beaumont and 
Fletcher had seen this poem. Great festivals — 
bull fights — a mast erected with four varas of 
green taffety, twelve silver spoons (eucharas) 
and covered prizes for who can climb, and a pig- 
eon to be shot at for a ci-oss-bow. The mast 
has been well greased ; one of the bulls which 
has fire on his horns runs against it and it is 
burnt. The best and bravest bull Marzilla kills 
— and discovers himself. 

16. Disguised, Marzilla goes to the wedding 
supper, and hides himself in the bedroom. Se- 
gura has vowed her wedding night to heaven, 
and Acafra goes to sleep. Marzilla speaks to 
her — upbraids her — all is explained — he begs a 
kiss, which she refuses — it is besought and de- 
nied with equal obstinac)', till he dies for grief. 
Afafra rises, and \v\t\\ her carries the corpse to 
his father's door, where they leave. A huge 
quarrel arises between his three friends for his 
sword — that Ovid may be imitated. They refer 
it to K. Jayme, then in Tcruel, and he makes it 
the reward of which .shall do best in the con- 
quest of Valencia. 

17. Segura wrapt up goes to the funeral, 
and gives Marzilla's corp.se the kiss, in that act 
she dies, his life on hers, his hands in her grasp, 



1 Bible and Prayer Book version, Psalm cix. J. W. W. 



they are buried in one grave : the Franciscans 
build a monastery in Teruel, go to Valencia and 
preach in a mosque. 

18. The Alfaquis complain to K. Zcyt Bu- 
zeyte of the missionaries, he sends for them, and 
they jjcg leave to talk to him : they give him a 
learned dissertation upon God, that there can bo 
only one, and then comes the Trinity, the crea- 
tion and the nature of man, all the absurd ana- 
logical whims of the day. Then they abuse the 
unalphabetcd Mohammed, accusing him of idol- 
atry among other crimes, — a character drawn 
with that scandalous ignorance, or more scan- 
dalous impudence of wilful falsehood, with which 
those writers have almost invariably treated the 
legislator of Arabia ; the Moor hears them with 
much curiosity and more patience, and he sends 
them to prison, hearing that the enemy approach. 

19. The Fi'iars, Pedro and Juan, are brought 
out, and go on about the Trinity, which they 
prove by all absurd analogies, and the mystical 
way in which the declension of Jesus includes 
the word sum ; when they have done, the king 
orders their heads to be cut off: Heaven opens 
and the angels carry them a crown a piece, and 
up they go to wear them. 

20. K. Jayme went a hunting, and follows a 
boar into a cave, and finds an old Astrologer 
and hears a prophecy. 

21. The prophecy goes on with the history 
of Aragon. Jayme takes several small towns 
in Valencia. 

22. The siege of Valencia. 

23. Ditto continued. 

24. The city surrenders ; then the three com- 
petitors for Marzilla's sword come to the king 
for sentence, he rewards them all, and takes the 
sword himself. 

25. Three hundred and thirty years after the 
martyrdom of Friars Pedro and Juan, a Fran- 
ciscan, Vicent Gomez, having been cured of a 
tertian hy drinking well water which had wasted 
their relics, set about getting them canonized, 
for which laudable end he got an authentic ac- 
count of their lives, deaths, and miracles at Va- 
lencia, and also another at Teruel, obtaining a 
commission from the Nuncio. 

Dirigida a Pedrellas Arcediano 
De aqucsta Catedral, y de la Santa 
Cruzada Comissario, y por el Nuncio 
Digno Subcolector de la Apostolica 
Camare, y gran Doctor en Thcologia. 
Y yo nombrado fui sin merecerlo 
De aqucsta justa comission notario 
Por ser de la Ciudad el Secrctario. 

Thus fortified with document, an embassy is dis- 
patched to Rome ; on the way llicy find a knight 
in bed in a castle, very bad with a quartan, a 
fine patient ! out come the relics, and he takes 
a dose of the cold bone broth, with the proper 
texts from the four gospels. The cure is in- 
.stant ; overjoyed, he asked whose are the relics, 
and where they came from ; from Teruel — Te- 
ruel, saj's he — 



182 



MANOEL THOMAZ. 



Es acaso Teroli de quien dize 
El refran por aca Tii-ol Tiroli 
Pan I vini cari e genti peggior ? 

No, said Friar Vicent, that proverb is true of the 
German Tyrol ; but not of Teruel. If you will 
give rae leave I will tell you a thousand excel- 
lencies of Teruel. So he relates all about it, 
how many parishes, churches, charities, &c., &c. 

26. And moreover what great men have been 
Teruelites, — a string of names ; what relic rich- 
es the city possesses, this brings it round to Fri- 
ars Pedro and Juan ; some of their miracles are 
related ; the Knight is greatly delighted and 
edified. The Friars proceed on their way to 
Rome, and the poem ends. 

The Constable makes a favourite metaphor 
with this poet ; winter is the alguazil of the wa- 
ters ; Felicia's eyes are the alguazils of love ; 
death is God's alguazil. 



Manoel Thomaz. 
He was quarto neto of the Manoel Thomas 
who at twenty-two months spoke Latin, and of 
whom Garcia de Resende speaks — 

" Em Evora vi hum menino 

Que a dous annos nao chegava, 
E entendia, e fallava. 

E era ja bom Latino, 
Respondia, preguntava : 

Era de maravilhar 

Ver seu saber e fallar, 

Sendo de vinte e dous mezes, 
Monstro entre Portuguezes 

Para ver para notar." 

M. Thomas was born at Guimaraens — but his 
life was past at Madeira, where the son of a 
farrier killed him 1665, at the age of eighty. 



O Phanix da Lusitania, by Manoel Thomas. 

Book 1. A description of Europe and a his- 
tory of Portugal. The tale of Inez de Castro 
told as much at length as by Camoens, and not 
worse, though quite badly enough. Much myth- 
ological or classical allusion. A full and son- 
orous verse, but no passage that detains with 
approbation. 

2. He, the author, Manoel Thomas, takes a 
walk at Madeira, and comes to a cavern, and 
rings a bell, and follows an old man to a garden 
and a palace ; and he complains to the old man 
about Portugal, and asks him when her oppres- 
sions shall cease, and the old man makes him 
look in a mirror, and then he .sees the Terreiro 
do Pafo and a great mob — and the old man 
shews him all the heroes who are to assist in de- 
livering Pwtugal. The trisyllable rhyme often 
occurs. 

3. The Braganza revolution in Lisbon and the 
chief provincial towns. 

4. The first six stanzas translateable. John 
leaves V. Yicosa, and enters Lisbon ; good Ovid- 



ian poetry. The revolution accepted in the re 
mainder of the provinces, and in the colonies. 
There ends the old man, and M. Thomas goes 
home and finds it all true. 

5. Manoel Thomas goes to bed and .sleeps. 
Morpheus comes to him, and goes on with the 
history. The proclamation of John, and the ex- 
ploits of some Madeira-Portugueze ; very sleepy 
work. 

6. M. Thomas slept so long that Morpheus 
wanted to leave him and go home, but before he 
went he brought old Tagus to go on with the 
story — skirmishes — attempt on towns and all so 
unsuccessful that down went 'Envy to the Devil 
— provokes him, and off he sends Discord to the 
palace of the Buen Retire — then she wakes 
Philip. He makes great preparation — and John 
sends to defend the frontier. 

The last stanza of each canto always speaks 
of the PhoEnix — and usually it is the last line. 

7. Skirmishes and battles. Old Tagus is a 
dull newsmonger. 

8. M. Thomas is writing all that Tagus told 
after the old gentleman's departure — when a 
huge armed giant enters — so terrible to sight 
that he dropt the pen in fear. The apparition 
bade him go on, for he was Mars come from the 
fifth heaven to aid him and the Portugueze — he 
drops IManoel Thomas upon the Estralla mount- 
ain that he may see all. 

9. Stanzas 5 and 7 true. Stanza 42. A 
Jesuit engineer. 

10. The cattle of Montijo. 
Dull, dull— deadlily dull. 



[Portuguese Language.] 

The Latinistas condemn superlatives, such as 
bonissimo, malissimo, grandissimo, humildissimo, 
and insist upon the Latin anomalies, optimo, pes- 
simo, maximo, humillimo, &e. This mode car- 
ried through the language, of trying Portugueze 
by Latin analogy, is one cause of the corruption 
of the language. Says Antonio das Neves Pe- 
REiRA, " This people are not content that the 
Portugueze language, as daughter of the Latin, 
should have the flesh and the bones of the parent, 
but they would give her the skin, and the com- 
plection, and the features. A language all of 
grave and serious words," (says he,) "would be 
fit for a Carthusian convent, not for the mixed 
business and conversation of the world." 

The Puristas excommunicate certain woi'ds 
capriciously. 

The extravagant praises lavished upon each 
other by Portugueze writers, produced disap- 
pointment in the reader and disgust, and ruined 
the flattered. 

Even now it is not very diflicult to procure 
the original editions of the best authors, scatter- 
ed as they are over Europe, so little national 
reading is there. 

As a language, the Portugueze has about a 
due proportion of vowels and consonants — bones 
enough for solidity, not all bone like the German. 

This eldest daughter of the Latin has been 



CAMOENS— VIEYRA— JUAN DE ESCOBAR. 



18J 



the servant of the Goths and the slave of the 
Moors. 

There is a fashion of hingnage. The choice 
of expressions of the best authors in Portugueze, 
were aped affectedly in conversation ; tiius they 
became trite and vulgar. Fellows who could 
not ride Pegasus, made use of his trappings, and 
dirtied them, and wore them to rags and'^shab- 
bincss. 

An affectation of French words has brought 
the vernacular ones often into disuse, and the 
puppies of the day call the legitimate words of 
tlie old authors, the "wells undefiled" of Por- 
tugueze, gothic, and rusty, and obsolete. A 
French dictionary is now more necessary than a 
Portugueze, to enable our youth to understand 
their native tongue. This alters the construc- 
tion of the sentences. The Portugueze is an in- 
verted syntax, not difficultly jierplexed, but well 
varied ; the French, a straight-forward phrase- 
ology : thus translations have impoverished and 
debased the Portugueze. 

Three epochs in the language. 

1. From the foundation of the monarchy to 
Affonso v., four hundred years. 

2. to Sebastian. 

3. to the present day. 



Camoens. 



He treated the language Itkc a man of genius, 
supplying its defects. To nouns only plural he 
gave a singular ; changed the termmation of 
proper names for the sake of euphony ; length- 
ened, or abbreviated words, and made them from 
the Latin. "Sometimes," says Antonio das 
Neves, "he abused this liberty, and coined 
w^ords almost macarronic." He revived obso- 
lete words also. 

These are merits which escape the notice of 
a foreigner. We look at Camoens as a dim-eyed 
man beholds a cathedral. He catches the gen- 
eral plan, and the stronger features; but the 
minuter parts, the numberless ornaments escape 
him : he sees an arch indeed, but the capital and 
the frieze elude his eyesight ; ho beholds the bat- 
tlements, but he cannot see the Caryatides that 
form tlicni and their varying attitudes of beauty. 
We build with ready materials, but Camoens 
dug in the quarry, and hewed the stones for his 
edifice. Camoens called Barros his Ennius, 
and the frequent perusal of his Decades kindled 
his imagination. By studying the same author, 
Vieyra ac(juired his power of language. 

In the Hospital de Letras, Camoens is com- 
plaining of four tran.slators and two commenta- 
tors. The Bishop Thome do Faria, who trans- 
lated him into such Latin that mais parcce Ro- 
mance Punico que Romano. But if one Faria 
lessened him, another as extreinjcly magnified 
hmi, — Manoel Severem de Fana, in his life. 
Macedo was the other translator, who rather 
travestied than translated him. Besides these 
was a Castelhao, and a Franchinoti, who, as they 



made him lose his name, do not deserve to have 
their own mentioned. Of the commentators, 
JManoel Correa was too short, and Manoel de 
Faria too long. "But I," says Don Francis 
Manoel, "from my friendship think it short," 
though his trouble was not, for more than twenty 
years did he study this book. There are besides 
MSS. commentaries of Joao Pinto Ribeyro, and 
another of Ayres Correa, corrected by Frey Fran- 
cisco do Monti. Besides, Camoens complains of 
the Abbot Joao Scares, and the Sancristao Ma- 
noel Pires, for an Apology and a Defence, "for 
which God forgive them !" " Are there more 
Camoistas ?" says Lipsius. Author. " One Ro- 
lim, and one Gallejos." Lipsius. " Both learn- 
ed men, as I have heard." Boccalini. " Both, 
like many of our time, very learned, que senipre 
sabein o que nao importa.^^ 

Besides, he complains that certain booksellers 
have had little conscience enough to bind him up 
with the Sylvia de Lizardo ! 



1 In the earlier extracts the MS. has almost invariably 
Caraoes. J. W. W. 



Vieyra, 

" Like Seneca, he corrupted the oratory of 
his countrymen, but not the language, which ho 
alone enriched as much as all the poets." — Fk. 

DiAS. 

Corrupted ! Vieyra is the Jeremy Taylor of 
Portugal. 

Can the Arte de Furtar be his ? It M^ants the 
flow, the fulness, the flood of language, the life, 
warmth, the animation of spirit. 

His is a rapid style ; he runs, yet is never out 
of breath : it is a current that hurries you on. A 
compressed sententious language would, in a 
fourth part of the words, express the meaning : 
perhaps the reader would not gain time : he must 
pause and ponder as he proceeded, the gallc}' 
may equal the speed of the brig, but the one sails 
easily along, and the other is impelled by the tug 
and the labour of arms. 



The Cid to his Sword. 

" Y QUANDo alguno te venja 
del torpe fecho enojado, 
fasta la Cruz en mi pecho 
te escondere muy ayrado." 

Juan de Escobar's Collections, ff. 4. 



" Tonos cavalgan a muhi, 
solo Rodrigo a cavallo ; 
todos visten oro y seda. 
Rodrigo va bien armado ; 
todos espadas cenidas 
Rodrigo estoque dorado ; 
todos con sendas varicas, 
Rodrigo lanya en el mano ; 
todos guantes olorosas 
Rodrigo guante mallado ; 
todos sombreros muy ricos 
Rodrigo casco afinado, 
y encima del casco llcva 
un bonete Colorado." — ff. 10. 



184 



TOME DE BURGUILLOS— BEN HAIAN— FLECKNO. 



' JusTiciA buen rey te pido 
que aquel que non la mantiene 
de rey non merece el nonibre 
nin comer pan a manteles, 
nin que le sirvan los nobles." — ff. 12. 



" ToDos eran fijos dalgo 
los que Rodrigo traya, 
armas nuevas trayan todos, 
de una color se vestian, 
amigos son y parientes 
todos los que le seguian." — ff. 17. 



" A LA carta de Ximena 
responde el rey por su mano, 
despues de fazer la Cruz 
con quatro puntos y un rasgo. 
aquestas palabras finca." — ff. 29. 



" Si figo prometo dalle 
una espada y un cavallo, 
y dos mil raaravedis 
para ayuda de su gasto. 
si fija, para su dote 
prometo poner en cambio 
desde el dia que naciere 
de plata quarenta marcos." — ff. 31. 



" Para salir de contray 
sus escuderos vistio, 
que el vestido del criado 
dize quien es el senor." — ff. 31. 



" Dos patenas lleva al cuello 
puestas con mucho primor, 
con San Lazaro y San Pedro 
Santos de su devocion." — ff. 31. 



" Y Los cabellos que al oro 
disminuye su color, 
a las espaldas echados 
de todos hecho un cordon." — ff. 31. 



The Cid went to the Cortes at Toledo. 
" Con trezientos cavalleros 
todos fijos dalgo son, 
todos vestidos de un pafio, 
de un pario, y de una color." — ff. 120. 



The Cid's last Orders. 
Mando que no alquilen 
plafiideras que me Uoren, 
bastan las de mi Ximena 
sin que otras lagrimas compren. — ff. 154. 



Aqtti del Rey, senores ! I, por ventiu"a 
Fui yo Cain de mi inocente hermano ? 



E Mate yo al Rey Don Sancho el Castellano ? 
(, O sin alma signe falsa escritura ? 
(, Pusome acaso en la tablilla el Cura ? 

o No soy hidalgo y montanes Christian© ? 
Tome de Burguillos, ff. 28. 



[^Iplionsus ad Valentia7n Abi Ahmedo parcit.^ 
"Anno denique Egirae 487, Christo 1094, 
quum Imperator Alphonsus maximo adducto ex- 
ercitu, ad urbem Valentiam castra posuisset, lau- 
datus Ben Althaherus annis et \'irtutibus plenus 
decessit. Ferunt Valentines post toleratam per 
dies aliquot obsidionem, urbem Imperatori tradi- 
disse his nempe conditionibus ; ut in primis pop- 
uli vita et libertas una cum bonis servarentur ; 
deinde ut Praetor Abi Ahmedus Ben Giaphar Ben 
Hagiaph Alraoapherajus neque fortunis, neque 
dignitate uUo pacto detmbandus esset. Annuit 
tunc Imperator ; sed anno vix exacto Abi Ahme- 
dum tola cum familia in carcere inclusit, verbera 
et mortem, ni pecuniam publicam traderet, mi- 
natus. Quum autem id frustra tentasset ad flam- 
mas emu cum uxore et filiis damnavit ; quibus 
tamen Alphonsus, unanimi Christianorum et ]\Io- 
hametanornm deprecatione motus pepercit." — 
Ben Haian, apud Casiri, tom. 2, p. 43. 



\Etymology of the Tagiis."] 
Francisco de Pisa has a strange etvmoloo-y 
for the name of the Tagus. Dismissing the opin- 
ion that it was so called from King Tagus in the 
fabulous age of Spain, he says, '''mas probable es 
que aya tornado el nombre de Carthago que oy es 
llamado Cartagena, por caer en la provincia Car- 
thaginense." This was a notable guess of St. 
Isidoris. — Descripcion de la Imperial Civdad de 
Toledo, Ub. 1, c. 6. 



[Voltaire and the Cid of Corncille.] 
According to Voltaire, Chalons, a secretary 
to Mary de Medicis, who had retired to Rouen 
in his old age, advised Comeille to learn Spanish, 
and proposed the Cid to him as the hero of a 
tragedy. There were two Spanish plays upon 
this subject. El honrador de su padre by Dia- 
mente (?), and El Cid by Guillende Castro, the 
latter the latest, and then much in fashion. 
Corneille's play is full of anachronisms. 



Joan IV. 
"The King," says Fleckno, "is an honest 
plain man, changing nothing of the Duke of Bra- 
ganza by being King of Portugal ; faring as 
homely as any farmer, and going as meanly clad 
as any citizen, neither did he ever make use of 
any of the crown wardrobe .since he came unto 
the crown. His ordinary exercise is hunting and 
music, never omitting the first every Monday, 
nor the second every day after dinner, for any 
business. But for the Queen, she has more of 
the majestic in her, and if she be not king, her 
ambition 'twas that made the king. She has a 



JUAN ALVAREZ GATO— FRANCISCO DE PISA— VERSTEGAN, ETC. ie.5 



jroodly presence, a stately gait, and uses the 
Trowel in painting with, better reason than any 
other ladies do the pencil. Having an epilepsy 
(erj'sipilis, I suppose) , makes one side of her face 
rtnlder than the other (like the sunny side of fruit) 
<hd not her painting make both sides alike." — 
Relation of 2'en Ycais^ Travel, p. 57. 



" CopLAS porque el Viernes Santo vido a su 
Amiga hazer los iiudos de la passion en un cor- 
don de seda." — Cancioncro, ff. 80. 

" Gran belleza poderosa 

a do gracia no esquivo, 

destreza no fallecio, 
hermosa que tan hermosa 

nunca en el mundo nacio. 
Oy mirandos a porfia 

tal passion passe por vns 

que no eseuche la de Dios 
con la ravia de la mia. 

" Los nudos que en el cordon 

distes vos alegre y leda 
como iiudos de passion, 

vos los distes en la seda, 
yo los di en el corafon. 
Vos distes los iiudos tales 

por nombrar a Dios loores, 

yo para en nombre de araores ; 
vos para sanar de males, 

yo para crecer dolores." 

Juan Alvaeez Gato. 



RoDERicus, 'PsJcpf^of. Rode-rijch. Quiete 
pollens. 



Toledo, 
" Entre las obras que dexo hechas en nuestros 
dias Joan Gutierrez Tello, Corregidor, fue una el 
rastro nuevo donde se venden y matan los came- 
ras, dos dias de cada scmana, y algunas vezes mas. 
Poco mas ahaxo dcste sitio, es otro mcnor rastro 
donde se mata oveja para gente pobre, o para mo- 
riscosy — Franc, de Pisa. Bcsc. de Toledo, lib. 
1, cap. 22. 



[^Icager of Toledo!\ 
Feancisco de Pisa says, " that the King gave 
the Alcaf er of Toledo in charge to the Cid, with 
a guard of a thousand Castilian hidalgos, and 
that he was the first Alcayde of Toledo after its 
recovery. The Cid afterwards put another knight 
in his place, and took for his place of abode the 
houses near, which in Pisa's time wei-e called S. 
Juan de los Cavalleros." — Descr. de Toledo, lib. 
1, cap. 17. 



{Slaves of the Isle of Ferro.'] 
The slaves in the Island of Ferro live chiefly 
upon milk and cheese of goat's milk, says Tm:- 
VET, France Jlnlarticque, ff. 11. '" Queique demy 
philosophic, on demy medeciu (honneur garde a 
qui le merite) pourra deraander en cest endroit, 
si usans de teller choses ne sont graveleux, at- 
tendu que le laict et forraage sont matiere de 
gravelle, ainsi que I'on voit advenir a plusiers eu 
nostre Europe : je repondray que le fourmagc 
de soy pent estre bon et mauvais, graveleux et 
non graveleux, scion la quantite que I'on en 
prend, et la disposition de la personne. Vray est 
qu'a nous autres, qui a une mesmo heure non 
contens d'une espece de viande, en prenons bien 
souvent de vingt cinq on trente, ainsi qu'il vicnt 
et boire de mesme, et tant qu'il en peut tenir 
entre le bast et les sangles, seulement pour hon- 
orer chacune d' icelles, et en bonne quantite et 
souvent ; si le fourmage se trouve d'abondant, 
nature desju grevee de la multitude, en pourra 
mal faire son prolfit, joint que de soy il est asscz 
difficile a cuii^e et a digerer ; mais quand I'csto- 
mach est dispos, non debilite d' excessive crapu- 
le, non seulement il pourra digerer le fourmage, 
fust-il de Milan, ou de Bethune, mais encores 
chose plus dure a un besoing." 



Raderyc. 
Plentiful, or rich in counsel or advice ; or 
liberal in yielding remedy or redress. Raderic 
by travelling into Spain became Rodrigo, and 
lighting into Latin was made Rodericus." — Ver- 
stegan. 



[La Hcrmandad vicja y niieva.] 

" La Hcrmandad vicja de su primer priiicipio 
no fue ordenada ofundada por los Reyes, sino por 
los mismos pueblos de los monies ; aunquc dcspufs 
fue confirmada por los Reyes y previlegiada. ¥ 
esta solamente la ay en tres pueblos, cs a saber, en 
esta ciudad, y en Ciudad Real, y la villa de Ta- 
lavera. Fue confirmada por el Rcy Don Fer- 
nando el Santo, circa de los anos del Schor 1 2G.5 : 
y para pcrpctuarla la doto de cierto dcrecho, qtie 
es assadura mayor y menor, csto es una cabc(-a de 
cada hato que passa por los monies. El nombre 
de assadura por vcntura fue tornado de la parte 
por cl todo : o scgun parcccr dc algunos, corrupto 
el vocablo se dizc assadura, por dezir passadura, 
esto es, por los ganados que passan. Fue esta 
santa Hcrmandad instituyda por escicsar las mu- 
ertes y robos que ciertos ladroncs, llamados Golfi- 
ncs (que eran muchos en manero), hazian en toda 
esta comarca, acogiendose a los montes, donde jmr 
su espesura y grandc aspcreza se hazian fucrtcs, 
sin que nadie los pudiesse entrar. Tiene esta Hcr- 
mandad su Cabildo, y se rigen los hermanos por 
antiguas costumbrcs y fueros : reside el juzgado 
en la misma car eel donde ay su sala (y donde se 
ponen en prision los malhechorcs que hazen dano 
en los despoblados) ; eligen entre si Alcaldes, y un 
quadrillero mayor, y otros oficiales. 

^•Mas la Hcrmandad nucva es la que ordena- 
ron los Reyes Calholicos Don Fernando y Doha 
Ysabcl ano de 1476, y en el de 147S, a imitacion 
de la vicja, o alomcnos la acrercntaron y fivore- 
cicron, avicndo comcncado en tiempo del Rcy Don 



136 ALVAR FANEZ— D. JOSEF DE VARGAS Y PONZE— LOPEZ. 



Enrique su antecessor : y se ordeno contra los sal- 
teadorcs y ladrones que acomcten en el campo. 
Esta la ay en todo el reyno, y se rige par leyes y 
pragmaticas que vienen en la nueva rccopilacion. 
Ko ticnc Cabildo de par si, sino que la ciudad en 
su Ayuntximiento cada ano nomhra dos Alcaldes, 
el un arto a un Rcgidor, y un Ciudadano, otro 
ano a un Jurado y un ciudadano alternativamcntt. 
Tienen su escrivano y quadrilleros, con todas las 
libertadcs y excelencias que le concedieron los dichos 
Reyes Catholicos sus instituydores.^^ — Fran, de 
Pisa. Desc. de Toledo, 1. 1, c. 23. 



Alvar Fanez is mentioned in some rude old 
verses which Sandoval has inserted in his histo- 
rj-. It is to be regretted that he did not give the 
■whole poem, instead of only the introduction. 

" Hismaelitarum gentes domuit, nee earum 
Oppida vel turres potuermit stare fortes. 
Fortia frangebat, sic fortis ille premebat, 
Tempore Roldani si tertius Alvarus esset 
Post Oliverum fateor sine crimine rerum. 
Sub juga Francorum fuerat gens Agarenorum, 
Nee socii chari jacuissent morte perempti. 
Nullaque sub coelo melior fuit hasta sereno. 
Ipse Roderieus mio Cid semper vocatus, 
De que cantatur quod ab hostibus baud super- 

atus, 
Qui domuit Mauros, Comites domuit quoque 

nostros, 
Hunc extollebat, se laude minore ferebat. 
Sed fateor verum quod toilet nulla dierum, 
Meo Cidi primus, fuit Alvarus atque secundus." 
Prefo.cio de Almeria. Sandoval, t. 2, p. 276. 



Vargas y Ponze. 
" Unfantasma de honor tu pccko embarga. 
Nuestro amor nada importa a los que yacen . 
mas alia del sepulcro de consortes 
no hay lazo conyugal : juntas no arden 
antorchas vivas que alumbro himeneo 
con las mustias del feretro espantable. 
i Tu juventud sin par la sorda lima 
dc amargo llanto destruira incesante? 
Ingrata a tus abuclos y a ti impia 
contigo acabas el mrjor linage. 
Busca en el scno de un ilustre esposo 
quien repita su imagen con tu, imagen 
en duke prole ; quien con ella sea 
fuente de gustos, diqice a los pesares.^^ 



D. Josef de Vargas y Ponze. 
" i Y QrE amargo 
tosigo le preparas al gran Muza 
de amantes padres superior deehado ! 
Acaso, Abdalaziz, en este punto 
al inclito califa cuenta ufano 
tus acciones sin par de generosas ; 
tu el primero al dudoso desembarco, 
el primero en la lid del Guadalete, 
de Merida tenaz al rudo asalto, 
y de tu alfange belicos despojos 



cadaveres sin cuento de Cristianos. 
Acaso asiendo la prolixa barba, 
perjurada jamas, tremula mano. 
por su vida promete al gran califa 
que, sus arabes fuertes tu guiando, 
las puras aguas del sumiso Tiber 
placidas hinchen rausulmanes baiios, 
y de solo su trono abriga Europa 
del Escita al Frances reyes eselavos. 
Ya de Pedro el califa ve raezquita 
el templo ; el capitolio su palacio. 
Por Ventura aquel padre, que en su mente 
vivo esta Abdalaziz qual a su lado, 
pisa este instante con desnuda pknta 
i o Meca ! tu tremendo santuario ; 
y ante la tumba que feliz custodia 
huraanos restos del Profeta santo 
lagrimas vierte, quema suave aroma, 
y ofrece doncs por lograr los anos . . . 
de un prevaricador, de un hijo iluso 
que marchita sus votos y sus lauros." 



■ Esta es Lisboa prezada, 
miralda, y leixalda, 
si quisieredes carnero 
qual dieran al Andero, 
si quisieredes cabrito 
qual dieran al Arjobispo." 
Fernam Lopez, 



205. 



[Unholy Comparison.'] 
" De que em pouco espaf o lanf on aquelle fidal- 
go o esprito, que tao cedo nao ouvcra de fazer 
fim. nobre e valente barao, verdadeiro Portu- 
gues, de quantos entao foste prazmado, dizendo 
que por tua sandice et ardideza, que poderas 
bem escusar a peleja et te ver era salvo com as 
outras naos, te ofereceste a tao mortal perigo. 
Porem nao foy assi, mas, como falaria o eomum 
povo dizendo, que assi como Jesu Christo mor- 
rera por salvar o mundo todo, assi Ruy Pereira 
por salvajam dos outros. — Ibid., p. 239. 



[Self-defence.] 
" As armas defensaveis de todos erom baci- 
netes de canal, delles com caras, delles sem ellas. 
et solhas, et loudeis, et cotas, et faldoens et pan- 
ceiras ; et de ferir lanyas et fachas de ferro et 
de chumbo, et delles, maehados, quem os podia 
aver."— Ibid., p. 93. 



Favila's fate is related in one of the flattest 
of the old bald ballads. 

" Muerto era esse bucn Rey, 
don Pelao era llamado, 
que gano de lo perdido 
por Rodrigo desdichado. 
Enterraron lo dentro en Cangas : 
sit hijo heredo el reynado, 
don Fabila se llamava, 
meto del otro preciado, 



MIGUEL DE BARRIOS— CHRISTOVAL DE MESSA, ETC. 



137 



dos anos rcyno no mas, 
porque era muy liviano. 
Amava mucJio la cafa, 
mas que conviene a su estado. 
Corriendo la monteria 
un gran osso avia hallado : 
matarlo quierrcn los suyos ; 
Favila Ics ha mandado 
que ninguno mate al osso, 
que cl solo quiere matarlo. 
Luego arremetio a el 
a los bra^os han llegado, 
mas por la su desventura 
el osso lo avia matado." 

The Conde de Saldueiia prophesies this event 
to Pelayo in his usual grandiloquous style. 

" Dcspues de tus entranas dulce prcnda, 
Mai divertida en venatorios danos, 
Quando de un monstruo el Jin su error pretenda 
Marchitara el verdor de tiernos anos.''' 

El Pelayo, c. 3. 

Sancho, the son of Fernando II. of Leon, met 
with a like death, and his fate is told in a viler 
verse than that of Favila. 

" Hie rcquiescit Sanccius mansuetus et agnus. 
Quern dims Ursuslasit, et dira Mors oppressit.^' 
Pruetas de la Hist, de la Casa de 
Lara, p. 621. 



Miguel de Barrios. 
Salen de aquellos asperos gigantes 

Los rios Deva y Ove candalosos ; 
Iverto cristalino, Ezla erizado, 
Pisuerga noble, y Nubis regalado.''"' 

Metros del Imperio y descripcion de 
Espana. Coro de las Musas, p. 133. 



Christoval db Mess.i,^ in his poem upon the 
Restoration of Spain, represents the soul of Rod- 
rigo in bliss as appearing to Pelayo in a dream, 
and exciting him to undertake the deliverance of 
his country. 

" Baxar al punto de la excelsa cumhre 

Resplandeciente armado vee un guerrero, 

Todo cercado de celeste lumbre, 

De mas luzientes armas que de azero : 

Ageno ya de la mortal costumbrc, 

No sangriento, o cruel, aspero, o fiero, 

Que le dixo, A sobrino, Godo, amigo, 

No conoces per dichu al Rey Rodrigo ? 

*' Pelayo respondio, que nueva forma 

Muestras, y en tanta luz tan claro aspccto, 
Que del antiguo tuyo desconforma, 

Dime, por que razon, por qual respeto ? 



1 Thu3 the name is spelt in this volume, though in his 
former poem of Las Navas de Tolosa, and in his later El 
Patron de EspaJta, it is written Mesa. 



Tu me aconscja agora, tu me informa, 
Pues ya gozas de estado tan perfeto, 

Y en esta santa empresa de importancia 
Da suficiente lumbre a mi ignorancia. 

" Quiso abrai^arlo, y cstendio la mano, 

Ytrcs vezes hiiyo, qual sombra o viento, 

Ytrcs abrar^o solo cl ayre vano, 

Qucdando defraudado de su intento : 

No es este, como picnsas, cucrpo humano. 
Replica el Rey, ni humario inovimicnto, 

Mas forma simple cspiritu desnudo, 

Libre ya del mortal tcrreno nudo. 

" En aqucsffi immortal sitio en aqueste. 
En aquesta Ciudad de gloria y canto, 
Indino cortesano soy celeste, 

Que por divina gracia alcan^o tanto : 

Y Dios manda que a ti tambicn se aprcste 
Assiento aqui, como a guerrero santo, 

Que es cl lugar de los guerreros justos, 
Monarcas y magnanimos Augustas.'''' 

Restauracion de Espanha, 1. 2, ff. 19. 



St. Catharine. 
" Como Dios crio de buelo 
lo soberano y profundo 
para remedio del suelo 
dos nortes puso en el cielo 
que governassen el mundo : 
Uno su madre, pues ello 
de gracia a todos abunda ; 
otro vos sacra donzella, 
que en el cielo despues della 
no teneys otra segunda." 

Rodrigo de Puebla, Can. Gen., 
p. 199. 



"Quando Dios determino 
que su hijo aca viniesse, 
dos virgines escogio, 
una de quien el nacio, 
y otra que su esposa fuesse : 
Para madre y por mas cosa 
tomo a la wgen preciosa, 
sobre todas la mas dina ; 
y a vos Santa Catalina 
como a reyna por esposa." 

Diego de Padii>le, ibid. 



[Arms and Objects.] 

" Sirva en buen hora, 
Y la f rente cobardc al yugo tienda 
El debil y cstragado medio dia : 
Hijos, vosotros, de estas asperczas, 
A arrostrar y veneer acostumbrados 
De la tierra y los cielos la inclcmcncia, 
i Temhlareis? i Cedereis. No. Nuestros brazoa 
Alccn de los escombros que nos ccrcan 
Otro estado, otra patria, y otra Espana 
Mas grande y masfeliz que la primer a." 

QuiNTANA. 



188 SARMIENTO— GOMEZ EANES DE AZURARA— FRANCISCO DE PISA. 



[Prowess of Woman.] 
'' Mai pudieran las dcbilcs vmgcres 
Rcsister al halago lisonjcro 
Del Moro venccdor, qiiando sus annas 
Domaron ya las varonilcs pechos.'^ 

Pelayo. D. Manuel Josei' Quintana. 



[" Joglarcs,'''' or "Popular Poets."] 
S.vRMiiiNTo desci-ibes the only collection which 
he liiid seen as containing one hundred and two 
Kuniances in an old style and in eioht-syllabic 
verse. This is Escobar's. He delivers it as his 
opinion that the popular ballads of the twelve 
]iecrs, Bernardo del Carpio, Ferran Gonzalez, the 
Cid, &c., were all composed shortly after the 
times of the heroes whom they celebrated, and 
were what the Copleros, Trouveurs, Joculars. 
and, in short, all the common people sung at 
their entertainments. That these, not being 
written, were subject to frequent alterations as 
the language of the country altered, and thus 
when at length they were committed to writing, 
the language was diiierent but the .substance re- 
mained the same. In support of this authority 
which he assigns to them in point of fact, he ob- 
serves that the Coronica Geral frequently cites 
the Joglares or popular poets. Their present 
form he assigns to the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. — Mcmorias para la Hist, de la Pocsia. § 
546-8-50. 



py end of so great a king, and by the miserable 
calamities of the Portugueses, princes should be 
taught to know, that the learned masters which 
are to have the care of breeding up their chil- 
dren in their youth, ought to be commanders of 
tried valour, and senators of known politic pru- 
dence. — BoccALiNT, Cen. 1. Adv. 55. 



[Gonzalo de Cordova and Martin ^ffonso.] 
GoNZALo DE Cgedova passing through Bra- 
garse was entertained at the house of Lopo de 
Sousa, who sent her son INIartin Aflbnso, then a 
youth, to accompany him some stages on his 
journey. When they parted, Gonzalo would 
have given him a gold chain from his neck — hum 
rico efermoso collar de ouro e pcdrcna — this ]Mar- 
tin AlTonso would not accept ; but he joyfully 
accepted the sword of the great Captain, and 
wore it upon festive days when he was Governor 
of India. — Jahoctam Precent.. § 45. 



[Girolamo Conestaggio and his History.] 
Because Girolaino Conestaggio, a gentleman 
of Genoa, had taken liis History ol' Portugal out 
of the Delphic Libraiy, which had been there 
many years before, and had in lieu thereof given 
in another edition of the same Historj-, which, as 
ho said, was corrected in some places ; the over- 
seers of the libraiT, finding that he had rather 
abused than corrected that edition, which he had 
not reprinted, as he gave out, for the general good, 
but to give satisfaction to some whose reputations 
were deservedly taken by him, ho was told that 
if he did not bring back the first edition into 
the library within eight days, tlie assembly would 
put some affront upon him. For the ruin of 
the Portugueses being occasioned by those who 
had the care of instructing King Sebastian in his 
youth, it was very necessary that by the unhap- 



[Rcadincss to depart, and why ?] 
" Alegkes nos partiremos deste mundo. quan- 
do certamcnte soubermos que as nossas carnes 
se ham de gastar nos cemiterios de aquellas Igre- 
jas, onde os dizimos dos nossos fruitos et as pri- 
micias dos nossos gados demos aos Reitores, pa- 
dres de nossas almas, et que sera outra cousa a 
terra que nos gastar, se nam earne de nossos Pa- 
dres et avos, filhos et parentes ? em cuja com- 
panhia nos alevantaremos quando derradeira- 
raente formos chamados para irmos juntamente 
a aquelle juizo, no qual o Filho da Virgem de- 
terminava nossas maldades como for sua merce."' 
— Gomez Eanes de Azcrara, C, 5. 



Cortes^ Followers and the Dove. 
When Coi"tes was first on his way to the Xew 
World, " their victuall waxed skant and their 
fresh water wanted, so that they prepared them- 
selves to die. Some cursed thcyr fortune, oth- 
ers asked mercie at God's hands, lookvng for 
death and to be eaten of the Carives. And in 
this tyme of tribulation came a dove flying to the 
shippe, beyng on Good Friday at .sunset, and satte 
liim on the shippe toppe : whereat they were all 
comforted, and tooke it for a miracle and good to- 
ken, and some wept with joy, some sayd that God 
had sent the dove to comforte them, others sayde 
that lande w-as ncare. and all gave hartie fhankes 
to God directing their course that wav that the 
dove flew." — Conquest of the Weast India. 



Altars. 
Abdalazis. " i Que falta por cumplir antes 
que ofrczca 
scncillo cornzon a lazo cterno ? 
i Que k fulta a 7ni fe ? 

P^gilona. Faltan altares. 

Abdalaziz. Ala presente. para obrar lo honesto 
su ara cs el mundo.'' — Vargas y Ponze. 



{The Cross of Oak\ 
" Tienese por cierto que se le aparerio al Rcy 
D. Pelayo en el cielo una Cruz el dia de aquella 
insigne victoria, y dcsde alii tuvo por estandarte 
una cruz de roble, que despues el Rey D. Alonso 3, 
llamado el Magno, llevo de la yglesia de Santacniz 
de Cangas, donde cstava. y guarnecida de cro y 
picdras, lapuso en la de Oviedo. donde aora esta.'^ 
— Franc, de Pisa. De.sc. de Toledo, 1. 3, c. 2. 



[The Cid.] 
■ Quantos dizen mal del Cid. 



THE CID. 



189 



ninguno con verdad habla, 

que el Cid fue buen cavallero 

de los mejores de Espana. 

Gran servidor de sus reyes, 

gran defensor de su patria, 

enemifTo de traydores, 

y amigo de gente honrada. 

El que en la vida, y la muerte, 

merecio dijna alabanza, 

aunque malvados pnetas 

se atreven. y desacatan. 

Dize uno que no es verdad 

los hechos que del se cantan, 

y que las historias noestras 

son consejas y patraiias. 

Contra el que niega el principio 

el Filosofo nos manda 

que no arguyamos, y cs jnsto 

ponnie mega de ignorancia. 

Dezir mal de las historias, 

como la verdad le falta, 

para dezir su nientira, 

arrojasse en la baraja. 

Dize que los necios crean 

que muerto vencio batallas, 

conio si fuera impossible 

al que los Santos guardavan. 

Niega que no fue verdad, 

que saco la media espada 

contra el Judeo que quiso 

tocalle muerto a la bar%'a. 

Este remiso poeta 

como esta fuera de Grecia, 

no entiende que Dios se acuerda 

de los suyos, y los guarda. 

Y sin que leyes del duelo 

le obligassen a esta causa, 

la ley que guardo de Dios 

muerto le libro de infamia. 

Los Condes de Carrion 

dize tambien que le enfadan. 

y qvic no fue caso honroso 

ponelles el Cid denianda. 

Que quieres tu, mal Poeta? 

que los Condes se quedaran 

con scmejante traycion, 

y al padre que no hablara ? 

Que es lo que del Cid dixeraa 

si con salir a la causa, 

y destrujT a los aleves 

lo murmuras, y lo ultragas ? 

Sin duda de tales fechos 

tu mal intento se paga, 

y en tu muger y tus hijas 

mas sufricras, y callaras ; 

O por faltarte el valor, * 

o porque cosas tan altas 

no Bon para flacos pechos, 

donde las lenguas son armas. 

Qual diablo te cngana 

poeta con pies de cana 

a tratar del noble Cid, 

de sus sueessos y casa ? 

No tenias a la mano 

otro con quien te estrellaras, 

qre quanto dixeras delloa 



les hiziera consonancia. 

Del otro, que en lodas cicncias, 

sin saber romance, habla, 

que come mas colacion 

que diez asnos beven aqua ; 

O del otro adulador, 

que con la faz serialada 

osa murmurar de todos 

como prenda rematada ; 

Del hijo de no se quien 

que eutre hidalgos se ensancha, 

y es un libro de novelas 

la mayor verdad que trata. 

Aqui paraciera bien 

que afilaras la navaja, 

y hablaras a tus anchos 

y no del honor de Espana. 

De tu loco atrevimiento, 

mas sepas quien tiene sana, 

y embia una inhibitoria 

para que a su audiencia vayas. 

Descomulga tus escritos, 

tas versos repone, y tacha, 

condena tu mala lengua, 

y aboraina tus palabras. 

Ruego a Dios, sobre tus obras 

en pago del mal que hablas, 

tantas camaras te den, 

que entrar no puedas en cania." 



[The Cid.] 
" Fablando estava en el claustro 
de San Pedro de Cardeiia, 
el buen rey Alfonso al Cid, 
despues de Missa una fiesta. 
Tratavan de las conquistas 
de las mal perdidas tierras, 
por pecados de Rodrigo, 
que amor disculpa y condena. 
Propuso el buen Rey al Cid 
el yr a ganar a Cucnca, 
y Rodrigo mesurado 
le dize desta manera. 
Nuevo soys el rey Alfonso, 
nuevo rey soj's en la tierra, 
antes que a guerra vayades 
sossegad las vuessas tierras. 
Muehos daiios an venido 
por los reyes que se ausentan 
que a pcnas an calentado 
la corona en la cabeza. 
Y vos no estays muy seguro 
dc la calunia proquesta 
de la muerle de don Sancho 
sobre Zamora la vicja. 
Que aun ay sangre dc Vellido 
maguer que en lidalgas vciiu-s, 
y el que fizo acjuel vcnablo 
si le pagan hara treynta. 
bermudo en lugar del rey 
dize al Cid, si vos aqucxan 
el causancio dc las lides, 
o el dcsseo de Ximena, 
Ydvos a Bivar, Rodrigo, 
y dexalde al rey la emprcssa, 



190 FRANCISCO DE PISA.— MANUEL DE BARRIOS— LINSCHOTEN. 



que omes tiene tan fidalgos, 

que non bolveran sin ella. 

Quien vos mete, dixo el Cid 

en cl consejo de guerra, 

fraylc honrado a vos agora, 

la vuessa cogulla puesta. 

Subedvos a la tribuna 

y rogad a Dios que venca, 

que non venciera Josue 

si Moyses non lo fiziera. 

Llevad vos la capa al coro, 

yo el pendon a las fronteras, 

y el rey sossiegue en su casa 

antes que busque la agena. 

Que non me faran cobarde 

el mi amor, ni la mi quexa, 

que mas traygo siempre al lado 

a Tizona que a Ximena. 

Ome soy, dixo Bermudo, 

que antes que entrara en la regla, 

si non venci reyes Moros 

cngendre quien los venciera. 

Y agora en vez de cogulla 

quando la ocasion se ofrezca, 

me calare la celada 

y pondre al cavallo espuelas. 

Para fugir, dixo el Cid, 

podra ser, padre, que. sea, 

que mas de azeyte que sangre 

manchado cl abito muestra. 

Calledes, le dixo el rey, 

en mal ora, que no en buena, 

ijcordarsevos devia 

de la jura y la ballesta. 

Cosa tenedes el Cid 

que faran fablar las piedras 

pues per qualquier nineria 

fazeys campana la yglcsia. 

Passava el Conde de Onate, 

que llevava la su dueiia, 

y el rey por fazer mesura 

acompaiiola a la puerta. 



Tlic Tagus. 
" Nasce de la sierra de Cuenca, de un vallc 
que llaman las vaguillas, passa por cerca de Au- 
J:on y del castillo de Zurita. Y parece que no 
prcciandosc de cntrar por dentro de los lugares 
poblados, corrc solitario por los campos, avista 
de muchos pueblos, hasta entrar en el bosque 
de jlranjuez, donde recibe en si el rio de Xara- 
ma, haziendo muy fresco y delcytoso aqucl sitio. 
tj rcgando su arboleda. De alii vienc muy cau- 
daloso a esta Ciudad (Toledo) y la hermvsea y 
I nnoblecc, y provce de abundancia de pesces, que 
.^on los mcjores y mas sanos de ioda Espana.'''' 
— Fka.nx'isco de Pisa, Desc. de Toledo, lib. 1, 
cap. 6. 



Miguel de Barrios. 

• Estraga el ocio confalaz semblante 

al Hispano en los riesgos diligtnlc. 
quaiido mas Jucrte, mcnos vigilante, 
quando mas combatido mas valitutc ; 



hallole ocioso el moro, que triumpkanle 

le quilo la corona de la f rente ; 
y encendicndo su brio en las montanas, 
no jmdo resistirbe en las campanas.^'' 

Coro de las Musas, p. 101. 



Miguel de Barrios. 
" Dividese esle cerro en el sublime 

Principado de Asturias, y el sangriento 
Reyno Leones ; Oviedo alii se imprime 

Cort^ Obispal, del Casio Rey assiento : 
aqui Leon la fucrte garra csgrime, 
roxo en campo de plata, y opulento 
en mansion fuerte de leal blasona, 
con grave mitra y militar Corona."" 

Ibid., p. 134. 



[Discipline in Portuguese Ships.] 
LiNSCHOTEN relates a good trait of the disci- 
pline in the Portuguese ships, " The 29th of 
May, being Whitsiuiday, the ships of an ancient 
custom do use to chuse an emperor among them- 
selves, and to change all the officers in the ship, 
and to hold a great feast, M'hich continueth three 
or four days together : which we observing cho.^e 
an emperor, and being at our banquet, by means 
of certain words that passed out of some of their 
mouths, there fell great strife and contention 
among us, which proceeded so far that the ta- 
bles were thrown down, and at the least an hund- 
red rapiers drawn, without respecting the cap- 
tain, or any other, for he lay under foot, and they 
trod upon him. And they had killed each othcr 
and thereby cast the ship away, if the archbish- 
op had not come out of his chamber among them 
willing them to cease, wherewith they staycil 
their hands, who presently commanded every 
man on pain of death, that all their rapiers, poyn- 
yards and other weapons .should be brought iiii.' 
his chamber, which was done, whereby all thiii<_f.- 
were pacified, the fir.st and principal beginu^is 
being punished and laid in irons, by which mean.- 
thej' were quiet." — Ibid., p. 6. 



[Et consangidneus Leti Sopor. — Virg. Ms-] 

" vendo as Godos 
Dormindo, deste modo acorda a todos. 

" Sono, irmam da Morte, em toda a idadc 
He hum ladram da vida em todo o insla>:ti 

Da vida, por roubar della ametadc, 
Da morte por Ihe ser mui semelhante ; 

Tern com wgnerra eterna inimizade, 
Quern nella muito dorme he ignorantc ; 

Conla nam tern se bcm se consideram 

As prafas que jior sono se perderant. 

'■ Prohibe o Turco o vinho em sua Corte, 
E Reyno, c o tern por grande abono, 

Que como o Sono he irmam da Morte, 
Irmam o Vinho he de muito sono ; 

Ambos desluslram as Na^oens do Norte, 
Antecipam da vida o breve Oulono, 



TOME DE BURGUILLOS— SA.LGADO DE ARAUJO— ST. JULIAN. 191 



Causam nul disscngoens e infermidades, 
Fazem sonhar mcntiras e verdades. 

" E OS sonlios illusam do entcndimcnto, 

Tal vez os bens e os males ■profctizam^ 

Fazendo vacilar ao pensamento 

Com cousas que nul vezcs o agonizam : 

Dormindo absorto em fabricas de vento, 
Que ou regallam tal vez, ou martirizam, 

Por milagrc, ou prestigio claramcnte 

O futuro ou distante vem prezcnte. 

" Por tanto Capitaens mui valerosos 
Nam durmais.^'' 

Destruifam de Espanha, p. 158. 



Compadres. — Note to the Argument of Joan das 
Regras. 

" Gracian, Archbishop of Spain as he is styl- 
ed, consulted Pope Deodatus, who succeeded 672, 
upon this case of conscience. As baptism was 
only administered then on Easter Eve, it fre- 
quently happened in the crowd and confusion 
that fathers were god-fathers to their own chil- 
dren, and took them out of the baptistery, where- 
by they became compadres to their own wives. 
The question was could they cohabit together 
afterward? The Pope replied that they could 
not." — Morales, 12, 40, 10. 

The decretal which decides this point and 
many others relating to this religious relation- 
ship is presei'ved in the old book of Councils at 
San MiUan de la CogoUa. 



{Tanto it mundo decrepito deliro .'] 
" En media de lo grave 
Del romance suave, 
Les dixo con despejo, 
Pareciendole versos a lo viejo. 
Que xacara cantasen picaresca, 

Y asi cantaron la mas nueva y fresca, 
Que para que lo heroyco y grave olviden 
Hasta las gatas xacaras les piden ; 

i Tanto el mundo decrepito delira 
Aqui se resolvio la dulca lyra, 

Y en dos lascivos ayes, 
Andolas, guirigayes, 

Y otras tales baxezas, 

Canteron pues las barbaras proezas 

Y hazanas de rufianes. 

Que estos sou los valientes Capitanes 
Que celebran Poetas, 
De aquellos que en extremas 
Necesidades viven arrojados 
Al vulgo como pcrros a leoncs, 
Que la virtud y estudios mal premiados 
Mueron por hospitales y mesoncs, 
Verdes laureles de Virgilios y Enios 
Perecer la virtud y los ingenios." 
Tome de Burguillos. Gatomo.quia, p. 137 



ish methods of adorning or deforming themselves 
appears from the description of Venus, when shf 
appeared on Mount Ida, to claim the golden apple . 

"Por mostrar que non eran las otras sus pareias 
Aleoforo los oios, tinnio las .soberceias, 
Cobriosse de coroles de blancas c de bermeias, 
Melio en sus manos doro muchas sorteias.'" 
Poema de AkxandrOj cap. 354. 



[El Rio Minho.} 
" Notoria he a nobreza do rio Minho. He cste 
rio de nagad Galego, illustre, de casa de Solar in- 
fangona, posta nafonte Minham, a que Geografos 
antigos chamavam Lucus Augusti. — No principio 
de scu primeiro abrir de olhos, se manifesta, e sae 
ao mundo visivel por quatro ou cinco, ja corpu- 
lento, agigantado, et feilo rio caudaloso Junto de 
huma Aldea que chaman Familhans.^' — Salga- 
Do DE Araujo. 



[Moorish Customs adopted by the W(jmen.] 
That the women had adopted certain Moor- 



Siege of Narbonnc, by Wamba. 

" — tantos imbres lapidum intra urbcm concu- 
tiunt, ut clamorc vocum et stridore petrarum Civ- 
itas ipsa stcbmergi cestimaretur.^^ — § 12. 

" Unde fcrociori quam fuerant incensione com- 
moti, usque in horam fere did quintam continui^ 
prceliorum ictibus mania civitaiis illidunt, irnbna 
lapidum cum ingcnti fragore dimittunt, suppo- 
sito igne portus incendunt, murorum aditibus 
minutis irrumpunt." — S. Julian, Hist. Wamb;c. 
Espana Sagrada, tom. '6, § 18. 



[Spanish Opinion of the French.] 
" Ya hemes visto el porte, talante y conducta 
de las tropas y generales que habia enviado par;; 
sujetarnos el fementido Napoleon. Son peores 
que los barbaros de nacimiento, porque tienen 
todos los vicios y malicia de naeion eivilizada. y 
no la sencillez de la salvage. Attila detiiva su 
furor a las puertas de Romeal ver al Papa 8. 
Leon, que vestido de pontifical salio a su cneu- 
entro con la cruz y los ciriales ; y el fiero ladron 
Dupont hubicra echado ojo a ver si eran de oro. 
y si en la tiara brillaba algun gran topacio par;; 
el puno de sa sable. Por menos temibles y odi- 
osos tendria yo a los Agarenos ; porque estos no 
disimulan lo que son, ni fingen lo que no .son. 
Creen en Dios, y en pena y gloria ctcrna, y so 
pucdc esperar de ellos algune virtud moral. El- 
los levantarian sus mczquitas, y nos dcxarian nu- 
estros templos y nuestros oficios : nos quitariari 
imestras eampanas, no por codicia, sino per re- 
ligion : pagariamos nuestros trilnitos, 3' no nos 
impcdirian orar al Seiior, ni nos darian el impio 
cxemplo de la incredulidad. Vuelvo a decir. 
que mas quiero ser conquistado de Moros qui cli' 
Franceses, porque cs mas .sensible sufrir el dos- 
precio que el odio. Quando descmbarcaron los 
Africanos en Espaiia, ciitraron como enemigos^ 
como conquistadores como propagadorcs del Al- 
coran : no nos cnganaron con pretextos ni tilu- 
los de amistad y protcccion : no qucbrantaron 



IOC 



KODRIGO— FERNAM LOPEZ— CRISTOVAL DE VIRUES. 



ningun pacto ni alianza, pues no la habia : no ' et todolas otras cousas, assi que perfeitamentP, 
laltaron a su palabra, pucs no la habian ofrecido. como o Mestre et dellas uzar poderia." — Ibid., 



iS'os cogieron desprevenidos, mas no enganedos. 
— Centi.nkla contra Franceses, p. 27. 



[Catliolic Advice. ^ 
'■ El que fizo el nial lo deviera pagar, y no los 
fi's naturales parientes y amigos, y la tierra donde 
Jneste criado, y de quien avias los bienes que 
tenias ; y si el diablo te tenia encantado que es- 
cusar no le j'udiesses dc vengar tu mal co7-a^on, 
a^sas de gentes tenias, y niuchos amigos chris- 
tianos que te ayudaran. En aquellos deviera 
poner la sojuzgada Espana, y no en los cnctnigos 
de Dios ; y de la su fe : y desta giiisa vengaras 
iu mal cora^on, y Espana no fucra destruyda, ni 
la asenorearan los canes pudicntes. Y todos le 
devendar por el mas traydor, y malo que wunca 
hombrefue ; ca a ti mesmo despreciaste ; y dcxaste 
pcrdcr la honra dcste tnundo, y condenaste tu alma 
para siempre ser perdida : ea el diablo que tal 
mal te ayudo a fazer, este te tcrna ligado la hora 
de tu mucrte, que no aya arrcpentimicnto dc tus 
pecados. Y pues perdiste todo esto, qual es el que 
hien ninguno pucdc dczir de ic." — Chjr.. del K. 
D. RoDRiGo. p. 1, c. 179. 



1, c. 159. 



[Preaching of the Holy Gospel.] 
'■ PoE. breve et solazosa comparafao .... assi 
como o Filho de Deos depois da morte, que tomou 
por salvar a humanal linhagem, mandou pelo 
inundo seus Apostolos pregar o Evangelho a 
toda a criatura, pela qual i^ezam sam postos em 
comcf o da ladainha, nomeando primeiro Sao Pe- 
dro : assi o Mestre se poz a morrer, se comprira 
por saivafao da terra, que seus avos ganharao : 
Enviou Nuno Alvarez et seus companheiros a 
pregar pelo Reyno o Evangelho Portugues, o 
qual era, que todos cresem e tivessem firme o 
Papa Urbano ser verdadeiro Pastor da Igreja, 
tora de cuja obediencia nenhum salvar se podia : 
et com isso ter aqueUa crenja que seus Padres 
Bempre tiverao, s. gastar os bens et quanto haviam 
por defender o Reyno de seus imigos, et como 
l)or mantcr esta fe espargerao seu sangue, ata 
a morte. A qual pregafao Nuno Alvarez et 
OS seus fizerao por palavras et obras tam com- 
pridaraente que alguns delles forao mortos por a 
defender." — Fernam Lopez, 1, c. 159. 



Christoval de Virues has well broken the 
commonplace description of a tempest, by leav- 
ing the particular scene and addressing himself 
to that general feeling which the thought of a 
storm at sea excites. 

" t Quien el rmnor del alto mar furioso 
Podra esplicar '? i el fuego i el ruido 

Del encendido rayo pressuroso, 
I de su ronco trueno despedido ? 

Quien podra retratar el riguroso 

Soplar del raudo viento embravecido ? 

I quien entre terror i assombro tanto 

Del ardiente relampago el espanto ? 

"I quien dira la grima i sobresalto 
Que en los uraanos animos infunde, 

Ver all flaco vaxel subir tan alto 

Que entre las negras nuves se confunde : 

I que de alii con tan orrendo salto 
En el profundo pielago se hunde. 

corafon de piedra, o duro azero, 
Tu que sulcaste el fiero mar primero ! 

" Que te fiaste con un fragil pino 

De tentar el furor del viento airado, 

1 de enfrenar el mipetu marino 

Cuando esta mas de rabia i furia armado ; 
O duro corafon diamantina 

Que temeras, si con la mucrte al lado, 
Entre el fiero temor de tantas cosas 
Te fiaste a las aguas tempcstuosas '?" 

El Momcrrate del Capitan Cristoval 
Virues. Madrid, 1609. 



[Power of the Keys.] 
"E orxRos honrados discipulos se chegarao 
depois a Nuno Alvarez pera Ihe ajudar a pregar 
este Evangelho Portuguez . . . podcmos niuy bem 
dizer et apropiar que, assi como nosso Senhor 
Jesu Christo sobre Pedro fundou a sua Igreja, 
dandolhe poderio, que aquclle que ligasse et ab- 
soivesse na terra, seria ligado et absolto nos Ceos, 
assi o Mestre, que sobre a vontade et esforf o de 
Xuno Alvarez fundou a defcnsam dnquolla Co- 
marca, Ihe deu livre et izento poder que die po- 
desse poer Alcaydes et tomar et quitar mena- 
gens. et dar bens moveis, et de raiz. et pertenf as. 



Sisebttt. 
" Postquam vero apicem fastigii rcgalis con- 
scendit, urbes residuas, quas in Hispanis Romana 
manus agebat, prcelio conserto obtinuit, auctamque 
triumphi gloriajyi prce ccetcris regibus felicitate mi- 
rabili reportavit. Totius Hispanice infra Oceo- 
ni fretum monarchia rcgni p7-imus idem potitus, 
quod nulli retro Principum est collatum." — St. 
IsiD. Hist. Goth. Espaiia Sagrada, vol. 6, p. 503. 



[Cidade de Lisboa, famosa, ^c] 
" Ella como Cidade viuva de Rey, tendo en- 
tam o Mestre por su defensor e esposo, podemos 
fazer pergunta dizendo, Cidade de Lisboa, fa- 
mosa autre as Cidades fortes, et esteo et coluna 
que sostem toda Portugal, que jando he o teu 
esposo, e quaes foram os valerosos que te acom- 
panharam em tua perseguicam et doredo cerquo? 
Ella respondendo pode dizer, se me perguntae? 
de que parte decende, del Rey D. Afibnso o 
quarto he ncto, a altura de seu corpo de boa e 
rezoada grandeza, e a composicam dos raembros 
em bera ordenada igualdade, com gracio«a et 
honrada presenja. de grao corafam e ingenhosos 



MARIANA— CHR. DEL R. D. RODRIGOA-VARGAS Y PONZE, ETC. 193 



feitos que a minha defensam pertencem, e todo 
meu bem he posto em el!e. Os valerosos, que 
acompanharam foram duas maneiras, huns ven- 
do a boa entenf am e justa querela que eu tinha 
em defender o Reyno de seus mortaes imigos, 
pubricamente forao convertidos, et recebendo tal 
querenya em seus corafoes, chegandosa a mim 
por ser delles ajudada segundo de prafc nos- 
travao, mas depois a breves dias indozidos de 
todo por esprito de Satanes, e mao conselho dos 
falsos Portugueses, poucos et poucos leixaram 
seu bom proposito, tornando a fazer seus sacri- 
ficios et adorar os Idolos em que ante criara. E 
de alguns delles esto fazerem sem dando tal fruito 
({uaes folhas mostravam suas palavras, sam tanto 
de culpar, porque eram ja enxertos tortos nados 
e de azambujeiro bravo, assi como o Conde D. 
Anrique Manoel, etc., e e outros taes, mas aquel- 
las vergonteas direitas, cuja nacenja trouxe seu 
antigo comefo de boa et mansa oliveira Portu- 
gueses, esforfandose de coracam e arvore que os 
crion, mudando seu doce fruito em amargoso 
licor, isto he da doer et chorar, assi como o Al- 
mirante ]Micer Lanjarote," &c. — Ibid., 1, c. 160. 



[Christian Blood shed like Water.] 
'" Escrivio con el sus cartas en este proposito, 
en que despucs de saludar al Rey, pretends incli- 
nalle a concierto, y a tcner compassion de la san- 
gre innocente de los Christianos, dcrramada en 
tanta abundancia, que los campos de Espana, 
eomo con lluvias, estavan delta cubiertos y crn- 
pantanados.'^ — 3Iariaxa, lib. 6, cap. 2. 



[Deluge of Blood.] 
'■ Y alii seria la dcstruycion tan grande que en 
Espana sera hccho fin de sangre, assi como por el 
jnundo fue ya fin de aguas del diluvio.'^ — CirR. 
DKL R. D. RoDRiGo, ir. 12. 



[Conde Don Julian.] 
"Y antes digo que si el Conde Don Julian bivo 
fuesse que el scria el primcro que cscudo echasse 
al cuello para defender la destruycion de Espana.^'' 
—Ibid., p. 2, c. 105. 



[Cartagena.] 
" PoRQUK se concluya y cierre 
vuestra empresa comeny ada, 
Dios querra sin que se yerre 
que rematcys vos la K 

en el nombre de Granada ; 
Viendo ser causa por quien 
llevan fin los iechos tales, 
no estares contenta bien 
hasta quen Hierusalem 
pinten las annas reales." 

Canciontro Gen. Seville, 1540, fl". Gl. 



[Cartagena.] 

-"la y denota imperio 

N 



la s senorear 
toda la tierra y la mar, 
y la a alto mysterio 

que no se dexa tocar. 

■ Y la b. e. 1. dizen 

lo natural no compuesto, 

que en vuestra alteza esta puesto, 
ellas no se contradizen 

lo que declaran es esto : 
Pronuncian vuestra belleza, 

ques sin nombre en cantidad, 
mas es de tanta graveza 
quen mirar a vuestra alteza 

da perpetua honestidad." 

Ibid., ff. 61. 



Abdalaziz. 
' Yace Rodrigo ; yo su regio manto, 
manchado cstoque, tragica corona, 
y hasta el caballo que en su mal regia, 
mudos tcstigos que su fin pregonan, 
sobre el sangriento campo de batalla 
tuve en mis manos.'^ 

Vargas y Ponze. 



[G. Eancs d''^zurara.] 
" Nao sei, disse o Autor, se fale aqui como 
Gentio, mas per certo eu penso que os ossos dos 
finados desejavam ser vestidos em carne onde es- 
tavam gastados era suas sepulturas para serem 
companheiros de seus filhos et parentes no ajun- 
tamento daquelle feito ; et dereitamente podemos 
dizer, que se os vivos tinham ledice, que as al- 
mas daquelles, que por resplandor divinal sabiam 
a verdade dcsto, se alegravam muito mais." — 
G. Eaxes d'Azurara, cap. 34, p. 112. 



[G. Eanes d'jlzurara.] 
" TiRARAo todolos arreos que tinhao as gales 
et navios de guisa, que nom pareeia a frota outra 
cousa senom arvoves de alguraa mata a que a for- 
9a do fogo prisa das folhas et fruto." — Ibid., p. 
146. 

And again when it was refitted — " Em ver- 
dade era fermosa cousa de vcr hua frota, que 
pola manha pareeia alguma mata que perdera 
as fulhas et fruto, serem tam breve tempo tor- 
nada a parecer hum fermoso pomar, acompan- 
hado de muitas folhas verdes et flores de diver- 
sas cores, ca assi eram as bandeiras et estandar- 
tes de desvairades guisas, et que cantavao em 
elle muytas aves de graciosos sos, ea os instru- 
mentos nam eram poneos, porque em cada navio 
avia instrumentos de desvairades guisas, os quaes 
todo aqucllo dia a huma v(jz nunca fizerani fim 
de tanger." — Ibid., p. 152. 



[Mors sola fatctur 
Quanlula sunt hominum corpusculo .'] 
■' Dizen que el Rey con un pastor alfuego 



194 



JERONIMO CORTE 41EAL—QUINTANA— BARRIOS. 



Passo la noche, y sin hazerle salva 
Ceno su pan, y que le dio sossiego 

Cama dc cainpo de tomillo y malva : 
Y que de sangre, polvo, y llanto ciego 

Al primcro crepusculo del alva 
Tomo una scnda, y a morir sujeto 
Corrida de su fin, murio en secreto. 

" Horrible caso, prodigiosa guerra ! 

Que a quien sobrava tanto mwndo vivo, 
Muerto no hallassc siete pies de tierra 

En que dexar el cuerpo fugitivo : 
Quanta el juyzio de las hombres ycrra, 

Y quanta puede el hado excciUivo, 
Quien ay que ignore adonde Jue su Oriente, 
Mas quien sabra su fin y su Ocidento ? 

" Porque llorava Codro que faltava 

A Pompeyo, no mas de un noble en Roma, 

Elfuego consular, y que bolava 

Su cuerpo en humo, sin preciosa aroma 

PufS ya prcsente a sus exequias dava 
Funebre pompa, y de su incendio toma 

Siquiera im carbon negro, conque escrive, 

jiqui muerto Pompeyo, Cesar vive. 

" Pues que le falta a un Rey tan poderoso, 

Y que dc cstirpe tan heroyca nace 
Quien de carbon siquiera, en un lustroso 

Marmol pusiera, Aqui Rodrigo yaze^ 

Jerusalen Conquistada, lib. 6, ff. 137. 



Jeronimo Corte Real. 
" O JusTissnio Deos, o Senhor nosso, 
Daime agora favor, que desfallece 
O meu sprite vital, e esta alma minha 
Toda siiito torvada, toda triste, 
E toda com razam chea de angustia. 
Que duro coracam, Que secos olhos, 
Que perversas entranhas podem ver.se, 
Sem mostrar scntimento, sem dor grande 
Do que aqui suceedeo ? que Christaas almas 
Avera sera gemidos, vendo a imagem. 
De Jesu Christo feita em peda9os. 

"Estava ali o Custodio na revolta 
Tendo nas maos aljado hum Crucifixo, 
Para que com tal vista se esforfassera 
Aquelle^ que por elle pelejavam. 
E como as pedras fossem tarn continuas, 
Offendendo cs soldados, vem direita 
Huma dellas com forra polos ares, 
De mao dura, infernal arremessada. 
Acerta o Crucifixo, c leva hum brafo 
Daquella piadosa e sacra ophigie. 
Vendo tam grande mal o bom Prelado 
Com grandes brados diz ; O Cavaleiros 
O soldados Christaos, vedes que offensa 
Se fez, a quem por vos com tantas dores 
Na Cruz quis padeccr ? Vingay soldados 
A injuria feita a Deos, peiejay todos 
Com maj'or esperan^a dalcanfardcs 
Victoria destes maos perversos homes. 
Ouvindo estas palavras rs so'dados 
Todos cheos de furia, tiram forjas 



Renovadas de novo, e arremetem 

Com tal impeto aos Mouros, que nam besta 

Numero desigual darmada gente ; 

Nera bastam quantas forf as tinham juntas 

Para que pelejar possam seguros : 

Mas nam podendo ja resister tantos 

E tam pesados golpes, dam as costas. 

Procmando salvar as tristes vidas." 

Seg. Cerco de Diu, canto 18. 



[An Offering for the Brave.] 
" a darnie asilo las montanas 
Bastaran de Cantabria, cuyos senos 
Ofrecen a la sed del Africano 
En vez de oro y placer, virtud y fierro." 

QUINTAMA- 



Cavado. 
JoAM Salgado de Araujo calls this river 
" natural montcsinho de serra do Geres,^^ — a na- 
tive mountaineer. 



Lima. 
" Em quanta he Galego he mui humildc, por- 
que se passa a pe. Os Galegos em Portttgal pur- 
gam logo stias faltas. Assi o faz o Lima, por- 
que entrando em Portugal recebe agoas vertentes 
da grande Serra do Gerez arrogantes, precipita- 
das, con as quais ganhon nobreza, e se colocon na 
fama hcroica, qice tanto engrandece o Poela Dio- 
go Bc7-nardcs." — S.\lgado de Cerango, Succes- 
ses Militares, ff. 2. 



[Praise of Cordova. 1 
" A su, Reyno da nombre dclcytable 

Cordova, honor del Bethis que la bona, 
si de los Griegos fabrica admirable 

en tiempo de Romanos for de Espana ; 
con Mitra Episcopal crece agradable, 
el mayor timbre su menor hazana, 
parayso de Flora, de Isis corte 

monte de Apolo, y campo dc mavorte." 
Barrios, Corte de las Musas, p. 140. 



[ Una cosa curiosa del Infante Don Pelayo.] 
" En quanto toca a la crianfa daste Principo 
en su ninez, se cuenta en la historia de Sevilla 
una cosa curiosa, de cuya vcrdad juzgara el lec- 
tor conforme a los fundamentos que hallare. Di- 
zen que en la noble villa de Alcantara, que c." 
cabeja del Maestrazgo de la orden y cavallcri.i 
deste mismo titulo, del tiempo immemorial se 
guarda una caxa en el santo convento de S. Be- 
nito, que es de freyles Cistercienses de la mi*n-.a 
orden : la qual se ve en un encaxe de pared de 
una capilla mayor, ricamente guarnecida. y ador- 
nada, y tenida en mucha estimacion. La causa 
desto, segun se tiene por tradicion aniiquissima 
de padres a hijos e.s, que viniendo aquella caxa 
muy bien breada por la corriente del rio Tajo. 
que despues de pas.sar jwr Toledo, passa tarabicn 



FRANCISCO DE PISA— D. JOSEF DE VARGAS Y PONZE. 



195 



por aqucUa villa, fuc alii toniada por la gente del 
pueblo ; y abrieudola hallarou dentro uii nino de 
pocos dias nacido, con gran tesoro dentro dc joyas 
y preseas de oro, con un escrito que declarava el 
nombre del Infante Don Pelayo, encargando gran- 
demente su crianja, con prometimiento de sena- 
dadas mcrcedes a quien le guarcciesse. 

" El Infante se crio en aquella noble villa de 
Alcantara con el regalo possible. Lo qual sa- 
bido en esta ciudad (Toledo) donde el nacio, y 
adonde fue de aquella manera echado por la cor- 
riente del rio Tajo, a su tiempo le bolvieron a la 
misma Toledo, adonde se acabo de criar encubi- 
ertamente y con todo recato ; y llegado a edad 
de discrccion se ausento de esta ciudad, ya fuesse 
por fuerfa o de grado, en lo qual ay opiniones. 
Lo que en ello escrive el Arcobispo Don Rodri- 
go es, que no osando D. Pelayo parecer delante 
del Rey Witiza, o por temor de su enemistad, 
que pretendia sacarle los ojos, o por otras razo- 
nes, se ausento a Cantabria. Pues de aqui se 
puede bien conjecturer la oeasion que pudo aver 
para echarle luego de recien nacido en el rio. 
Ni haze poco argumento la desastrada mucrte 
que el mismo Rey Witiza dio al Duque Favila 
padre de Don Pelayo ; o la oeasion que dize alii 
D. Rodrigo que tuvo para matarle : que assi por 
estas razonables conjecturas, como por la ti'adi- 
cion y caxa de Alcantara, se puede dar a esto 
credito, y a la misma villa rcnonibre del excelen- 
cia, pues (una esta cuenta) en clla se dio la vida 
al que la dio a toda Espana : comoquicra que 
dc.sde su naciniicnto Ic guardava Dios para serae- 
jante importancia. Todo este discarso y historia 
de como el Infante D. Pelayo fue metido en la 
cofre que desda Toledo vino por la corriente de 
Tajo a la villa de Alcantara, adonde fue guare- 
cido y criado, la escrive en breves palabras el 
muy docto Fray Diego Xinienez Arias, de la Or- 
den de S. Domingo, en el Vocabulario Eclesias- 
tico, en la exposicion de la palabra, Norba Caj- 
sarea, que es Alcantara, propria patria destc au- 
tor, villa de Estremadura, o Lusitania. 

" Y a las difieultaJes que algunos hallan en 
esto, se puede dar buena salida ; una dellas es ser 
pocos los autores que dcllo hazen moneion : a la 
qual se responde, que no es maravilla que nin- 
gano lo e.scriviesse en aquel tiempo, por ser el 
caso sacreto, y que dc industria se encubrio : y 
los modernos«pie aora lo esc riven lo aprendieron 
do la tradicion antigua ; y en caso que entonccs 
se cscriviessc, no es maravilla que los originales 
se pcrdicssen en tiempos de tantas muda,n^as, sin 
aver (juedado mas que la tradicion que dczinios, 
y la caxa que se guarda. Y si se pone por in- 
convcnicntc, como pudo aver quedado esta caxa 
de niadcra entera y .sana sin pudrir.sc, desdc cl 
tiempo deste serenissimo Infante, haste el de D. 
Alonso el noveno, que gano esta villa de poder 
dc Moros, pues. passaron dc uno a otro mas dci 
quimcntos y veynte y tantos anos ; a esto se puede 
rcsponder lo que de otras muchas piezas de im- 
agines y reliquias cjuc se conservaron y pcrma- 
nccieron otro tanto y mas tiempo, en otras villas 
y lugarcs ; (que tambicn estuvieron algunas del- 
las en podcr de Moros) como el altar que en 



Roma se muestra de madera, adonde S. P.Hlro 
acostumbrava a celebrar, y otras cosas semejan- 
tes. Mayor dificultad hallo yo en parecer no ser 
verisimil, que siendo una criatura tan noble de 
linage, y que tanto se estimava, sus padres y ot- 
ras per-sonas la fiassen de las aguas del rio, donde 
podian sucedcr grandes peligros irrcparables, y 
no venir a manos de gente de confianfa que le 
criasse, y guardasse con el secreto y regalo qiie 
convenia. Y aunque queramos dezir aver sido 
scmejante en alguna manera este caso del cau- 
dillo de Espaiia con el de Moyses, caudillo del 
otro pueblo de Dios ; el qual, como dize la divina 
Escritura, fue echado en el rio del Egypto, me- 
tido en una cestilla de juncos ; no es le misma 
razon ; porque Moyses recien nacido de pocos 
meses, fue echado no para que le criassen, sino 
para no verle mas, apretando el mandato del in- 
iquo Pharaon ; y si fue guarccido, en esse inter- 
vino la especial providencia de Dios ; mas aver 
arrojado sus padres a Pelayo a tantas aventura.s, 
apenas se puede creer. Concedamos averse cri- 
ado el nino en aquella noble villa, y aver sido 
llevado a ella ocultamente, y con mucho recato, 
aunque no echado por el rio, llcvando en el area 
las joyas que se cuentan ; y desta suerte satis- 
faremos (quanto da lugar la razon) a la tradicion, 
y a la verdad de la caxa, y a la honra de la ville 
de Alcantara." — Fea.nc. de Pisa, Dcsc. de Tole- 
do, 1. 3, c. 1. 



Witiza, Sapiens in metu. Izen, mctucre. 

" Witiza, que en vicios desalado 
las rampnnas cubrio del Domirilio 
Ion las purpureas ondas del pecado." 

Coro de las Musas, p. 99. # 



Mdalaziz y Egilona. 
" i Ese corage quanto nias valicra 
a su lado ! Fue tiempo dc lucirlo 
alii quando la colera fogosa, 
hollando los armados berbcrisros, 
se ostentara virtud ; hoy vanas voces 
que debio ser publican, y no ha sido." 
D. Josef de Vargas y Ponze. 



[Mwj rico e antygo livro, ^c] 
" E Ao outro dia foy aa Vylla, que na Estoria 
antiga disem se chamava Agcosa Guarda, onde 
agora esta huma grandc e dcvota A bad la dc Sam 
Bcnlo, cujo Abade mostron a El Rey huin muy 
rico e antygo livro da Estoria de Laiirarotc e 
Tristam, por ventura mais vcrdadeira do (|uc ca 
se magina. "—CAro. d' El R. D'Jff. 5, cap. 194. 



[Citadel Moley Cuydc] 
" Alli virom como jazia tcndido naquclln 
campo aqucllc nobrc Caudel Molcy Cayde, caa 
posto que elle fosse infincl, nom leixaremos do 
iouvar sua virtude se quer por sen galardao desto 
nmndo, pois no outro por .seus pccados sua gloria 
he pcrdida, elle avia o corpo de boa grandura, 



196 MORALES— TIRANTE EL BRANCO— BOURGOING, ETC. 



con membros correspondcntes a sua grandeza, e 
avia a cara graiule e alva, e os cabellos louros e 
amafarocados, e bem parecia elle jazendo, Cap- 
itao daquella gente.'" — Chronica do C. D. Pe- 
dro, 473. 

[Lord Tyrawley aiid the Friars at Lisbon..] 

Lord Tyrawley, British Envoy at Lisbon, 
was a singular man, of great talents, and who 
carried things with a high hand against the cler- 
gy. Being once informed that the Friars had 
forced their way into the sick-room of an English 
woman, and taken possession of her as a convert, 
he drove to the house, and entering the room 
said to them — ou par a porta, ou por a janeUa. 
It may easily be unagined which they preferred, 
and away they went to complain at court. He 
drove off instantly, got before them, made his 
complaint first, and they received a reprmiand in 
consequence. 

He was lame, and used to say the constable 
must be a very slow fellow, for he, lame as he 
was, had outrun him all his life. 

He spoke Portuguese excellently well. When 
he left Lisbon, which he did upon bad terms with 
Pombal, he bade the pilot go to the mai-quess 
and tell him that he had spit out his Portuguese. 

Mrs. ]\Iay told me all this at John's^ table, 
1806. 



supremacy over Spain ; but even the Spanish 
clergy will not allow this. The absurdity is ex- 
posed by Sandoval. The kings of Portugal had 
political motives for submitting. 



[Matamores at Valencia.] 

Some matamores, there called sichas or silhos, 
are still used in Valencia for their original pur- 
pose. They are from twenty-five to thirty-five 
feet deep, in the form of prodigious jars lined 
with free stone — Bourgoing, Modern State of 
Spain, ^c, vol. 3, p. 270. 



[Spanish Corruptions of Language.] 
Zar.\goza is a curious corruption of Cajsar 
Augusta. The Spaniards, as if determined to 
extend the corruption, call Syracuse Zaragoza 
(de Sicilia. — Morales, 8, 54, 3. 

Urraca, accordmg to Morales, is corrupted 
from a Latin name, Aragonta. — ^Ibid., 14, 34, 3. 

Morales (15, 6, 1) says Walabonso is the 
same as Ilefonso, Ildefonso, Alfonso, Affonso, 
Alonso. 



/ [Derivation of Lusitania.] 

/ Herwas derives Lusitania from the Keltic Ins 
an hei-b, and the termination tan, or country, 
which is found in all the names of the Spanish 
province Turdesdan, Cretan, Carpetan, &c. Lus 
is still an herb in L-ish, and luisin a little herb. 
Llysian (Owen's Diet.) is the Welsh word for 

ei'bs, a plural aggregate.^ 



[Infantas, who .''] 
Tirante el Branco advises the Emperor of 
Constantinople to call his daughter Carmesina 
Princess, instead of Infanta. Infanta being a 
title proper only for the younger daughters of a 
sovereign, not lor the heiress of the monarchy. — 
P. 1, c.'42, ff. 197. 



[ji Curse on that Son which has brought on Sor- 
row.] 
" As mulheres, e mofos pequenos buscavara 
maneira pera se esconder, mas todo Ihes pres- 
tava poceo •, ally se poderiam ouvir dorosos gritos, 
e gemidos mortaes, cada hum segundo a parte 
da paixao que sentia. E qual podia ser o cora- 
9ao, que nom ouvesse piedade daquellas creatu- 
ras, em quanto Ihe lembrasse, que erara racio- 
naes! Maldito seja o pecado de Caym, que 
priraeiramente gerou imizade autre os homens, 
que tal discordia poz autre as creaturas huma- 
naes ; e des y, a maldita seita do abominavel 
Mafamede, que tantas almas aparton da nossa 
Santa Ley ; caa melhor fora, que as almas da- 
quelles viram os etcrnaes prazeres, e os corpos 
inda que trabalhados fossem, ora em guerras, 
como sao muitos Christaos huns con os outros, 
ora por outros muitos padecimentos, que a in- 
fermidade da natureza tras, ao menos nao fora 
tanto." — Chronica do Conde Don Pedro, 294. 



[Pope's temporal Supremacy over Spain denied 
by the S2)anish Clergy.] 

These claims had some effect. In 1 09 1 Count 
Beren<Tuel won Tarragona from the Moors and 
actually gave it to the pope, receiving it from 
him to hold as a tributary vassal. — Saxdoval, 
p. 133. 

Baronius, from this example and the grant to 
C. Ebulo, would fain prove the Pope's temporal 



1 John May, Southey's old and true friend, to whom he 
dedicated the •' Pilgrimage to Waterloo."— J. W. W. 



[Ceita.] 
"O Cidade da Ceita, diz o Doctor, ante to- 
das as de Africa mais exaljada, nuiito favora- 
veis te forao os Planetas, & os signos muito so- 
geitos a tua constellacao, em que primeiro foi 
teu fundamento, pois tam longamente guardaste 
tua virginidade, em desprczo de tantos & tam 
ricos barocs de quaes sempre foste tam deseja-' 
da, por te dares inteira & sa a hum tao alto &■ 
glorioso Rcy, o qual te dcpois tanto amou & tao 
valente mente defendeo. Dina sera a tua fa- 
fanha de pcrpetua remcmliranf a ; eras tu pri- 
mciramente de na^ao barbara, mais baixa de 
todalas nacocs, & agora acompanhada & guar- 
dada por forf a de linhage dos Reys de Hespan- 



1 Pliny says, " Lusum enim Libori, patris, aut Lyssam 
cum eo Ijacchantium nomcn dedisse LusitaiiiiO." — I\'at. 
Hist., lib. iii., c. 1. J. W. W. 



LIVRO DA NOA— THEVENOT— LUCENA— MONTALVO. 



197 



ha & da Casa da Ingalaterra. Partidas sam de 
ti as eiif ujentadas cerimonias do abominavel Ma- 
faraede, & as suas mezquitas sagradas com ello 
sam todas tornadas em templos do nao mortal 
Deos, & nelles tratado o misterio do divinal sa- 
crificio. Qual Cidade he hoje no miindo mais 
temidai & prezada que ti ? por certo grande glo- 
ria te sera quando pensares quanto nobre sangue 
he espargido por teu defendimento, alegre & com 
grade deveras tu receber tal senhor." — Gomez 
Eanes de Azurara, c. i. 



[Toledo.] 
The advantages of Toledo were celebrated in 
a popular rhyme — 

" Toledo la Realeza 
Alca9ar de Emperadores, 
Donde grandes y menores 
Todos bi.ven en Iranqueza." 

Garibay, p. 620. 



[^wful Signs in the Heavens, SfC, a.d. 1199.] 
" On the third of the nones of June, the same 
day on which Christ suffered, that is on a Fri- 
day, and at the same hour in which there was 
darkness over the whole world at the suffering 
of the Lord, that is from the sixth to the ninth 
hour, in the era 1237 (a.d. 1199), there were 
signs such as never had been seen since the suf- 
fering of the Lord to that time ; for between the 
sixth and eighth hour it was truly night, and the 
sun was made blacker than pitch, and the moon 
and stars appeared in heaven ; then that night 
departing, the darkness followed, which being 
withdrawn and the sun having recovered the 
strength of his brightness, a great multitude of 
men and women, secular as well as religious, 
were collected in the church of the Holy Cross 
at Coimbra, all of whom in their exceeding fear, 
expecting nothing but instant death, cried out 
and howled, and implored the Divine aid ; some 
of the brethren with the greatest difficulty sing- 
ing the Te Dcum and the Litany, and praying 
for the Divine mercy, while all the rest remained 
as if half-alive, and stupilied." — Livro da Noa, 
p. 378, Provas, tom. 1. 



[Question as to Tubals landing!] 
Old Beuther, 1. 1, c. 6, says, "it is clear 
that Tubal, sailing with an intention of settling 
in Spain, would have landed near the Pyrenees, 
and not gone coasting on as far as Portugal." 
And in opposition to the etymological argument 
from Setubal, he supports a villanous reading of 
Celtubalia for Celtiberia, upon the authority of 
Berosus and other ancient doctors. 



[Mistake of Thcvenot relative to Calicut.] 
Thevenot says that the city of Calicut has 
no walls, because there is no ground for laying 
a foundation upon, water appearing as soon as 



they begin to dig. This seems to be a mistake 
of the traveller. The Poi-tuguese built a strong 
fortress close b}' the citj' ; so that the springs 
did not prevent them from foitifying themselves. 
But walls were not the ordinary mode of de- 
fence : palisades were found quite as effectual 
before the Europeans entered the country. 



D. Diniz. 
The tomb of this Infante is shown at Esca- 
lona, in the church of S. Vicente. It has the 
Quinas and Eight Castles in the arms, and there- 
fore certainly belongs to some one of the royal 
house of Portugal. — Viages delR. Florez, p. 262. 



[Joam III.^s Character.] 
Lucena throws a strong light upon the char- 
acter of Joam III. . . . que Ihe era hum continuo 
escrupulo e quasi tormcnto aquella obrigafam, 
que dissemos, e sabia, que tinha pelas bullas 
apostolicas a promulgafam do Evangelho, ser- 
vifo e conservafam do culto divino nas partes 
da conquista. Donde procedia nam negar nunca 
causa, que Ihe pcdissem para bem da christan- 
dade, sem nenhum respeito a gastos e despesas, 
e acudir com ordens, mandados, cartas, e provi- 
soes reals a tudo o que Ihe representavam em 
favor da fe a beneficio dos Chi'istaos." — ^ 174. 



[Padre M. Francisco de Roma.] 
"No anno de 1540 sahio o Padre M. Fran- 
cisco de Roma sem outra ropa, que aquella 
mesma pobre e singela que trazia sobre si ; sem 
mais alforge nem liwos que o Breviario per que 
rezava, e em fim tam levemente, como se fora 
dizer missa a sam Pedro, e nam a huma Jornada, 
em que avia de passar boa parte da Europa, 
rodear quasi a Africa, e discorrer sem termo 
algum per toda a Asia." — Lucena, vol. 1, p. 58. 



[^tas parentum pejor avis. — Hor., Od.] 
"Pero, mal pecado, los tiempos de agora 
mucho al contrario son de los passados, segun 
el poco amor y menos verdad, que en las gen- 
tes contra .sus reyes se halla ; y esto deve causar 
la costelacion del mundo ser mas envegccida, 
que perdida la mayor parte de la virtud no puede 
Uevar el fruto que devia ; assi como la cansada 
tierra, que ni el mucho labrar, ni la escogido 
simiente pueden defender los cardos y las espinas 
con las otras yervas de poca proveeho que en 
ella nacen." — Garciordonez de Montalvo, 
Amadis, 1. 4, ff. 294. 



Pedro Il.h first-born Son. 
S. Francisco Xavier had the whole credit of 
this birth. — " Foy o Zacharias,'^ says Vieyra, 
" a cuja orai-am £/■ interccssam confesson sempre 
Sua 3fagcstade que dcvia aqucUc filho. Assim o 
tivc en por duas cartas, cm que de boca de scu 
Confessor, reconhecendo-se ja May Sua Majes- 



198 VIEYK A— CARDINAL CIEN-FUEGOS— CONDE DON PEDRO, ETC. 



tadc, prometlia que o filho (que nam duvidava ser 
Jillio) avia de par por sobrenome Xavier, porqjie 
S. Francisco Xavier Iho dera. E para que pro- 
vcmos com effcyto, lancemos as contas, que eu dizia. 
Pclos dias do parto e do nascimento se inferem 
naluralmente as da concey^am ; e quando nasceo 
nosso Principe ? ^os trinta de Agosto : Logo 
bem se inhere, que Joy concebido, ou na vespera, 
OM no dia de S. Francisco Xavier, q%ie sam o pri- 
meiro c scgundo dc Dezembro. Contemos agora, 
Dczembro, Janeyro, Fevereyro, Mar^o, Mril, 
Mayo, Junho, Julho, Agosto ; — eis — aqui pontu- 
almente os nove mczes." — Palavra de Deos De- 
sempenhada, p. 94. 



Q. Maria Francisca. 
" A mayor fincza que fez por nos aquelle in- 
comparavel cspirito, par dcsengano ^ remedio do 
reyno, foy descerse da majestade a alteza, Sf hu- 
manarse ao segundo lugar de Princesa, a que no 
trono ^ na corva era Rainha. Porem Deos, que 
ainda nesta vida quiz premiar condignamcntc 
huina ac^ab tarn heroica, ordenon que a morte d^el 
Rey se anticipasse a sua ; para que reposia no 
solio da primitiva Majestade, assim como tinha 
entrado em Portugal Rainha, sahisse do mundo 
Rainha.''' — Vieyra, Palavra de Deos, &e., p. 50. 



ora9uo, nem de .seus fcitos tives.se sentido, salvo 
a sua muy leal et fiel servidora Cidade de Lis- 
boa, que por sua saude e estado do Reyno era 
muy solicita et cuidosa, et assi como a madre ha 
do do filho, e a ama, que o cria, sente mor pena, 
que outro nenhum, assi ella, que era luadrc e 
criadora destes feitos, sentia o carrego de tam 
gram negocio, mais que outro lugar que no Rey- 
no ouvcsse." — Fernam Lopes, ii. 101. 



[El Rey de Castella.] 
" Ou que fermosa cousa era de vir em tao 
alto et poderoso senhor, como era El Rey de 
Castella, com tanta multidao de gentes a.ssi por 
mar, como por terra, postos em tam grande e 
boa ordenanfa ter cercada tilo nobre Cidade, et 
ella assi guarnecida de gentes et darmas, con 
taes avizamentos por sua guarda et defensam, 
em tanto, que dizem os que o virao, que tam fer- 
mosa cerco de Cidade nam era em meraoria de 
homerLs que fosse visto de muy longos annos ate 
aquelle tempo." — Ibid., 205. 



[Difficulty of holding many to the Faith.] 
" AoKA avia venido del Norte y de Alemania 
mucha gente Espaiiola inficionada de la here- 
gia ; porque las cenizas de la Fe no se pudieron 
conservar mucho tiempo calicntes sin gran difi- 
cultad entre los yelos del Septentrion ; y vino 
tambien alguna Nobleza tenida del color de una 
libertad engaiiosa. que en materias de Religion 
quiere parezer sabiduria, y es argumento de que 
la Fe no solo esta difunta, sino tan fria que esta 
expuesta como cadaver a la corrupcion, y a la 
total niyna.'" — Cardinal Cien-fuegos. Vida 
del S. Fran, de Borga, p. 245. 



[Pater-nosters arid Ave-Mary's in Portngueze.] 
— " Os sens Padrc-nossos e Ave-Marias seram 
mais bem ouvidos de Deos na Lingoa Portugueza 
que lodo o Officio Ecclesiastico na Latina. — Ve- 
mos in Portugal tantas casas illustrcs scm herde- 
iros ; e se se correr a folk a as que puderam ser 
mays, nam sey se se achnram ctlpadas contra o 
Rosario. ccrto he que nam tendo herdeiro a 
Rainha de Franca Dona Branca. S. Domingos 
Ihe aconsclhou que rczasse o Rosario, e logo tevt 
hum tal filho como S. Luis.^' — Vieyra, Serm., 
Itora. 6, p. 220, 221. 



[Due Consideration previous to a Rupture.] 
" J.\ seja que antre muitas gentes se passao 
muitas enatiaixadas c recados, antes que os feitos 
venham a rompimento. Dando lugar ao tempo, 
que pa-sse sem cspargimcnto de sangue, o que 
antre a nayao dos Portuguczes, e aquella bar- 
bara gente he pelo rontrario, porque alii nao ha 
Arautos. nem Passavantes, nem outras officiaes 
d'Armas, nem Mcstrcs Theologos, nem outras 
Santos Doutores, que possao per conciencia, ou 
per Direito Divino, ou Humano, abranger a.s imi- 
y.adcs, que sasy per hum milheiro d' annos d'am- 
hallas partes jazeni rcigadas, e soomente o ven- 
cimento de cada hnma das partes he o principal 
azo de se as pelejas partircm." — Chronica do 
CoNDE Don Pedro, p. 218. 



[Cape de Verd Islands wrongly named.] 
Columbus said the Cape de Verds had been 
falsely named, for whenever he had seen them 
they were dry and sterile. — Herrera, 1, 3, 9. 



[The Cid.] 
GoNZALO DE Berceo (Vida de S. Dom. 591) 
calls a poor man Cid, su nomne era tal. 



Valencia del Cid is still the popular name 
of the city — or was so in Ocampo's time. 



[Muy leal et fiel servidora Cidada de Lisboa.] 
" El Rey de Portugal nom era cjisado, nem 
tinha parenta nem Irmaa tal, que por elle fizesse 



' [Carnon River.] 

Carrion is the name of a river which rises In 
the Sierra de Pernia, and falls into the Pisuerga. 
— Oc.oipo, 1, 2, 33. 

" Arlanca, Pisuertra, y aun Carrion 
Gozan de nombres de rios, empero 
Despues de juntados llamamos los Duero." 
Juan de Mena. Copla, p. 162. 

They all pass near Valladolid, and fall into 
the Douro. 



VIEYRA— F. LOPEZ— S. ISTDOR— FRANCISCO DE PISA, ETC. 190 



[MesHno and the Comet of 1580.] 
In 1580, the year of Cardinal Henrique's death, 
there appeared a comet, which was supposed to 
be the same that had beeu seen two years before, 
when Sebastian perished. An astrologer whom 
Vieyra calls Meslino, wrote a tract about it, in 
■which he said that the comet pointed to the year 
1604, when a new star would appear in that 
same part of the heavens where the comet had 
disappeared. Mathematicians laughed at the 
prediction : four-and-twenty years however elaps- 
ed, and the new star appeared. Meslino lived 
to behold the fulfilment of his prediction, and to 
triumph in it. Rogo, he wrote, autem Icgas qiicB 
in tractatu meo metcor-astrologo-physico dc comcta 
anni millesimi quingcntcsimi et octogcsimi, scrip- 
serim, invcnics {mirabile didu .') Comctam dicti 
anni digitum intcndissc in hanc novum stcllarn; 
disparuit cnim in hoc loco, quo nunc stella fidget. 
Heplero (doubtless this is a printer's blunder, and 
Kepler is meant), wrote upon this new star, main- 
taining that Meslino could not possibly have fore- 
told its appearance by any rules of art, but that it 
must have been by inspiration. He added that all 
the astrologers of German}', astonished at the 
prodigy, exclaimed as if with one voice, Stella 
nova. Rex novus ! confidently presaging the ap- 
pearance of a new king ; and so strong was this 
persuasion, that in many cities measures were 
taken by the magistrates to suppress the people if 
they should attempt to revolt and choose a king in 
consequence of it. This is a singular fact in hu- 
man history, and it was well suited to the weak- 
ness of Vieyra's mind. German astrology, saj-s 
he, was right in the name and dignity' of king, — 
in every thing else it erred, — for the star itself 
said and showed that Spain was to be the prov- 
ince, Portugal the kingdom, and King Joam IV. 
the person. Spain the province, because the star 
appeared in Sagittarius, the constellation which 
governs Spain : Portugal the king